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Technical Paper

Evaluating the Uncertainty in Various Measurement Tasks Common to Accident Reconstruction

2002-03-04
2002-01-0546
This paper presents the results of recent tests conducted to obtain sample distributions of some common parameters, including measurements made with tapes, measurements made with roller-wheels, skidmark measurements, yawmark measurements, estimation of crush damage from photographs, and drag factors, that can be used to evaluate the uncertainty in an accident reconstruction analysis. The paper also reviews the distributions of some pertinent data reported by other researchers. ...When performing calculations pertaining to the analysis of motor vehicle accidents, investigators must often select appropriate values for a number of parameters. The uncertainty of the final answers is a function of the uncertainty of each parameter involved in the calculation.
Journal Article

Probabilistic Reanalysis Using Monte Carlo Simulation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0215
PRA calculates very efficiently the system reliability or the average value of an attribute of a design for many probability distributions of the input variables, by performing a single Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, PRA calculates the sensitivity derivatives of the reliability to the parameters of the probability distributions.
Standard

J1349 Certified Power Engine Data for GM LZG as used in 2008 Chevrolet Impala / Monte Carlo

2007-02-06
CURRENT
CPGM2_08LZGIMPA
This product includes information on the manufacturer, engine, applications, testing location, certified maximum horsepower, certified maximum torque along with the certified curves of horsepower and torque over a wide range of engine RPM speeds. In addition, this product contains complete engine information such as displacement, cylinder configuration, valve train, combustion cycle, pressure charging, charge air cooling, bore, stroke, cylinder numbering convention, firing order, compression ratio, fuel system, fuel system pressure, ignition system, knock control, intake manifold, exhaust manifold, cooling system, coolant liquid, thermostat, cooling fan, lubricating oil, fuel, fuel shut off speed, etc. Also included are all measured test parameters outlined in J2723.
Technical Paper

Monte Carlo Simulation of Cycle by Cycle Variability

1992-10-01
922165
One of the characteristics of nominally homogeneous charge spark ignition engines is a pronounced variation in the combustion rate from cycle to cycle. Many theories have been advanced which attempt to explain the fundamental origin for differences on a cyclic basis. In the present work, some of the suspected causes or their manifestations have been incorporated into Ford's engine combustion model with the intention of determining if their impact on the combustion rate is as theorized. It has been found that initial spark kernel burn rate, the displacement of the spark kernel from the spark plug gap, and the turbulence intensity must all be perturbed simultaneously on a cycle-by-cycle basis to cause the cycle simulation program to mimic the experimentally determined burn parameters with respect to their averages and distributions.
Technical Paper

Crash Severity: A Comparison of Event Data Recorder Measurements with Accident Reconstruction Estimates

2004-03-08
2004-01-1194
The Event Data Recorders (EDRs), now being installed as standard equipment by several automakers, have the potential to provide an independent measurement of crash severity which avoids many of the difficulties of accident reconstruction techniques. This paper evaluates the feasibility of replacing delta-V estimates from accident reconstruction with the delta-V recorded by EDRs. ...This paper evaluates the feasibility of replacing delta-V estimates from accident reconstruction with the delta-V recorded by EDRs. The analysis is based on over 500 NASS/CDS cases from 2000 - 2002 which have corresponding EDR datasets. ...The primary description of crash severity in most accident databases is vehicle delta-V. Delta-V has been traditionally estimated through accident reconstruction techniques using computer codes, e.g.
Technical Paper

Real-world car accident reconstruction methods for crash avoidance system research

2000-06-12
2000-05-0221
The paper describes the multidisciplinary systemic approach leading to the comprehensive methodology used in accident reconstruction in order to determine the best scenario, and to assess initial car speeds, paths and events in the different phases of the accident. ...Upon this first step, a more accurate accident simulation can be calculated with a reconstruction software. Results and examples of applications are given in the most common pre-crash situations (curves, straight roads and intersections). ...The paper describes the multidisciplinary systemic approach leading to the comprehensive methodology used in accident reconstruction in order to determine the best scenario, and to assess initial car speeds, paths and events in the different phases of the accident. This has already been carried out for about 400 car crashes with car occupant injuries (including 6% fatal and 10% severely injured).
Technical Paper

Using Multiple Processors for Monte Carlo Analysis of System Models

2008-04-14
2008-01-1221
Modeling variable physical parameters provides a better representation of what can be expected in production. Monte Carlo analysis is a standard method of simulating variability that occurs in real physical parameters. ...Automotive companies use Monte Carlo testing to ensure high quality, robust designs. Due to time and resource constraints, engineers often examine only a limited number of key parameters rather than an entire set. ...This paper presents new methods for distributing Monte Carlo analyses of system models across multiple machines. These methods reduce testing time and enable more complete analyses, ensuring better quality when designs go into production.
Technical Paper

Application of Monte Carlo Analysis to Life Cycle Assessment

1999-03-01
1999-01-0011
This paper demonstrates the use of Monte Carlo Analysis to track and measure the propagation of uncertainty in LCA studies. The Monte Carlo technique basically consists of running repeated assessments using random input values chosen from a specified probable range. ...While measuring the overall LCA uncertainty, the Monte Carlo technique also measures the uncertainty contribution of each unit process within the system being considered. ...The Monte Carlo technique basically consists of running repeated assessments using random input values chosen from a specified probable range.
Standard

J1349 Certifed Power Engine Data for GM LZ4 as used in 2006 Chevrolet Impala and 2006 Chevrolet Monte Carlo

2006-02-14
CURRENT
CPGM2_LZ4
This product includes information on the manufacturer, engine, applications, testing location, certified maximum horsepower, certified maximum torque along with the certified curves of horsepower and torque over a wide range of engine RPM speeds. In addition, this product contains complete engine information such as displacement, cylinder configuration, valve train, combustion cycle, pressure charging, charge air cooling, bore, stroke, cylinder numbering convention, firing order, compression ratio, fuel system, fuel system pressure, ignition system, knock control, intake manifold, exhaust manifold, cooling system, coolant liquid, thermostat, cooling fan, lubrication oil, fuel fuel shut off speed, etc. Also included are all measured test parameters outlined in J2723.
Book

Motorcycle Crash Reconstruction

2018-12-10
Itis clear that motorcyclists are more vulnerable and much more likely to be injured or killed in a crash than are passengers in a car accident. Motorcycle Accident Reconstruction purposefully pulls together as much of the relevant accident reconstruction literature and science as possible to present definitive literature that meets the needs of the crash reconstruction industry. ...Motorcycle Accident Reconstruction purposefully pulls together as much of the relevant accident reconstruction literature and science as possible to present definitive literature that meets the needs of the crash reconstruction industry. ...Topics featured in this book include: Case studies utilizing event data recorder data Photogrammetry analysis Determining motorcycle speed at the time of an accident The book provides a unique roadmap for the motorcycle accident reconstructionist user.
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