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Cast Shot and Grit Size Specifications for Peening and Cleaning

This SAE Recommended Practice pertains to blast cleaning and shot peening and provides for standard cast shot and grit size numbers. For shot, this number corresponds with the opening of the nominal test sieve, in ten thousandths of inches1, preceded by an S. For grit, this number corresponds with the sieve designation of the nominal test sieve with the prefix G added. These sieves are in accordance with ASTM E 11. The accompanying shot and grit classifications and size designations were formulated by representatives of shot and grit suppliers, equipment manufacturers, and automotive users.
Journal Article

A New Piston Insulation Concept for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines to Reduce Heat Loss from the Wall

To reduce heat transfer between hot gas and cavity wall, thin Zirconia (ZrO2) layer (0.5mm) on the cavity surface of a forged steel piston was firstly formed by thermal spray coating aiming higher surface temperature swing precisely synchronized with flame temperature near the wall resulting in the reduction of temperature difference. However, no apparent difference in the heat loss was analyzed. To find out the reason why the heat loss was not so improved, direct observation of flame impingement to the cavity wall was carried out with the top view visualization technique, for which one of the exhaust valves was modified to a sapphire window. Local flame behavior very close to the wall was compared by macrophotography. Numerical analysis by utilizing a three-dimensional simulation was also carried out to investigate the effect of several parameters on the heat transfer coefficient.

Aerospace & Defense Technology: August 2017

The Rapid Rise of Beryllium-Aluminum Alloys in Aerospace Aeroacoustic Simulation Delivers Breakthroughs in Aircraft Noise Reduction Using System Simulation to Manage Increasing Thermal Loads on Aircraft Fuel Systems Ensuring the Compliance of Avionics Software with DO-178C Microwave Photonic Notch Filter Helps Ensure Critical Mission Success Measuring Propellant Stress Relaxation Modulus Using Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer New testing technique requires less material, gives more accurate results. Combustion Characteristics of Hydrocarbon Droplets Induced by Photoignition of Aluminum Nanoparticles Test methodology allows analysis of combustion dynamics for subscale rocket injectors under super critical conditions. Vapor Pressure Data and Analysis for Selected Organophosphorous Compounds: DIBMP, DCMP, IMMP, IMPA, EMPA, and MPFA Determining the thermophysical properties of chemical warfare agent simulants can help evaluate the performance of defensive equipment.

Composite Materials Handbook, Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6

Polymer Matrix, Metal Matrix, and Structural Sandwich Composites 6-Volume Set: • Volume 1: Guidelines for Characterization of Structural Materials • Volume 2: Materials Properties • Volume 3: Materials Usage, Design, and Analysis • Volume 4: Metal Matrix Composites • Volume 5: Ceramic Matrix Composites • Volume 6: Structural Sandwich Composites This 6-volume set includes critical properties of composite materials that meet specific data requirements, as well as guidelines for design, analysis, material selection, manufacturing, quality control, and repair. This newly-updated engineering reference tool, part of the Composite Materials Handbook (CMH-17), also contains the latest test data for polymer matrix composites and metal matrix composites, as well as essential material relating to sandwich composites and ceramic matrix composites used in military and commercial vehicles.
Technical Paper

Fabrication and Experimental Analysis of Epoxy-Glass Fiber Composite Leaf Spring

Conventional materials like steel, brass, aluminum etc will fail without any indication, cracks initiation, propagation, will takes place with a short span. Now-a-days to overcome these problem, conventional materials are replaced by hybrid composite material. Not only have this conventional material failed to meet the requirement of high technology applications, like space applications and marine applications and structural applications in order to meet the above requirements new materials are being searched. Hybrid composites materials found to the best alternative with its unique capacity of designing the materials to give required properties and light weight. This paper aims to preparing hybrid composite using artificial fibers. Epoxy as resin and glass fiber as fiber for artificial hybrid composite to make a laminate for preparing leaf spring.

Dimensional Specifications for Non-Metallic Body Push-to-Connect Fittings Used On a Vehicular Air Brake System

This SAE Standard covers general dimensional specifications for non-metallic body reusable push to connect tube fittings for use in the piping of air brake systems on automotive vehicles. This type of fitting is intended for use with nylon tubing per SAE J844. It is not intended to restrict or preclude other designs of a tube fitting for use with SAE J844. Performance requirements for SAE J844 are covered in SAE J1131. See SAE J2494-3 for the performance requirements of Reusable (push-to-connect) fittings intended for use in Automotive Air Brake Systems and U.S. Department of Transportation FMVSS 571.106.
Technical Paper

Noise and Vibration Measurement Methods for Large Diameter Single-Piece Aluminum Propeller Shafts

This paper describes recently developed test methods and instrumentation to address the specific noise and vibration measurement challenges posed by large-diameter single-piece tubular aluminum propeller (prop) shafts with high modal density. The prop shaft application described in this paper is a light duty truck, although the methods described are applicable to any rotating shaft with similar dynamic properties. To provide a practical example of the newly developed methods and instrumentation, impact FRF data were acquired in-situ for two typical prop shafts of significantly different diameter, in both rotating and stationary conditions. The example data exhibit features that are uniquely characteristic of large diameter single-piece tubular shafts with high modal density, including the particular effect of shaft rotation on the measurements.

Dimensional Specifications for Metallic Body Push-to-Connect Fittings Used on a Vehicular Air Brake System

This SAE Standard covers general and dimensional specifications for brass bodied reusable Push to Connect tube fittings for use in the piping of vehicular air brake systems. This type of fitting is intended for use with nylon tubing per SAE J844. See SAE J2494-3 for the Performance Requirements of Reusable (Push to Connect) Fittings Intended for Use in Automotive Air Brake Systems and U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 571.

Automotive Tube Fittings

This SAE Standard covers complete general and dimensional specifications for the various types of tube fittings intended for general application in the automotive, appliance, and allied fields. See SAE J1131 for the performance requirements of reusable (push to connect) fittings intended for use in automotive air brake systems. Flare type fittings shall be as specified in Figures 1 to 4 and Tables 3 to 5. NOTE—For sizes 3/16 to 3/8 and 1/2 to 3/4 the flare type fittings depicted in Figures 1A to 3C are identical with the corresponding refrigeration tube fittings specified in SAE J513. Special size combination fittings 3/16 to 3/8 and 1/2 to 3/4 shall be as specified in SAE J513. Inverted flared type fittings shall be as specified in Figures 5 to 11 and Tables 3, 6, 7, 8, and 9. Gages and gaging procedures pertaining to inverted flared tube fittings are given in Appendix A.
Training / Education

Design for Additive Manufacturing Towards End-Part Production

Additive manufacturing (AM), with origins in the 1980s, has only more recently emerged as a manufacturing process of choice for functional part production, adding to the suite of choices a designer has available when designing a part for manufacturing. Like other traditional processes like casting and machining, AM has its set of constraints. An added layer of complexity comes from the fact that there are several different AM processes, and some of the design constraints are process-specific.
Technical Paper

Data Acquisition and Failure Simulation of Metal Bumper for Heavy Commercial Vehicle

This abstract work describes a method of data acquisition and validation procedure followed for a metal bumper used in commercial vehicle application. Covariance is considered as major phenomenon for repeatable measurements in proving ground data acquisition and it is to be maintained less than 0.05. In this project covariance of data acquisition is analyzed before physical simulation of acquired data. In addition to that, multiple testing conditions like uni-axial and bi-axial testing were carried out to attain the failure. PG data is used for bi-axial vibration test and conventional constant spectrum signal (CSD signal) is used for uni-axial vibration test. Target duration for uni-axial test (Z direction) was arrived using pseudo damage calculation. Strain gauges were installed in failure locations to compare PG data and rig data as well as to calculate strain life. Failures were simulated in bi-axial vibration test.
Journal Article

Heat Loss Analysis of a Steel Piston and a YSZ Coated Piston in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Phosphor Thermometry Measurements

Diesel engine manufacturers strive towards further efficiency improvements. Thus, reducing in-cylinder heat losses is becoming increasingly important. Understanding how location, thermal insulation, and engine operating conditions affect the heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls is fundamental for the future reduction of in-cylinder heat losses. This study investigates the effect of a 1mm-thick plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating on a piston. Such a coated piston and a similar steel piston are compared to each other based on experimental data for the heat release, the heat transfer rate to the oil in the piston cooling gallery, the local instantaneous surface temperature, and the local instantaneous surface heat flux. The surface temperature was measured for different crank angle positions using phosphor thermometry.
Technical Paper

Deconstruction of UN38.3 into a Process Flowchart

This paper will discuss a compliance demonstration methodology for UN38.3, an international regulation which includes a series of tests that, when successfully met, ensure that lithium metal and lithium ion batteries can be safely transported. Many battery safety regulations, such as FMVSS and ECE, include post-crash criteria that are clearly defined. UN38.3 is unique in that the severity of the tests drove changes to battery design and function. Another unique aspect of UN38.3 is that the regulatory language can lead to different interpretations on how to run the tests and apply pass/fail criteria; there is enough ambiguity that the tests could be run very differently yet all meet the actual wording of the regulation. A process was created detailing exactly how to run the tests to improve consistency among test engineers. As part of this exercise, several tools were created which assist in generating a test plan that complies with the UN38.3 regulation.
Journal Article

Cyclic Material Behavior of High-Strength Steels Used in the Fatigue Assessment of Welded Crane Structures with a Special Focus on Transient Material Effects

The cyclic material behavior is investigated, by strain-controlled testing, of 8 mm thick sheet metal specimens and butt joints, manufactured by manual gas metal arc welding (GMAW). The materials used in this investigation are the high-strength structural steels S960QL, S960M and S1100QL. Trilinear strain-life curves and cyclic stress-strain curves have been derived for the base material and the as-welded state of each steel grade. Due to the cyclic softening in combination with a high load level at the initial load cycle, the cyclic stress-strain curve cannot be applied directly for a fatigue assessment of welded structures. Therefore, the transient effects have been analyzed in order to describe the time-variant material behavior in a more detailed manner. This should be the basis for the enhancement of the fatigue life estimation.
Journal Article

Lifetime Assessment of Cylinder Heads for Efficient Heavy Duty Engines Part I: A Discussion on Thermomechanical and High-Cycle Fatigue as Well as Thermophysical Properties of Lamellar Graphite Cast Iron GJL250 and Vermicular Graphite Cast Iron GJV450

Cast iron materials are used as materials for cylinder heads for heavy duty internal combustion engines. These components must withstand severe cyclic mechanical and thermal loads throughout their service life. While high-cycle fatigue (HCF) is dominant for the material in the water jacket region, the combination of thermal transients with mechanical load cycles results in thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) of the material in the fire deck region, even including superimposed TMF and HCF loads. Increasing the efficiency of the engines directly leads to increasing combustion pressure and temperature and, thus, lower safety margins for the currently used cast iron materials or alternatively the need for superior cast iron materials. In this paper (Part I), the TMF properties of the lamellar graphite cast iron GJL250 and the vermicular graphite cast iron GJV450 are characterized in uniaxial tests and a mechanism-based model for TMF life prediction is developed for both materials.
Journal Article

Lifetime Assessment of Cylinder Heads for Efficient Heavy Duty Engines Part II: Component-Level Application of Advanced Models for Thermomechanical Fatigue Life Prediction of Lamellar Graphite Cast Iron GJL250 and Vermicular Graphite Cast Iron GJV450 Cylinder Heads

A complete thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) life prediction methodology is developed for predicting the TMF life of cast iron cylinder heads for efficient heavy duty internal combustion engines. The methodology uses transient temperature fields as thermal loads for the non-linear structural finite-element analysis (FEA). To obtain reliable stress and strain histories in the FEA for cast iron materials, a time and temperature dependent plasticity model which accounts for viscous effects, non-linear kinematic hardening and tension-compression asymmetry is required. For this purpose a unified elasto-viscoplastic Chaboche model coupled with damage is developed and implemented as a user material model (USERMAT) in the general purpose FEA program ANSYS. In addition, the mechanism-based DTMF model for TMF life prediction developed in Part I of the paper is extended to three-dimensional stress states under transient non-proportional loading conditions.

Off-Road Tire Replacement Guidelines

This SAE information report covers the basic guidelines concerning off-road tire conditions that warrant replacement, removal, or repair. This material can assist the tire user in establishing specific written procedures for each job site.

Flares for Tubing

This SAE Standard covers specifications and performance requirements for 37° and 45° single and double flares for tube ends intended for use with SAE J512, SAE J513, SAE J514, and ISO 8434-2 connectors. The flares described in this document are intended for use with SAE metallic tube materials. Considerations such as the effects of wall thickness selection for specific working pressures, identifying appropriate length of thread engagements for specific applications with mating connectors and other associated criteria, shall be the responsibility of the user. For applicable nominal reference working pressures for hydraulic tubing, see SAE J1065 and ISO 10763.
Technical Paper

Weight Optimisation of Dumper Body Structure Conserving Stiffness, Buckling and Dent Performance

The entire commercial vehicle industry is moving towards weight reduction to leverage on the latest materials available to benefit in payload & fuel efficiency. General practice of weight reduction using high strength steel with reduced thickness in reference to Roark’s formula does not consider the stiffness & dent performance. While this helps to meet the targeted weight reduction keeping the stress levels within the acceptable limit, but with a penalty on stiffness & dent performance. The parameters of stiffener like thickness, section & pitching are very important while considering the Stiffness, bucking & dent performance of a dumper body. The Finite Element Model of subject dumper body has been studied in general particularly on impact of dent performance and is correlated with road load data to provide unique solution to the product. The impact of payload during loading of dumper is the major load case.