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Technical Paper

Thumb Design and Optimization for Backhoe Loader

2019-10-11
2019-28-0109
Product Engineering organizations are committed to provide solutions with the right quality and value to customers. Value improvement and efficient product improvement are key considerations for product engineering. In this paper, the Author summaries thumb design and optimization for backhoe loader. The project goal was to create an in-house thumb design. The backhoe thumb attachment was previously a proprietary design of a supplier. The supplier’s design had two major limitations, limited opportunity of design improvements for resolving customer issues and higher total cost. This paper covers details about overcoming these limitations. Multiple variants of backhoe loaders use four different thumbs. Small and mid- range backhoe machine classes use 4-tine and 2-tine thumb depending upon customer applications. The design team targeted an external customer requirement of a more compact design and internal requirement of accelerating design improvement cycle time and reducing cost.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Setting Input Process Parameters for Getting Better Product Quality in Machining of AM60 Magnesium Alloy - TOPSIS and ANOVA Approach

2019-10-11
2019-28-0136
This investigation shows the improvement of Machining parameters on AM-60 Mg alloy made with the help of Gravity Die Casting and with reactions upheld symmetrical cluster with “Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution” (TOPSIS). Which Focuses on the streamlining of Machining parameters utilizing the system to get least surface Roughness (Ra), Minimum Tool Wear, minimum Cutting Time, Power Requirement and Torque and Maximize MRR. A good amount of Machining tests was directed in view of the L9 Orthogonal array on CNC machine. The trials were performed on AM60 utilizing cutting device of grade-ISO 460.1-1140-034A0-XM GC3 of 12,16 and 25 mm width with cutting point of 140 degrees, all throughout the test work under various cutting conditions. TOPSIS and ANOVA were utilized to work out the major vital parameters like Cutting speed, feed rate, Depth of Cut and Tool Diameter which influence the Response. The normal qualities and estimated esteems are genuinely close.
Technical Paper

Analogy of Thermal Properties of Polyamide 6 Reinforced with Glass Fiber and Glass Beads through FDM Process

2019-10-11
2019-28-0137
The essential target of this examination is to compare the morphological and thermal properties of two different polyamide composite blends with inventive thermal properties. The polyamide-6 (PA6) reinforced with 10, 20 and 30 wt. % glass fiber (GF) and PA6 reinforced with 10, 20 and 30 wt. % glass beads (GB) are the two different polyamide composite blends extruded in form of wire by twin screw extrusion process. The experimental study illustrates to print the specimens by means of Fusion Deposition Modeling (FDM) based Three-Dimensional (3D) printer. The responses like morphology, Thermal Conductivity (TC) and Heat Distortion Temperature (HDT) of composites were observed. From the scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis equal distribution of higher 30wt% GF and GB in the PA6 matrix was observed. The results compare the increasing thermal properties of the 3D printed specimen like TC and HDT with the enhancement of beads content during the investigation.
Technical Paper

Characterization of AlSi10Mg Alloy Produced by DMLS Process for Automotive Engine Application

2019-10-11
2019-28-0134
Considerable weight of an automobile is constituted by the engine and there is scope for improvement in fuel efficiency and emission control through optimization of weight in the engine. In this work, AlSi10Mg alloy produced by the direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is suggested for engine application which is a lightweight aluminum alloy. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, compressive strength, and hardness of both cast and DMLS manufactured alloy are compared followed by analysis of SEM images of tensile test fractured surfaces. Reciprocating wear test is carried out for one lakh cycles at 125°C temperature with SAE 40 grade oil as lubricant. Co-efficient of friction (COF), wear rate of the cast and DMLS manufactured samples are compared. Wear patterns are analyzed using SEM images of the wear tracks.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Automotive Steering Sheet Metal Yoke for High Strength and Rigidity Requirement

2019-10-11
2019-28-0122
The increasing demand for light weighting products due to introduction of various standards and norms for controlling CO2 emissions and to meet the customer requirement of low cost with higher strength and rigidity of product in automotive industry, sheet metal manufacturing technique is adopted for automotive steering yoke for light commercial vehicle. Currently forged yokes are used for higher strength requirement, while sheet metal yokes are being used for small tonnage vehicle. The attempt has been made to improve overall strength and rigidity of the yoke produced by sheet metal operation using SAPH 440 steel with 6.5mm thickness for light commercial vehicle segments. The major challenge identified for this development was developing such a high strength and thickness material with consistency of dimension during forming process and meeting the torsional strength requirement of 500 Nm.
Technical Paper

Die Design Parameter Optimization for Steering Intermediate Tube Using Taguchi Method

2019-10-11
2019-28-0128
The increasing demand for lower cost and higher reliability of product of Indian OEM’s, one of the approach is using cheaper raw material considering design for X. In current steering intermediate tube, the development of replacing the imported material of STKM11A by local material of same grade has been done. The microstructure comparison shows there is variation in grain size and Mechanical properties of local and imported material and thus affects the formability of material. Increasing in mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength of material leads to challenge in actual forming as it affects the die life and its performance. In this paper, Non-linear explicit Axial cold forming process of Intermediate tube has been simulated through Finite Element Analysis Tool for both the local and imported material with optimization of die parameters. Dimensional requirement was one of the important parameter to correlate between the Design and Forming simulation.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Silicon Carbide Nanoparticles Reinforced Magnesium Alloy (AZ91E) Metal Matrix Composite by Vacuum Stir Casting Method

2019-10-11
2019-28-0169
In the present investigation silicon carbide nanoparticles reinforced magnesium alloy [AZ91E] composites were prepared by vacuum stir casting process in an inert atmosphere. Required amount of silicon carbide nanoparticles with grain size of 50nm was added into AZ91E molten melt with constant stir speed of 600 rpm and vacuum pressure of 1 lpm to obtain magnesium alloy composite containing 0, 5, 7.5 and 10 wt.% SiCp nanoparticles. The prepared composites were subjected to mechanical and microstructure studies. The mechanical properties were found to increase with the addition of silicon nanoparticles compared to unreinforced magnesium alloy. The maximum impact strength, yield strength and tensile strength were found to be 29.13J, 156 MPa and 401.13 MPa respectively. Microstructure studies reveal uniform distribution of silicon carbide in magnesium alloy matrix.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties and Vibration Damping Frequency Factor of Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite

2019-10-11
2019-28-0167
Kenaf Fiber regarded as industrial crop for different applications. It is one of the most important plants cultivated for natural fibers globally. Natural fibers such as kenaf fibers are getting attention of researchers and industries to utilize it in different composites due to its biodegradable nature. In this present investigation mechanical properties, vibration damping frequency factor and thermogravimetric analysis of kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite (KFREC) have been evaluated and reported. The tests were conducted with different weight categories of kenaf fiber such as 20%, 25%, 30% and 35%. The effects of fiber content on tensile, flexural, impact strengths, hardness and thermal decomposition properties of the composite were determined. The failure mechanism and damage features of the KFREC were categorized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results indicate that the increase in the fiber content decreases the damping vibration factor (ζ) correspondingly.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Turning Characteristics of TiC/MoS2 Nanoparticles Reinforced Al7075 Using TiN Coated Cutting Tool

2019-10-11
2019-28-0165
In recent years, aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMC) are found as a potential material for numerous applications owing to its excellent tribological and mechanical properties. In this work, the machining characteristics of aluminum alloy (Al7075) reinforced with TiC/MoS2 having nanoparticle has been studied. The samples of aluminum metal matrix composites by varying TiC in 0, 2 and 4 and MoS2 in 0 and 2 of the percentage weight of aluminum alloy (Composite 1(Al7075), Composite 2 (Al7075/2TiC/2MoS2) and composite 3 (Al7075/4TiC/2MoS2), respectively) are fabricated by the stir-casing method. The turning characteristics of the developed metal matrix composites are studied at various parameters such as cutting velocity (30 m/min, 60 m/min and 90 m/min), cutting depth (0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm) and composites (1, 2 and 3) using TiN coated cutting tool by dry turning at 0.05 mm/rev feed rate.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Tool Wear and Cutting Temperature during Machining of Nimonic C-263 and Waspaloy Based on Taguchi Method and Response Surface Methodology

2019-10-11
2019-28-0144
Nickel based materials of Nimonic C-263 and Waspaloy are used nowadays for aerospace applications owing to its superior strength properties that are maintained at a higher temperature. Tool wear and cutting temperature in the vicinity of cutting edge are two essential machinability characteristics for any cutting tool. In this regard, this study is pursued to examine the influence of factors on measuring of tool wear (Vba) and cutting temperature (Ts) during dry machining of two alloys studied experimentally based on Taguchi method and response surface methodology. Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array is used to design the experiment and a PVD (TiAlN), CVD (TiN/Al2O3/TiCN) coated carbide inserts are used on turning of two alloys. The factor effect on output responses are studied using analysis of variance, empirical models, and responses surface 3D plots. To minimize the response and to convert into one single optimum level, responses surface desirability function approach is applied.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Development of an Effective Framework for Implementation and Sustenance of an Obsolescence Material Management System in an Aerospace Supplier Manufacturing Industry Environment

2019-10-11
2019-28-0145
Obsolescence Material management plays an important and vital role in today’s modern Aerospace manufacturing, Aerospace Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul industry as well as Aerospace Distributors. Aerospace vehicles have a considerable longer product life-cycle when compared to any other consumer goods like automobile and electronics industry. With the advent of new, disruptive technologies, many sources and supplies of materials including COTS and Standard catalogue parts, components and goods, which are widely used in an Aerospace manufacturing environment, are diminishing at a considerable rate and thus result in their obsolescence before the end disposal of the product life cycle. It is one of the leading causes to the sale of counterfeit and fraudulent parts and components, which can result in considerable deterioration of Quality and Cost to Customer.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Properties of Similar and Dissimilar Metals of Monel 400 and SS 321 by Using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Process

2019-10-11
2019-28-0141
In the present study the fabrication of joints between the nickel base alloys and steels of various grades have been under taken, joining of these metals has assumed new importance by virtue of their widespread in nuclear and aerospace applications. Such joints provide excellent strength, oxidation and corrosion resistance. This paper deals with the study of weldability, and mechanical properties of weld joints of two different alloys such as nickel based alloy- monel 400 and austenitic stainless steel AISI 321.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Al-GNPs Composites Fabricated by Casting Method

2019-10-11
2019-28-0139
This paper describes an investigation on microstructures as well as mechanical properties of pure aluminium graphene nano platelets (GNPs) metal matrix composites prepared via novel based stir casting technique combined with ultrasonic treatment. The proportion of graphene changes from 0.5 to 2.0 wt. % in aluminium with 99% purity. The investigations on composites revealed that Al with combination of 1.0 % graphene composite showcased enhanced mechanical properties with 48.49 % (~49%) increase in tensile strength and 34.53 % (~35%) increase in micro hardness compared to test results of composites produced by traditional stir casting technique. FESEM analysis was done to examine the surface morphology of produced composite and fracture surface of tested composites where as XRD analysis was to inspect the phase analysis of produced composites.
Technical Paper

Fault Detection in Single Stage Helical Planetary Gearbox Using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Decision Tree with Histogram Features

2019-10-11
2019-28-0151
Drive train failures are most common in wind turbines. Lots of effort has been made to improve the reliability of the gearbox but the truth is that these efforts do not provide a lifetime solution. Majority of failures are caused by bearing and gearbox. It also states that wind turbine gearbox failure causes the highest downtime as the repair has to be done at Original Equipment Manufacturer [OEM]. This work aims to predict the failures in planetary gearbox using fault diagnosis technique and machine learning algorithms. In the proposed method the failing parts of the planetary gearbox are monitored with the help of accelerometer sensor mounted on the planetary gearbox casing which will record the vibrations. A prototype has been fabricated as a miniature of single stage planetary gearbox. The vibrations of the healthy gearbox, sun defect, planet defect and ring defect under loaded conditions are obtained. The signals show the performance characteristics of the gearbox condition.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Metallurgical and Mechanical Properties of Hastelloy X by Key-Hole Plasma Arc Welding Process

2019-10-11
2019-28-0152
This research work describes the effect of microsegregation, microstructure and tensile strength of the Hastelloy X weldment produced by keyhole plasma arc welding (K-PAW). Weld joint was obtained in a single pass without the addition of filler wire. The significant results obtained in this research work are (i) fine equiaxed dendrite was detected in the weld centre due to lesser heat input (HI) along with the faster solidification attained in K-PAW (ii) The existence of secondary precipitates in the interdendritic boundary was identified by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis (iii) Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS) revealed the Cr and Mo microsegregation in interdendritic boundary of the weld zone (iv) X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the Mo-rich P phase and Cr-rich M23C6 phase. The observed tensile strength of weldment is 6.14 % inferior to base metal.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Corrosion Resistance Alloy C-2000 Fabricated by Conventional Arc Welding Technique

2019-10-11
2019-28-0177
In the current work the metallurgical and tensile properties of the weld joints of alloy C-2000 were investigated. Welding technique employed in this study is Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG) and Pulsed Current Tungsten Inert Gas (PC-TIG) welding with autogenous mode and Ni-Cr-Mo rich ERNiCrMo-10 filler wire. The results show that PC-TIG weldment obtained the refined microstructure compared to the TIG weldment. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed the extent of Cr segregation was observed in all the weldments. PC-TIG welding shows reduced segregation compared to the corresponding TIG. X-ray diffraction (XRD) corroborated the existence of Ni3Cr2 phases in the weld fusion zone. Tensile test results show the PC-TIG weldment obtained marginally higher tensile properties comparing over the corresponding TIG weldment. The strength of the weldments is inferior in all cases in comparison to base metal.
Technical Paper

Corrosion and Corrosive Wear of Steel for Automotive Exhaust Application

2019-10-11
2019-28-0178
In the current scenario, durable exhaust system design, development and manufacturing are mandatory for the vehicle to be competitive and challenging in the automotive market. Material selection for the exhaust system plays a major role due to the increased warranty requirements and regulatory compliances. The materials used in the automotive exhaust application are cast iron, stainless steel, mild steel. The materials of the exhaust systems should be heat resistant, wear and corrosion resistant. Stainless steel is the most commonly used material in the automotive exhaust system. Due to increasing cost of nickel and some other alloying elements, there is a need to replace the stainless steel with EN 8 steel. Recent trends are towards light weight concepts, cost reduction and better performance. In order to reduce the cost and to achieve better wear and corrosion resistance, the surface of the EN 8 steel is modified with coatings.
Technical Paper

Exploration of Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Sisal Fiber Reinforced Cashew Nut Shell Liquid and Epoxy Polymer Matrix Composite as an Alternative Friction Material in Automobiles

2019-10-11
2019-28-0173
The brake pad is one of the foremost imperative parts of the vehicle. Due to the environmental requirement, natural materials were the alternate source for products manufacturing. The product composite made by using hot press techniques with mixing ingredients such as natural fiber (treated sisal), cashew nut filler, graphite and alumina with resin (cashew nut shell liquid - CNSL and epoxy). Two formulas and four samples of each set were composed by varying the resin type of CNSL and epoxy and prepared the test samples with attaining better hardness. The main intern of this proposed effort is to appraise the wear in dry sliding and performance of friction of the prepared composites. The composites are taken for tribo test by varying the load of 10,20,30,40 N and sliding distance of 1000, 2000 m respectively. Experiments were performed at stated process parametric conditions to record the responses.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Tribological Performance of Lubricating Oils with Zinc Dialkyl Dithiophosphate and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Additives

2019-10-11
2019-28-0174
The present work compares the tribological properties of ZnO (Zinc Oxide) nanoparticle based lubricant with ZDDP (zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate) based lubricant. The nanolubricant was prepared by mixing the nanoparticles in base oil followed by ultrasonification and ZDDP based lubricant was prepared by mixing ZDDP and stirring with base oil. Base oil used was mineral base oil. Both the lubricants were tested at three different temperatures, loads and roughness values. The test was carried out on AISI 52100 steel samples prepared by wire cutting and were grinded to three different levels of surface roughness. Friction and wear tests were performed using a reciprocating sliding tribo-tester at three different loads and temperatures. Taguchi orthogonal array was used to reduce the number of experiments. SEM, EDS and AFM analysis were carried out to study the surface wear phenomenon.
Technical Paper

Fabrication and Machinability Study of Al2219 Metal Matrix Composites Reinforced with SiN/MoS2 Nanoparticles

2019-10-11
2019-28-0170
Composites materials are substituting constituents for traditional materials due to their remarkable properties, and the addition of nanoparticles gives a new development in the material domain. The nanoparticles influence on fabrication and machinability investigation study is essential as the composites to be used in applications like automotive and aerospace. The current study investigates the machinability characteristics of Al2219 based metal composites reinforced with nanoparticles of SiN/MoS2. Al2219- reinforcements (SiN and MoS2) composites are fabricated by the method of stir casting. Four different compositions (Al2219/SiN (2 wt% and 4 wt%), , Al2219/2 wt.% SiN/ 2 wt.% MoS2, Al2219/2 wt.% MoS2) are fabricated by varying the different weight percentages of nanoparticles reinforcements. An attempt is made to study the investigation analysis of force, surface roughness, and tool wear using CNC machine lathe to consider the effect of cutting speed, cutting depth, and samples.
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