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Technical Paper

A Bus for Denver’s Mall

1981-11-01
811280
A unique shuttle bus is being constructed by Minicars, Inc., and Walter Vetter Karosserie-werk for Denver’s Transitway/Mall. The bus is designed for frequent stop, low speed service in a downtown pedestrian environment. It features a very low floor and multiple wide doors for rapid passenger boarding and deboarding. Two versions will be supplied for comparative evalation, a low noise diesel configuration and a battery-electric configuration. Either version can subsequently be converted to the alternative propulsion system.
Technical Paper

A Building Block Approach for Understanding Four Wheel Drive Systems: Past-Present-Future

1995-11-01
952643
This paper describes a building block approach for understanding the past, present and future four wheel drive systems. The emphasis will be on light trucks and sport utility vehicles. It will describe the advantages of four wheel drive and how it improves performance and safety. The building block approach is a tool for categorizing the basic systems in the market. Systems are separated into main component areas and are rated for the effect they have on the overall performance and safety. This paper can be used as a means for understanding a very complex 4x4 market.
Technical Paper

A Braking Force Distribution Strategy in Integrated Braking System Based on Wear Control and Hitch Force Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-0827
A braking force distribution strategy in integrated braking system composed of the main braking system and the auxiliary braking system based on braking pad wear control and hitch force control under non-emergency braking condition is proposed based on the Electronically Controlled Braking System (EBS) to reduce the difference in braking pad wear between different axles and to decrease hitch force between tractors and trailers. The proposed strategy distributes the braking force based on the desired braking intensity, the degree of the braking pad wear and the limits of certain braking regulations to solve the coupling problems between braking safety, economical efficiency of braking and the comfort of drivers. Computer co-simulations of the proposed strategy are performed.
Technical Paper

A Band Variable-Inertia Flywheel Integrated-Urban Transit Bus Performance

1990-10-01
902280
By means of computer simulation, the potential of a Band Variable-Inertia Flywheel (BVIF) as an energy storage device for a diesel engine city bus is evaluated. Replacing both a fixed-inertia flywheel (FIF) and a continuously variable transmission (CVT), the BVIF is capable of accelerating a vehicle from rest to a nearly-constant speed, while recovering part of the kinetic energy normally dissipated through braking of the vehicle. The results are compared with that of conventionally-powered bus. A fuel saving of up to 30 percent is shown with the BVIF-integrated system. The regenerative braking system reduces brake wear by a factor of five in comparison with the conventional vehicle.
Technical Paper

A 900 Ton Crawler Crane with 12’ × 12’ Main Boom Cross Section Disassembles for Truck Transport on the Interstate

1987-09-01
871666
The LTL-900 Transi-Lift crane features front and rear crawler-mounted load platforms connected with a hoist-supporting five foot diameter pipe section. The pin-together main boom is available in lengths up to 400 feet and completely disassembles for ease of transport to and from the jobsite. The crane requires three operators and can hoist, boom, swing and travel simultaneously with maximum loads. Upending, moving and setting large refinery vessels is facilitated by the mobility of the crawler-supported crane on unprepared surfaces. Up to 1000 tons of 36 ton concrete beams or equivalent are required as counterweight to develop the ANSI B30.5 approved capacities.
Technical Paper

A 3-Dimensional Application of SAE Standards for Driver's Eye Range and the Interior Environment Section of the Field of View Standard

1990-10-01
902232
A 3-dimensional procedure has been developed to apply the Driver's Eye Range standard and the interior environment section of the Field of View standards. The procedure uses line-of-sight as a more accurate method of locating and creating the information required. This method produces a truer representation of what is seen and allows for expansion into other obstructions. The procedure can be enhanced with computer macros to shorten the time required to produce these studies.
Technical Paper

A 2D Model for Tractor Tire-Soil Interaction: Evaluation of the Maximum Traction Force and Comparison with Experimental Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0191
The paper investigates the interaction between soil and tractor tires through a 2D numerical model. The tire is schematized as a rigid ring presenting a series of rigid tread bars on the external circumference. The outer profile of the tire is divided into a series of elements, each one able to exchange a normal and a tangential contact force with the ground. A 2D soil model was developed to compute the forces at the ground-tire interface: the normal force is determined on the basis of the compression of the soil generated by the sinking of the tire. The soil is modeled through a layer of springs characterized by two different stiffness for the loading (lower stiffness) and unloading (higher stiffness) condition. This scheme allows to introduce a memory effect on the soil which results stiffer and keeps a residual sinking after the passage of the tire. The normal contact force determines the maximum value of tangential force provided before the soil fails.
Technical Paper

A 2000 Ton Crawler/Transporter for Operation in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

1986-09-01
861205
Recently designed and fabricated in Kennewick, Washington, a pair of 2000 ton capacity crawler/transporters has been used in moving refinery modules to permanent installations on Alaska's North Slope. Vehicle design features include four corner chain-driven, track driving sprockets (tumblers), resilient track roller suspensions, elevating load platform (hereinafter “bolsters”), dynamic braking, diesel/torque converter power, automatic lubrication and electro-pneumatic controls. Four independent power units provide 14 00 horse-power per crawler and over two million pounds of drawbar pull at converter stall. Weighing 300 tons, the pin-connected crawler dissembles for highway transport into loads of under 95,000 pounds.
Book

9th AVL International Commercial Powertrain Conference (2017)

2017-05-21
Organized in cooperation with SAE International, AVL’s International Commercial Powertrain Conference- ICPC, happens every two years. It is the premier forum for truck, agricultural and construction equipment manufacturers to discuss powertrain technology challenges and solutions across their industries. This event offers a unique opportunity for engineers to address the synergy effects and distinctive characteristics of commercial vehicles, agricultural tractors and non-road vehicles, and industrial machinery. In 2017, the 9th ICPC focused on alternative powertrain technologies and innovations improving operating efficiency. These proceedings focus on: • Future challenges for engines and emissions • Smart Technologies Changing Farming • Cyber Physical Systems in Agriculture Business • OEM View of the Future of the Construction Machinery Industry • Powertrain Developments • CO2 Reduction • CVT Transmission Platform Technology • Autonomous and Connected Trucks
Technical Paper

9000T Series John Deere Track Tractors

2000-09-11
2000-01-2634
The 9000T track-type agricultural tractors mark John Deere's entry into the high-horsepower, track tractor market. The 360-HP 9300T and the 425-HP 9400T tractors were designed with input from customers to meet customers' needs. Through customer input, on-farm research, and common sense, these tractors have been designed to work light in the spring, heavy in the fall, handle steep hillsides, turn under load and pull like a locomotive. Incorporating many of the already-market-dominating features of the 9000 wheel tractors plus innovative track vehicle features such as the wide stance, long wheel base, controllability, power, and versatility, these machines are truly amazing.
Technical Paper

9000 Series 4WD Tractors

1997-09-08
972794
The 70 Series 4WD tractors offered by John Deere has been replaced by a new 9000 product line as part of the continuous improvement process to meet customer needs and provide a product with maximum value to our customers. The new model lineup is 260, 310, 360, and 425 engine HP. All models are powered by John Deere engines with the largest 3 models using the new 10.5L and 12.5L engines. The new line of 9000 Series tractors is a styled tractor family which uses many of the 8000 Series Row Crop tractor concepts and designs. This new product line provides improved operator comfort, enhanced operator conveniences, and simplified serviceability.
Technical Paper

8×8 Platform for Studing Terrain Mobility and Traction Performance of Unmanned Articulated Ground Vehicles with Steered Wheels

2013-09-24
2013-01-2356
Two characteristics of terrain mobility are essential in designing an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV): (i) the ability of a vehicle to move through terrain of a given trafficability and (ii) the obstacle performance, i.e., the ability to avoid, interact with and overcome obstacles encountered on a preset route of a vehicle. More attention has been given to the vehicle geometry including selection of the angles of approach and departure, radii of longitudinal and lateral terrain mobility, and the steering system configuration. An essential effect is exhibited by the tire properties in their interaction with the support surface; this, in turn, affects traction properties of the wheel and, thus, vehicle terrain mobility. However, the influence of power distribution between the driving wheels together with vehicle steering system on the two above-listed characteristics of terrain mobility has not been considered in depth.
Book

8th AVL International Commercial Powertrain Conference (2015)

2015-05-21
Organized in cooperation with SAE International, AVL’s International Commercial Powertrain Conference- ICPC, happens every two years. This event offers a unique opportunity for engineers to address the synergy effects and distinctive characteristics of commercial vehicles, agricultural tractors and non-road vehicles, and industrial machinery. In 2015, the 8th ICPC focused on alternative powertrain technologies and innovations improving operating efficiency. These proceedings include 17 papers focusing on the following topics: • Emissions reduction for heavy-duty vehicles • Alternative drivetrains • Autonomous driving • Connected driving • Efficiency • Alternative fuels • Product diversity • Challenges of cost vs. complexity
Book

6th AVL International Commercial Powertrain Conference Proceedings (2011)

2011-05-25
The AVL International Commercial Powertrain Conference is the premier forum for truck, agricultural and construction equipment manufacturers to discuss powertrain technology challenges and solutions across their industries. The topics of the conference, which happens every two years, cover all five elements of a modern powertrain: engine, transmission, electric motor, battery and the electronic control which are used basically the same way in the quest for optimal efficiency and environmental compatibility. This event offers a unique opportunity for highly regarded professionals to address the synergy effects and distinctive characteristics of commercial vehicles, agricultural tractors and non-road vehicles, and industrial machinery. These proceedings are being co-published with SAE International, via a strategic partnership.
Journal Article

6-Axis Measuring Wheels for Trucks or Heavy Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-0816
The measurement of the contact forces between road and tires is of fundamental importance while designing road vehicles. In this paper, the design and the employment of measuring wheels for trucks and heavy vehicles is presented. The measuring wheels have been optimized in order to obtain high stiffness and the approximately the same mass of the wheels normally employed. The proposed multicomponent measuring wheels are high- accuracy instruments for measuring the dynamic loads during handling and durability testing. The measuring wheels can replace the wheels of the truck under normal operation. Such family of wheels plays a major role in modern road vehicles development. The measuring wheel concept design is based on a patented three-spoke structure connected to the wheel rim. The spokes are instrumented by means of strain gauges and the measuring wheel is able to measure the three forces and the three moments acting at the interface between the tire and the road.
Technical Paper

50 Years of Agricultural Tractor Development

1966-02-01
660584
The story of Power Farming is the great saga of our times. It is a story of free enterprise, perseverance and endurance of the individual, of vision, idealism and cooperation among men, of the lightening of human toil and the release of millions of workers from farms to feed the ever hungry industrial revolution. By no means least, it is the story of producing food necessary to win two global wars, keep our allies alive and millions of the defeated enemy from starvation. FOREWARD By 1915, the Steam Traction Engine had attained its highest development. It was the forerunner, rather than the predecessor, of the farm tractor. The former was the instrument of expansion; the latter, the instrument of progress. The invention of the tractor, following by only sixteen years Otto's practical embodiment application of the Beau de Rochas power cycle to a heat engine, marked the advent of a new order - - the age of Power Farming.
Technical Paper

4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle Modeling and Simulation of Special Conditions

2011-09-13
2011-01-2158
This paper introduces the characteristics of the 4 wheel independent driving/4 wheel independent steering (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicle (EV). Models of Subsystems and the vehicle are constructed based on Matlab/simulink. The vehicle model allows the inputs of different drive torques and steer angles of four wheels. The dynamic characteristics of drive motors and steer motors are considered, and also it can reflect the vehicle longitudinal dynamics change due to the increase of the mass and inertia of the four wheels. Besides, drive mode selection function that is unique to this type vehicle is involved. Simulations and analyses of crab, oblique driving and zero radius turning which are the special conditions of 4WID/4WIS EV are conducted. The results show that the model can reflect the dynamic response characteristics. The model can be used to the simulation analyses of handling, stability, energy saving and control strategies verification of 4WID/4WIS EVs.
Technical Paper

4994 Tractor Hydraulic System

1984-09-01
841100
J I Case Company has produced four-wheel-drive agricultural tractors since 1964. In 1984 however, the flagship of the Case fleet changed hands. Rising labor costs and larger farming operations spearheaded the need for a more efficient larger tractor. January 1984 marked the introduction of the largest four-wheel-drive tractor in the history of Case, the 4994, a 400-gross engine horsepower tractor, Figure 1. Sheer horsepower alone however, would not meet the requirements of today's farming operations. Case Engineering realized that tomorrows tractors must have sufficient power to handle the wide variety of attachments available. They also realized that along with the unmatched power must come precise control of the attachment. These advancements in farming have required improvements to the tractor hydraulic system. This paper describes the hydraulic system of the 4994, Case's new flagship.
Technical Paper

4 x 4 Highway Tractor Concepts

1972-02-01
720901
Two new 4 X 4 drivetrain systems have been developed for highway tractors that are used to pull multiple trailer combinations. The first one is a 4 X 2 that automatically becomes a 4 X 4 when conditions exist that require 4 X 4 operation. The second one is a full-time 4 X 4 that proportions the drive torque 36% to the front axle and 64% to the rear axle. A unique front driving steering axle has also been developed that permits a 4 X 4 system to be installed in a standard 4 X 2 truck. There is no need to relocate any major components to make space available for a front driving steering axle.
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