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Research Report

Unsettled Technology Domains in Robotics for Automation in Aerospace Manufacturing

2019-12-20
EPR2019010
Cost reduction and increasing production rate are driving automation of aerospace manufacturing. Articulated serial robots may replace bespoke gantry automation or human operations. Improved accuracy is key to enabling operations such as machining, additive manufacturing, composite fabrication, drilling, automated program development and inspection. New accuracy standards are needed to enable process- relevant comparisons between robot systems. Accuracy can be improved through calibration of kinematic and joint stiffness parameters, joint output encoders, adaptive control that compensates for thermal expansion and feed- forward control that compensates for hysteresis and external loads. The impact of datuming could also be significantly reduced through modelling and optimization. High dynamic end-effectors compensate high-frequency disturbances using inertial sensors and reaction masses.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues in Balancing Virtual, Closed-Course, and Public-Road Testing of Automated Driving Systems

2019-12-20
EPR2019011
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report identifies key unsettled issues of interest to the automotive industry regarding the challenges of determining the optimal balance for testing automated driving systems (ADS). Three main issues are outlined that merit immediate interest: First, determining what kind of testing an ADS needs before it is ready to go on the road; Second, the current, optimal, and realistic balance of simulation testing and real-world testing; Third, the challenges of sharing data in the industry. SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are preliminary investigations of new technologies. The three technical issues identified in this report need to be discussed in greater depth with the aims of, first, clarifying the scope of the industry-wide alignment needed, second, prioritizing the issues requiring resolution, and, third, creating a plan to generate the necessary frameworks, practices, and protocols.
Research Report

Unsettled Domains Concerning Autonomous System Validation and Verification Processes

2019-12-20
EPR2019012
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Department of Transportations' (DOT's) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) face similar challenges regarding the regulation of autonomous systems powered by artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms that replace the human factor in the decision-making process. The validation and verification (V&V) processes contribute to the implementation of the correct system requirements. The V&V process is one of the steps of a development lifecycle starting with the definition of regulatory, marketing, operational, performance, and safety requirements. They define what a product is, and they flow down into lower level requirements defining control architectures, hardware, and software. The industry is attempting to define regulatory requirements and a framework to gain safety clearance of such products.
Research Report

Unsettled Technology Domains in Aerospace Additive Manufacturing Concerning Safety, Airworthiness, and Certification

2019-12-20
EPR2019008
Additive manufacturing (AM) is currently being used to produce many certified aerospace components. However, significant advantages of AM are not exploited due to unresolved issues associated with process control, feedstock materials, surface finish, inspection, and cost. Components subject to fatigue must undergo surface finish improvements to enable inspection. This adds cost and limits the use of topology optimization. Continued development of process models is also required to enable optimization and understand the potential for defects in thin walled and slender sections. Costs are high for powder-fed processes due to material costs, machine costs, and low deposition rates. Cost for wire-fed processes are high due to the extensive post-process machining required. In addition, these processes are limited to low-complexity features.
Research Report

Unsettled Issues in Determining Appropriate Modeling Fidelity for Automated Driving Systems Simulation 

2019-12-20
EPR2019007
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report identifies key unsettled issues of interest to the automotive industry regarding the challenges of achieving optimal model fidelity for developing, validating, and verifying vehicles capable of automated driving. Three main issues are outlined that merit immediate interest: First, assuring that simulation models represent their real-world counterparts, how to quantify simulation model fidelity, and how to assess system risk; Second, developing a universal sensor model interface and language for verifying, simulating, and calibrating automated driving sensor; Third, characterizing and determining the different requirements for sensor, vehicle, environment, and human driver models. SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are preliminary investigations of new technologies.
Technical Paper

Automobile Exhaust Emmision Control- A review

2019-11-21
2019-28-2382
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly.
Technical Paper

Transient Response Analysis and Synthesis of an FSAE Vehicle using Cornering Compliance

2019-11-21
2019-28-2400
OBJECTIVE Race vehicles are designed to achieve higher lateral acceleration arising at cornering conditions. A focused study on the steady state handling of the car is essential for the analysis of such conditions. The transient response analysis of the car is also equally important to achieve best driver-car relationship and to quantify handling in the range suitable for a racing car. This research aims to investigate the design parameters responsible for the transient characteristics and optimize those design parameters. This research work examines the time-based analysis of the problem to truly capture the non-linear dynamics. Apart from tires, chassis can be tuned to optimize vehicle handling and hence the response times. METHODOLOGY To start with, the system is modelled with governing parameters and simulation is carried out to set baseline configurations. Steady state and transient handling simulations run independent of each other with independent logic, coded on MATLAB.
Technical Paper

Effect of variable payload on Vehicle dynamics of Passenger buses in Indian usage conditions

2019-11-21
2019-28-2411
A high impetus from Government on road infrastructure development, is giving a fillip to passenger CV space. This has resulted in making the passenger CV segment lucrative enough, thereby pulling in many operators in the business. The quality of road has immensely improved over a decade, as a result of which the average speed and hence the quantum of distance covered by passenger buses has increased significantly. People are preferring to travel in buses over trains, owing to at par ticket cost, high availability, reduced travel time and also improved level of comfort. Aligned to the market need and the trend, OEM's are offering buses with capable powertrains to cater the need of speed, reduced trip time as well as a lot of attention is also being paid to tune in the comfort level for long hauls. A big chunk of passenger travel is catered by the bus operators especially during major festivals in India.
Technical Paper

Steering and Handling Performance Optimization Through Correlation of Objective - Subjective Parameters and Multi-body Dynamics Simulation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2412
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: Automobile Industry has driven through the ages with continuous development with innovative technologies and frugal engineering. Expectation of customer is also increasing through the generations. To meet the customer demand for performance and be best in market, OEM needs to deliver best performance of vehicle with cost effective and short development process. Steering and Handling of vehicle is one of major customer touchpoints and needs to be tuned to achieve various conflicting requirements. The objective of this research is to optimize the steering and handling using correlation between three major methods of evaluation. METHODOLOGY: Methodology for optimization of steering and handling performance using correlation between subjective evaluation, objective measurement and multi-body-dynamic simulation is presented.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the critical parameters affecting the fuel lid performance

2019-11-21
2019-28-2413
Fuel lid is one of the parts which are mostly operated mechanically by the end user while filling the fuel. Therefore part design should be done in such a manner that it can be operated smoothly without any hassles. The conventional steel fuel filler doors are of two types: Three-piece type fuel filler doors also known as the dog-leg type and two-piece type fuel filler doors also known as the butterfly type. Both types of fuel filler doors have a pin that acts as a rotational hinge axis about which the fuel filler door opens and closes. Depending on the styling and shape of the side body outer, fuel lid type is decided. In the current study, dog-leg type fuel lid is considered. The factors that primarily affect the opening-closing performance are the weight of fuel lid, hinge axis, and the friction at the hinge area. The orientation of the hinge axis is derived from the profile of the side body outer panel. The fuel lid weight and hinge axis are decided in the initial design stage.
Technical Paper

A Machine Learning based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for Lightweighting the Automotive Structures

2019-11-21
2019-28-2424
The present work involves Machine Learning (ML) based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for lightweighting the automotive structures. The challenge in deployment of MMDO algorithms in solving real-world automotive structural design problems is the enormous time involved in solving full vehicle finite element models that involve large number of design variables and multiple performance constraints pertaining to vehicle dynamics, durability, crash and NVH domains. With the availability of powerful workstations and using the advanced Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools, it has become possible to generate huge sets of simulation data pertaining to multiple domains.
Technical Paper

Multi body dynamic simulation of tyre traction trailer

2019-11-21
2019-28-2430
Tyre Traction Trailer is a device designed to find the Peak Brake co-efficient of C2 and C3 tyre as per ECE R117. The trailer is towed by the truck and is braked suddenly to evaluate braking co-efficient of specimen tyre. It is a single wheel trailer equipped with load cell to capture tire loads (Normal and longitudinal)while braking. Traction Trailer is modelled in MSC Adams and rigid body simulation is carried out for static stability of the system. Dynamic simulations were performed to understand locking of wheels during braking. Body frame was further modelled as flex body to perform structural analysis of the frame. The paper contains stress and deformation plots of trailer Structure under various loading conditions, change in Centre of gravity, weight transfer and forces on springs during braking and cornering, plots of tractive and normal load on tyre during braking.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Hydrostatic Transmission (HST) system for OFF-Highway vehicle

2019-11-21
2019-28-2453
The development of any country depends on capital energy consumption. Due to technological advancements, people want more comfort and performance with the tractors and at the same time less fatigue and reduced fuel consumption. At present, most of the tractors uses conventional Manual Transmission (MT) as main driveline, though there is research going on, with implementation in few cases, for shifting from conventional MT to advanced transmissions. A Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) provides Step Lesley an infinite number of effective gear ratios between maximum to minimum value. Hydrostatic Transmission (HST) is one of the types of CVT. HST can improve the fuel efficiency and smooth drivability than a MT without compromising vehicle performance. The development of HST in tractor is less costly as several existing components such as clutch, large number of gears in transmission system can be removed along with reducing of driver fatigue.
Technical Paper

Analysis Of GaN Based BLDC Motor Drive For Automotive Application

2019-11-21
2019-28-2471
Objective Automotive sector is rapidly moving towards electric vehicle. BLDC motor is gaining popularity in the field of electric vehicle due to its high torque to weight ratio and simple control. In this paper we will focus on Switching loss characterization of 3 kW GaN based BLDC drive for electric vehicle. To improve efficiency of drive gallium-nitride based power transistor is used instead of Si MOSFET. GaN devices enable the design of inverter at higher frequencies with improved power density and efficiency as compared to traditional Si MOSFETs. Methodology In this paper commercially available GaN devices compared with Si MOSFETs. The power devices, which are selected for the performance comparison, are EPC2022 GaN by EPC, GS61008P GaN by Gan System and SiDR668DP Si MOSFET by Vishay. The Switching losses analytically predicted in MATHCAD tool and then compared with SPICE simulation losses. Double pulse test circuit is used to find out power losses of power transistors.
Technical Paper

Realtime Tuning and optimization of EV traction motors with controllers on E-motor testbench

2019-11-21
2019-28-2478
The need for dedicated development of indigenous electric power-train is becoming much essential in the recent times with upcoming trends and policies. Hence, The validation and optimization of the newly developed electric power-train becomes much crucial in order to ensure smooth real world operation. This can be only possible in E-motor test benches with dedicated equipment for thorough evaluation. Also, there are no practical limitations to check the peak characteristics in a controlled laboratory environment. Initially, the motor is setup by mechanically coupling with the dynamo-meter and the controller in the open loop method with constant parameters to check steady state operability without load or external parameters that affect the torque production and speed of the drive. Then progresses to closed loop method incorporating the feedback control and external parameters including torque loading at the shaft from the dynamo-meter.
Technical Paper

Powertrain topologies for 2 wheelers : From ICE to Electrification

2019-11-21
2019-28-2480
As Battery cost is expected to see a Downward trend, Electrification of Powertrain in general is expected to pick up and 2wheeler Market is foreseen to be the Flag bearer in this race towards Electrification. In this paper, we would like to emphasize on the Journey of 2wheelers from Conventional Internal combustion Engine to Electrified Powertrains which we foresee in the future. Methodology: EV - Analysis of OEM strategies and upcoming trends in connectivity and electrification. Estimation of current market size of 2Wheeler and segmentation based on different personas. Building survey data based personas around ownership patterns for electric 2Wheelers. Mapping consumer decision process for electric 2Wheelers. Analyse the decision influencers and role of influencers in decision making process. Hybrid - Analysis of different hybrid topologies. Feasibility study via simulation and focus group assessments to evaluate the design. PoC will also be tried to validate the concept.
Technical Paper

Rapid Prototyping and Implementation of traction motor drive for E- Mobility

2019-11-21
2019-28-2472
Objective / Question: Is it possible to extend the envelope of simulation driven design and its advantages to development of complex dynamic systems viz. traction motor drives? The objective that then follows is how to enable OEM/Tier-1s to reduce wastes in the process of traction motor controller design, development, optimization and implementation. Motor control design to validation process is time consuming and tricky! Additionally, the requirement of software knowledge to write code to implement drive engineer's control ideas. The challenges here are - to name a few - algorithm for real time, addressing memory constraints, debugging, comprehending mathematical overflows, portability & BOM cost. These introduces wastes in parameters like time, cost, performance, efficiency and reliability. Methodology: Developing a new traction motor controller for E Mobility takes 18 - 24 months typically. 2 distinct activities take place in a loop.
Technical Paper

Optimization of An EV Controller Design For A Three Wheeler BOVs - EMC Approach

2019-11-21
2019-28-2474
Introduction: The advent of electric mobility is changing the conventional mobility techniques and their application in automobiles across all segments. Three wheeler Battery Operated Vehicles (BoVs) are a special category of electric vehicles (EVs) as far as EMC compliance is concerned. The problem mainly lies with the open body design and cost cutting measures being exercised by the manufactures which makes Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) compliance challenging. Objective: Though it is sometimes possible to resolve EMC malfunctions related to motor power cable, cables & wiring harness etc. using external techniques post design stage, but controller being a closed and typical element makes it difficult to improve against EMC malfunctions using external techniques. This paper would concentrate on the controller design parameters and improvement of the same in terms of Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and performance efficiency at the design stage itself.
Technical Paper

Non-linear dynamic Modeling, Simulation and Control of Five-Phase 10/8 Switched Reluctance Motor for Electric Vehicle Application

2019-11-21
2019-28-2473
The SRM is gaining much interest for EVs due to its rare-earth-free characteristic and excellent performance. SRM possess several advantages such as low cost, high efficiency, high power density, fault-tolerant and it can produce extended constant power region, and this makes SRM as viable alternative over conventional PM drives. Objective: The objective of this paper is to establish proof of theoretical concepts related to SRM. The key to achieve an effective SRM modeling is to use a methodology that allow the nonlinearity of its magnetic characteristics to be represented while maximizing the simulation speed. This paper represents how magnetization data obtained from FEA in the form of look up tables is most appropriate way to represent SRM model. In this paper, performance analysis of SRM is done with the help of Open loop and Closed loop MATLAB simulations. These dynamic simulations of SRM will assist in understanding behavior of SRM in various loading and speed conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Vehicle Controller by using MBD approach

2019-11-21
2019-28-2494
The automobile industry is moving towards electrification of Vehicle to remove the exhaust gas emissions. A project was undertaken to develop Electric Vehicle control system from concept to vehicle trials in less than a year. The complete development cycle of an electronic controller required to be compressed to prepare mule electric vehicle within timeline. Agile methodology has been used for this project instead of waterfall as other control systems were in developing stage; system requirements were changing frequently. This paper presents the electric vehicle control unit development with agile methodology using model based development (MBD) in MATLAB and Simulink environment. The project flow consists of major phases like design of electrical architecture, system requirements specification, selection and setting up the simulation platform, EVCU strategy development, testing on Model in Loop (MIL)/ Hardware in Loop (HIL), vehicle trials.
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