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Technical Paper

UAS Behaviour and Consistency Monitoring System for Countering Cyber Security Threats

2014-09-16
2014-01-2131
Upon their arrival, Unmanned Autonomous Systems (UAS) brought with them many benefits for those involved in a military campaign. They can use such systems to reconnoiter dangerous areas, provide 24-hr aerial security surveillance for force protection purposes or even attack enemy targets all the while avoiding friendly human losses in the process. Unfortunately, these platforms also carry the inherent risk of being built on innately vulnerable cybernetic systems. From software which can be tampered with to either steal data, damage or even outright steal the aircraft, to the data networks used for communications which can be jammed or even eavesdropped on to gain access to sensible information. All this has the potential to turn the benefits of UAS into liabilities and although the last decade has seen great advances in the development of protection and countermeasures against the described threats and beyond the risk still endures.
Journal Article

Safe and Secure Software Updates Over The Air for Electronic Brake Control Systems

2016-09-18
2016-01-1948
Vehicle manufacturers are suffering from increasing expenses for fixing software issues. This fact is mainly driving their desire to use mobile communication channels for doing Software Updates Over The Air (SOTA). Software updates today are typically done at vehicle service stations by connecting the vehicles’ electronic network via the On Board Diagnostic (OBD) interface to a service computer. These operations are done under the control of trained technicians. SOTA means that the update process must get handled by the driver. Two critical aspects need to get considered when doing SOTA at Electronic Brake Control (EBC) systems. Both will determine the acceptance of SOTA by legal authorities and by the passengers: The safety and security of the vehicle The availability of the vehicle for the passengers The security aspect includes the necessity to protect the vehicle and the manufacturers IP from unwanted attacks.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Trajectory Privacy in Autonomous Vehicular Communications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0487
Autonomous vehicles might one day be able to implement privacy preserving driving patterns which humans may find too difficult to implement. In order to measure the difference between location privacy achieved by humans versus location privacy achieved by autonomous vehicles, this paper measures privacy as trajectory anonymity, as opposed to single location privacy or continuous privacy. This paper evaluates how trajectory privacy for randomized driving patterns could be twice as effective for autonomous vehicles using diverted paths compared to Google Map API generated shortest paths. The result shows vehicles mobility patterns could impact trajectory and location privacy. Moreover, the results show that the proposed metric outperforms both K-anonymity and KDT-anonymity.
Technical Paper

Safety Development Trend of the Intelligent and Connected Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0085
Automotive safety is always the focus of consumers, the selling point of products, the focus of technology. In order to achieve automatic driving, interconnection with the outside world, human-automatic system interaction, the security connotation of intelligent and connected vehicles (ICV) changes: information security is the basis of its security. Functional safety ensures that the system is operating properly. Behavioral safety guarantees a secure interaction between people and vehicles. Passive security should not be weakened, but should be strengthened based on new constraints. In terms of information safety, the threshold for attacking cloud, pipe, and vehicle information should be raised to ensure that ICV system does not fail due to malicious attacks. The cloud is divided into three cloud platforms according to functions: ICVs private cloud, TSP cloud, public cloud.
Technical Paper

Selftrust - A Practical Approach for Trust Establishment

2020-04-14
2020-01-0720
In recent years, with increase in external connectivity (V2X, telematics, mobile projection, BYOD) the automobile is becoming a target of cyberattacks and intrusions. Any such intrusion reduces customer trust in connected cars and negatively impacts brand image (like the recent Jeep Cherokee hack). To protect against intrusion, several mechanisms are available. These range from a simple secure CAN to a specialized symbiote defense software. A few systems (e.g. V2X) implement detection of an intrusion (defined as a misbehaving entity). However, most of the mechanisms require a system-wide change which adds to the cost and negatively impacts the performance. In this paper, we are proposing a practical and scalable approach to intrusion detection. Some benefits of our approach include use of existing security mechanisms such as TrustZone® and watermarking with little or no impact on cost and performance. In addition, our approach is scalable and does not require any system-wide changes.
Journal Article

Design Approach for Secure Networks to Introduce Data Analytics within the Aircraft Cabin

2019-09-16
2019-01-1853
In the past, aircraft network design did not demand for information security considerations. The aircraft systems were simple, obscure, proprietary and, most importantly for security, the systems have been either physically isolated or they have been connected by directed communication links. The union of the aircraft systems thus formed a federated network. These properties are in sharp contrast with today’s system designs, which rest upon platform-based solutions with shared resources being interconnected by a massively meshed and shared communication network. The resulting connectivity and the high number of interfaces require an in-depth security analysis as the systems also provide functions that are required for the safe operation of the aircraft. This network design evolution, however, resulted in an iterative and continuous adaption of existing network solutions as these have not been developed from scratch.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics on Nondestructive Testing of Additively Manufactured Parts in the Mobility Industry

2020-09-30
EPR2020018
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report identifies key unsettled definitions of the role of smart assembly tools in the Industry 4.0 world. “Smart” refers to tools that are “specific, measurable, achievable, reasonable/realistic, and time bound.” Smart assembly tools are used in all industries, including automotive, aerospace, and space. These tools are employed for measuring, inspecting, gauging, drilling, and installing all existing fastening systems. The role of an assembly tool inside the Industry 4.0 environment is quite important as the smart, intelligent assembly tools have an enablement function. Smart assembly tools have a huge influence on Information and Communication Technology (ICT), assembly cost reduction, process control, and even the product and process quality. These four four domains—and their undefined nature—are the focus of this SAE EDGE™ Research Report.
Technical Paper

A Safety and Security Testbed for Assured Autonomy in Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-1291
Connectivity and autonomy in vehicles promise improved efficiency, safety and comfort. The increasing use of embedded systems and the cyber element bring with them many challenges regarding cyberattacks which can seriously compromise driver and passenger safety. Beyond penetration testing, assessment of the security vulnerabilities of a component must be done through the design phase of its life cycle. This paper describes the development of a benchtop testbed which allows for the assurance of safety and security of components with all capabilities from Model-in-loop to Software-in-loop to Hardware-in-loop testing. Environment simulation is obtained using the AV simulator, CARLA which provides realistic scenarios and sensor information such as Radar, Lidar etc. MATLAB runs the vehicle, powertrain and control models of the vehicle allowing for the implementation and testing of customized models and algorithms.
Technical Paper

Connectivity in 2 Wheelers: Opportunities and Challenges

2019-11-21
2019-28-2437
Mobility is undergoing a “horses to cars”-sized shift that will reverberate across business and society for generations. Future of Mobility is mainly driven by 4 main pillars viz. Connected, Electrified, Automated and Shared Driving. With advancement in Communication Technology supplemented by huge customer base, Connectivity has proven to deliver better Services to the End-user. Connected Mobility is going to be the next Big Thing in the Mobility Arena. In this paper, we will try to qualitatively explore what Connected Mobility is all about and what it has to offer in terms of - Opportunities on one side as well as new challenges that were never witnessed in the realm of Mobility in the Past, with focus on the 2 wheeler segment. This paper focuses on Opportunities in terms of Location Based services, Vehicle Management, Data Analytics, Infotainment and possible Business scenarios and Models as well as challenges in Terms of Security and Data Ownership
Technical Paper

Securing J1939 Communications Using Strong Encryption with FIPS 140-2

2017-03-28
2017-01-0020
Since 2001, all sensitive information of U.S. Federal Agencies has been protected by strong encryption mandated by the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 140-2 Security Requirements. The requirements specify a formal certification process. The process ensures that validated encryption modules have implemented the standard, and have passed a rigorous testing and review processes. Today, this same strong security protection has become possible for vehicle networks using modern, cost-effective encryption in hardware. This paper introduces the motivation and context for the encryption diagnostics security in terms of all vehicles in general, not just trucks which use SAE J1939 communications. Several practical scenarios for using such encryption hardware and the advantages of using hardware compared to software private-key encryption and public-key encryption are described.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Vehicular Networks and its Main Security Issues

2014-04-01
2014-01-0336
Vehicular Network is an emerging and developing technology to improve traffic management and safety issues, and enable a wide range of value-added services such as collision warning/avoidance. Many applications have been designed to provide safety and comfort for passengers. This technology is a prolific area for attackers who will attempt to challenge the network with their malicious or rational attacks. In this paper we elaborate what a vehicular network is, different kinds of communication in this field, main mechanism and related parts and how vehicular networks work then we introduce some of its applications. After primary familiarity with this system we investigate to different type of attacker, more important security issues, How to secure vehicular networks (security requirements and some tools and methods to achieve secure vehicular networks), difficulties and providing viable security solutions, and at the end briefly explanation of related standards.
Technical Paper

Vehicle E/E Architecture and Its Adaptation to New Technical Trends

2019-04-02
2019-01-0862
With the ever-increasing requirements on vehicle performance, as well as the trend of vehicle becoming an integral part of a much bigger ecosystem involving automated driving, intelligent transportation and smart city, more and more electrical/electronic (E/E) systems are integrated in vehicles. Vehicle E/E architecture being the fundamental organization of E/E components, the relationship among the components and with the environment, as well as the principles guiding the design and evolution, has essential influences on vehicle E/E system functions and performance. This paper gives the definition of vehicle E/E architecture and provides different views. The guidelines, contents and process of E/E architecture design are discussed. The evolution of E/E architecture, influence of the latest technical trends including electrification, automated driving, and connectivity functions on E/E architecture, and how vehicle E/E architecture adapts to the technical trends are studied.
Technical Paper

Securing the Secret Key

2019-01-16
2019-01-0097
Recent advances in automotive technologies have paved way to a new era of connectivity. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems are getting deployed in automobiles; many companies are developing driverless cars; connected cars are no more a work of mere research. [1] Vehicle manufacturers are developing ways to interface mobile devices with vehicles. However, all these advances in technology has introduced security risks. Unlike traditional computing systems, the security risk of an automobile can be fatal and can result in loss of lives [2]. The in-vehicle network of an automobile was originally designed to operate in a closed environment and hence network security was not considered during its design [3]. Several studies have already shown that an in-vehicle network can be easily compromised and an intruder can take full control of the vehicle. Researchers are working on various ways to solve this problem. Securing the in-vehicle communication by encrypting the messages is one such way.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Sensors for Automated Road Vehicles

2018-10-18
EPR2018001
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report identifies key unsettled issues of interest to the automotive industry regarding the new generation of sensors designed for vehicles capable of automated driving. Four main issues are outlined that merit immediate interest: First, specifying a standardized terminology and taxonomy to be used for discussing the sensors required by automated vehicles. Second, generating standardized tests and procedures for verifying, simulating, and calibrating automated driving sensors. Third, creating a standardized set of tools and methods to ensure the security, robustness, and integrity of data collected by such sensors. The fourth issue, regarding the ownership and privacy of data collected by automated vehicle sensors, is considered only briefly here since its scope far exceeds the technical issues that are the primary focus of the present report. SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are preliminary investigations of new technologies.
Technical Paper

Challenges in the Regulatory Framework of Automated Driving

2019-01-09
2019-26-0097
Automated Driving (AD) is foreseen to be one of the major social and technological challenges in the coming years. Many manufacturers are developing new models with cutting-edge functionalities, which are not included in the scope of the current regulatory framework. Apart from demonstrating their know-how and expertise about AD, their willingness to sell their AD models in the European market is accelerating the rule-making system. However, which is the roadmap for the European regulatory framework? Policy makers and regulatory bodies are pushing their boundaries at all levels (national and international) in order to introduce modifications in existing regulations. These regulations will enable the introduction of these new functionalities into the market. Without decreasing the standards of safety and security, the implementation of a clear and harmonized regulatory framework and approval process is extremely needed.
Research Report

Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Automated Vehicles

2020-02-28
EPR2020005
This SAE EDGE Research Report explores the many legal issues raised by the advent of automated vehicles. While promised to bring major changes to our lives, there are significant legal challenges that have to be overcome before they can see widespread use. A century’s worth of law and regulation were written with only human drivers in mind, meaning they have to be amended before machines can take the wheel. Everything from key federal safety regulations down to local parking laws will have to shift in the face of AVs. This report undertakes an examination of the AV laws of Nevada, California, Michigan, and Arizona, along with two failed federal AV bills, to better understand how lawmakers have approached the technology. States have traditionally regulated a great deal of what happens on the road, but does that still make sense in a world with AVs? Would the nascent AV industry be able to survive in a world with fifty potential sets of rules?
Technical Paper

Integrating STPA into ISO 26262 Process for Requirement Development

2017-03-28
2017-01-0058
Developing requirements for automotive electric/electronic systems is challenging, as those systems become increasingly software-intensive. Designs must account for unintended interactions among software features, combined with unforeseen environmental factors. In addition, engineers have to iteratively make architectural tradeoffs and assign responsibilities to each component in the system to accommodate new safety requirements as they are revealed. ISO 26262 is an industry standard for the functional safety of automotive electric/electronic systems. It specifies various processes and procedures for ensuring functional safety, but does not limit the methods that can be used for hazard and safety analysis. System Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) is a new technique for hazard analysis, in the sense that hazards are caused by unsafe interactions between components (including humans) as well as component failures and faults.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Secure Software Development Lifecycle from an Automotive Development Perspective

2016-04-05
2016-01-0040
The modern vehicle development is highly dependent on software. The software development plays an extremely important role in vehicle safety and security. In order to ensure software high quality and safety standards, we have investigated the secure software development process and analyzed the works in this area. Based on our analysis, we have identified the similarities and differences between the secure software development process and the existing vehicle development process. We then made suggestions on how to adopt the secure software development process in the overall vehicle development process.
Journal Article

Improvement of the Resilience of a Cyber-Physical Remote Diagnostic Communication System against Cyber Attacks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0112
In the near future, vehicles will operate autonomously and communicate with their environment. This communication includes Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V), Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication, and comunication with cloud-based servers (V2C). To improve the resilience of remote diagnostic communication between a vehicle and external test equipment against cyberattacks, it is imperative to understand and analyze the functionality and vulnerability of each communication system component, including the wired and wireless communication channels. This paper serves as a continuation of the SAE Journal publication on measures to prevent unauthorized access to the in-vehicle E/E system [9], explains the components of a cyber-physical system (CPS) for remote diagnostic communication, analyzes their vulnerability against cyberattacks and explains measures to improve the resiliance.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues Facing Automated Vehicles and Insurance

2020-08-05
EPR2020015
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report explores how the deployment of automated vehicles (AVs) will affect the insurance industry and the principles of liability that underly the structure of insurance in the US. As we trade human drivers for suites of sensors and computers, who (or what) is responsible when there is a crash? The owner of the vehicle? The automaker that built it? The programmer that wrote the code? Insurers have over 100 years of experience and data covering human drivers, but with only a few years’ worth of information on AVs – how can they properly predict the true risks associated with their deployment? Without an understanding of the nature and risks of AVs, how can the government agencies that regulate the insurance industry provide proper oversight? Do the challenges AVs present require a total reworking of our insurance and liability systems, or can our current structures be adapted to fit them with minor modifications?
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