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Technical Paper

Impact of Pad Wear on the Pressure Dynamics of a Vehicle Braking System

The braking system is used also as an integrated sub-system in many other important vehicle driving systems such as traction control, adaptive cruise control, accident avoidance and other vehicle systems in which the braking system plays an important role.
Journal Article

Identification of Unskillful Driver Based on Driving Behavior and Adaptation of Safety and Comfort Functions for Driver Assistance

The aim of this paper is to recognize two categories of drivers namely Novice and Older drivers who are at most risk and represent a major portion of the accident rate. The reasons for accidents caused by novice drivers are less attention, slow response and less hazard perceiving ability. ...Due to these reasons both these categories of drivers are more prone to accidents. Based on these behaviors, a driver can be identified and using this identified driver data the vehicle functions can be tuned to support their driving behavior.
Technical Paper

Technical Feasibility Study on Avoidance or Mitigation of Side Collisions at Intersections

Side collisions at intersections account for 30-40 % in vehicle-to-vehicle accidents in most countries. Side collisions usually become unavoidable due to human response time even though drivers in collided vehicles perceive an imminent risk of collision. ...Based on investigated facts, a side collision accident situation was assumed at a 4-way intersection. An algorithm for determining anticipated side impacts was developed.

Automotive Engineering International 2003-07-01

A different automatic Developed in conjunction with BorgWarner, Volkswagen's DSG automatic six-speed gearbox is aimed at enthusiasts and has fuel consumption superior to a manual gearbox. Accident avoidance GM and Delphi are testing adaptive cruise control and collision-warning technologies in the hope of ultimately increasing driver awareness and reducing driving behaviors that can lead to accidents. ...Accident avoidance GM and Delphi are testing adaptive cruise control and collision-warning technologies in the hope of ultimately increasing driver awareness and reducing driving behaviors that can lead to accidents. Branding vehicle dynamics The use of active systems and common hardware across several vehicle platforms, with different calibrations and control algorithms, can offer variations in character and brand, according to Prodrive Automotive technology.
Technical Paper

Influences of Parameters at Vehicle Rollover

This investigation of intensive use of numerical computer simulation shows the importance and capability of simulation in the automotive safety development process for actuators, vehicle behavior in an accident, sensor development, and algorithm development for electronic control units.
Technical Paper

Integration of Multiple Active Safety Systems using STPA

The new approach identifies unsafe combinations of control actions, from one or more control systems, that could lead to an accident. For example, independent controllers for Auto Hold, Engine Idle Stop, and Adaptive Cruise Control may interfere with each other in certain situations.
Technical Paper

Electronic Equipment Usage on Japanese Vehicles

Development of new techniques to apply electronic systems to a number of applications within the automotive system, such as in-transit communication, diagnostic systems, and accident prevention, will be the goals sought through the cooperation between both industries.
Technical Paper

Rear Wheels Electro-Hydraulic Steering Control System with Reduced Performance Level Required

Performance requests and machine automation, in conjunction with new regulations for commercial and heavy duty vehicles, represent a difficult challenge for machine design. Machine control systems complexity and functional safety regulation, are complex requirements to deal with in new machines design. The paper describes a steering system design, of a 6 wheeled agricultural front articulated self-propelled machine, that must comply with new regulations in terms of functional safety. The vehicle steering is driven by an electro-hydraulic system, totally controlled using electronics; the rear wheels are independently steered and controlled. This architecture requires a highly functional safety performance level. The safety analysis of the system lead to a required performance level whose compliance is a challenging task, due to the software quality required, and to the cost of a fully redundant hardware, on both electronics and hydraulics side.
Journal Article

A High Functional Safety Performance Level Machine Controller for a Medium Size Agricultural Tractor

Functional safety requirements and solutions are more expensive when it comes to lower cost machines with less power but same functionalities with respect to big machines. The paper will show a real Electronic Control Unit (ECU) design of a machine controller, controlling both engine working point, transmission, and other utilities like PTO, 4WD, brakes and Differential Lock; the ECU was designed in accordance to ISO 25119 regulation, to meet AgPL = C or even D for some functionalities. The unit is a fully redundant electronic control unit with two CAN networks and some special safe state oriented mechanism, that allow the Performance Level C with less software analysis requirements compared with traditional solutions. All safety critical sensors are redounded and singularly diagnosable, all command effects are directly observable and most of commands are directly diagnosable.
Technical Paper

Integrated Breathing Model and Multi-Variable Control Approach for Air Management in Advanced Gasoline Engine

The evolution of automotive engines calls for the design of electronic control systems optimizing the engine performance in terms of reduced fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. However, the opportunities provided by modern engines have not yet completely exploited, since the adopted control strategies are still largely developed in a very heuristic way and rely on a number of SISO (Single Input Single Output) designs. On the contrary, the strong coupling between the available actuators calls for a MIMO (Multi Input Multi Output) control design approach. To this regard, the availability of reliable dynamic engine models plays an important role in the design of engine control and diagnostic systems, allowing for a significant reduction of the development times and costs. This paper presents a control-oriented model of the air-path system of today's gasoline internal combustion engines.
Journal Article

The Key Role of the Closed-loop Combustion Control for Exploiting the Potential of Biodiesel in a Modern Diesel Engine for Passenger Car Applications

The present paper describes the results of a cooperative research project between GM Powertrain Europe and Istituto Motori - CNR aimed at studying the capability of GM Combustion Closed-Loop Control (CLCC) in enabling seamless operation with high biodiesel blending levels in a modern diesel engine for passenger car applications. As a matter of fact, fuelling modern electronically-controlled diesel engines with high blends of biodiesel leads to a performance reduction of about 12-15% at rated power and up to 30% in the low-end torque, while increasing significantly the engine-out NOx emissions. These effects are both due to the interaction of the biodiesel properties with the control logic of the electronic control unit, which is calibrated for diesel operation. However, as the authors previously demonstrated, if engine calibration is re-tuned for biodiesel fuelling, the above mentioned drawbacks can be compensated and the biodiesel environmental inner qualities can be fully deployed.
Journal Article

Analysis of Performance and Emissions of an Automotive Euro 5 Diesel Engine Fuelled with B30 from RME and JME

The effects of using a B30 blend of ultra-low sulfur diesel and two different Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) obtained from both Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME) in a Euro 5 small displacement passenger car diesel engine on both full load performance and part load emissions have been evaluated in this paper. In particular the effects on engine torque were firstly analyzed, for both a standard ECU calibration (i.e., without any special tuning for the different fuel characteristics) and for a specifically adjusted ECU calibration obtained by properly increasing the injected fuel quantities to compensate for the lower LHV of the B30: with the latter, the same torque levels measured under diesel operation could be observed with the B30 blend too, with lower smoke levels, thus highlighting the potential for maintaining the same level of performance while achieving substantial emissions benefits.
Technical Paper

A Model For Electronic Control Units Software Requirements Specification

In the automotive world the “electronics and software” are continuously increasing. In this scenario the correct definition and, more in general, correct management of requirements in the development process of software is a key factor for continuous success. The real-time characteristic of control functions software makes the development process more complex and articulated. This paper describes a more formal approach in the software requirements specification which is based on a requirements model. The purpose of the model is to define the syntax and semantic elements in an unambiguous way. These elements are based on three classes of requirements: “simple requirement”, “composite requirement” and “composite with a finite state machine requirement”. The paper gives a description of every class of requirement, and the capability of model elements composition to describe more complex requirements is shown.
Journal Article

Analysis of Particle Mass and Size Emissions from a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter during Regeneration by Means of Actual Injection Strategies in Light Duty Engines

The diesel particulate filters (DPF) are considered the most robust technologies for particle emission reduction both in terms of mass and number. On the other hand, the increase of the backpressure in the exhaust system due to the accumulation of the particles in the filter walls leads to an increase of the engine fuel consumption and engine power reduction. To limit the filter loading, and the backpressure, a periodical regeneration is needed. Because of the growing interest about particle emission both in terms of mass, number and size, it appears important to monitor the evolution of the particle mass and number concentrations and size distribution during the regeneration of the DPFs. For this matter, in the presented work the regeneration of a catalyzed filter was fully analyzed. Particular attention was dedicated to the dynamic evolution both of the thermodynamic parameters and particle emissions.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Detection and Avoidance of Obstacles as a Contribution to Automotive Applications

Improvements in safety have reduced fatalities in vehicle collisions, systems as airbags and ABS has reduced accidents even their severity. Lately Active Safety Systems as Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), Predictive Emergency Brake, Lane Change Assist and Blind Spot Detection Systems has been developed searching for avoiding accidents. ...Lately Active Safety Systems as Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), Predictive Emergency Brake, Lane Change Assist and Blind Spot Detection Systems has been developed searching for avoiding accidents. Reductions on collision speeds by at least 5 km/h helps to reduce the severity of injuries in frontal collisions.
Technical Paper

Laser Sensor for Low-Speed Cruise Control

In recent years, new technologies have been developed and are being marketed with the aim of reducing the number of injuries and fatalities due to traffic accidents. They range from systems designed to reduce the driving burden to systems for controlling vehicles in the hope of mitigating the harm done by accidents when they do occur. ...They range from systems designed to reduce the driving burden to systems for controlling vehicles in the hope of mitigating the harm done by accidents when they do occur. One of the most important components in creating these systems has been a front obstacle detection sensor that detects obstacles in the paths of vehicles.
Technical Paper

Safety Benefits Estimation of an Intelligent Cruise Control System Using Field Operational Test Data

The potential safety benefits of an Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC) system are assessed in terms of the number of rear-end crashes that might be avoided on U.S. freeways if all vehicles were equipped with such a system. This analysis utilizes naturalistic driving data collected from a field operational test that involved 108 volunteers who drove ten passenger cars for about 68 and 35 thousand miles in manual and ICC control modes, respectively. The effectiveness of the ICC system is estimated at about 17 percent based on computer simulations of two rear-end precrash scenarios that are distinguished by whether the following vehicle encounters a suddenly-decelerating or slow-moving lead vehicle. The ICC system has the potential to eliminate approximately 13 thousand policereported rear-end crashes on U.S. freeways, using 1996 national crash statistics.
Technical Paper

Avoiding Accelerating Incorrectly While Steering with CAN Networks

Offering more information to the driver and helping him observe on all sides so that he can make decisions correctly are of great importance for reducing accidents. According to the present traffic regulations, in this paper we focus on the rules and process used during steering and proposed to implement them in a car information central control system based on CAN.
Journal Article

Quantifying Electrical System Worst-Case Performance Prior to Prototype Test and Production

Electronics now control or drive a large part of automotive system design and development, from audio system enhancements to improvements in engine and drive-train performance, and innovations in passenger safety. Industry estimates suggest that electronic systems account for more than 30% of the cost of a new automobile and represent approximately 90% of the innovations in automotive design. As electronic content increases, so does the possibility of electronic system failure and the potential for compromised vehicle safety. Even when designed properly, electronics can be the weakest link in automotive system performance due to variations in component reliability and environmental conditions. Engineers need to understand worst-case system performance as early in the design process as possible.