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Technical Paper

OIL-PUMPING

1922-01-01
220039
Oil-pumping is defined and its results are mentioned. The influence of various operating conditions is brought out, particular reference being made to passenger-car service. The factors that control the rate of oil consumption are described in detail and some unusual conditions are reported. Various features of piston grooving and piston-ring design are mentioned and the effect of changes illustrated. The relative advantages of the splash and the force-feed systems as affecting the development of oil-pumping troubles are set forth and improvements suggested. A new device for reducing oil-pumping dilution troubles is described and illustrated.
Technical Paper

AUTOMOTIVE BRAKE AND CLUTCH PRACTICE HERE AND ABROAD

1922-01-01
220045
The author describes the major features of brake and clutch practice that he observed in 1920 while traveling in England, Belgium, Italy and France, comparing them briefly with American practice of the same period. He analyzes the types of brake and clutch used on 165 cars exhibited at the London automobile show of that year, giving the percentage of the different types in evidence. Numerous illustrations that are described and commented upon in greater or less detail appear in the paper and in the discussion which followed it, these being inclusive of most of the best-known types of brake and clutch in use in the United States and in Europe.
Technical Paper

OIL CONSUMPTION

1922-01-01
220038
The object of the paper is to consider some of the fundamental factors that affect oil consumption; it does not dwell upon the differences between lubricating systems. Beyond the fact that different oils apparently affect the oil consumption and that there is a definite relation between viscosity and oil consumption, the effect of the physical characteristics, or the quality of the oil, does not receive particular attention. The methods of testing are described and the subject is divided into (a) the controlling influence of the pistons, rings and cylinders; (b) the controlling influence of the source from which the oil is delivered to the cylinder wall.
Technical Paper

ADVANTAGES OF LIGHT-WEIGHT RECIPROCATING PARTS

1922-01-01
220044
After pointing out that the general question of weight reduction is no exception to the fallacies that seem to have beset the development of the automobile from its earliest days, the author outlines briefly the problem confronting the automobile designer. The influence of the weight of the reciprocating parts on the chassis in general and the engine in particular is emphasized as being of greater importance than the actual saving in the weight of the parts themselves, it being brought out that the bearing loading due to inertia is really the factor that limits the maximum engine speed. Reference is made to the mathematical investigation by Lanchester in 1907 of the advantages of using materials of high specific-strength and the conclusions arrived at are quoted in full. A tabulation of the specific strengths of various materials used in automotive engineering practice is presented as showing the advantages of aluminum as compared with steel.
Technical Paper

ALUMINUM PISTONS

1922-01-01
220042
The lightness and high thermal conductivity of aluminum pistons are conceded and the paper deals principally with their thermal properties, inclusive of the actual operating temperature of the pistons, the temperature distributions in the piston and the effects of the cooling-water temperature and the piston material on the piston temperature. The apparatus is illustrated and described, and charts are presented and commented upon in connection with a discussion of the results obtained. Theories affecting piston design are presented and discussed, reference being made to diagrams relating to design procedure: The work is supplementary to that done in 1921 by the authors, which they presented in a similar paper to which they refer.
Technical Paper

SOME REQUIREMENTS FOR THE RAIL MOTOR-CAR

1922-01-01
220052
The rail motor-cars now used by the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad are illustrated and commented upon, and statistical data regarding their operation are presented. The features mentioned include engine type and size, transmission system, gear-ratio, double end-control, engine cooling, heating by utilizing exhaust gases and exclusion of exhaust-gas fumes from the car interior. A table gives revenue data.
Technical Paper

A SUGGESTED RULE FOR RATING RACING CARS

1921-01-01
210003
In recent years automobile engines for racing purposes have been very generally rated in accordance with their piston displacement. The natural result has been to encourage the highest possible engine speeds to attain the greatest possible piston displacement per minute. Features of engine design that have been developed under this rule include enormous valve areas, usually obtained by a multiplicity of valves, huge inlet pipes and carbureters, extreme valve-timing and very light reciprocating parts, all of which are undesirable in commercial engines. To encourage the design of engines of a type developing higher efficiency at lower engine speeds, the suggestion is made that a rule be formulated under which cars will be rated in accordance with the piston displacement per mile actually used by them. Such a rule would involve rear-wheel diameter and gear-ratio, as well as the piston displacement of the engine.
Technical Paper

HIGH-SPEED ENGINES OF SMALL PISTON DISPLACEMENT

1921-01-01
210039
In addition to using a smaller quantity of fuel per horsepower-hour, the small high-speed internal-combustion engine has other important features of advantage which are stated. The authors outline specifications intended to secure these advantages. The high-speed racing engine designed by the authors, which won the 500-mile race on the Indianapolis Speedway in 1920, is illustrated and described in detail, its distinctive features being commented upon. The automobile should be built to a higher standard for the use of the high-speed engine. The builder should work to a greater degree of precision and, as the working parts of the engine are all light and stressed fairly highly, this necessitates the use of properly heat-treated high-grade materials. Few small cars of this type seem to give satisfaction. The authors look for further developments to counteract this in the near future.
Technical Paper

CYLINDER ACTIONS IN GAS AND GASOLINE ENGINES

1921-01-01
210043
The distinguished author begins with a short account of the principal actions common to all internal-combustion engines and then proceeds to a more detailed account of the experiments that have been made to develop the theory and establish the properties of the flame working fluid of those engines. The divisions of the paper are headed (a) short statement of cylinder actions, (b) the air standard, (c) flame, the actual working fluid, (d) knocking, pinking and detonating, (e) air and exhaust supercompression, (f) residual turbulence, (g) gaseous explosions, (h) flame propagation and recompression, (i) the specific heat of flame, and (j) conclusions. After treating (a) in considerable detail, the author discusses present efficiencies and knowledge in regard to the limits of the thermal efficiency possible in internal-combustion engines under (b), (c), (d) and (e), going into considerable detail and presenting and analyzing numerous diagrams and charts.
Technical Paper

TURBULENCE

1921-01-01
210044
This paper is a collection of notes gathered from investigation of the subject in the literature on the development of internal-combustion engines and memoranda set down during a long series of tests. The paper includes a discussion of the physical and chemical aspects of the subject and sets forth a working theory that has proved of value. Several methods of measuring turbulence are stated. After outlining the history of the subject and giving references, the effect of turbulence on flame propagation is discussed at length and illustrated by diagrams. Two methods of producing turbulence are then copiously illustrated and described, inclusive of seven diagrams showing characteristic turbulence in typical cylinders. Following the description of the methods of measuring turbulence, the effects of turbulence in performance are summarized under 10 specific divisions.
Technical Paper

FLAME

1921-01-01
210045
Stating that the knowledge now available does not permit an exact scientific definition of flame and giving the reasons, in this paper the author regards flames as gases rendered temporarily visible by reason of chemical action, discusses their physical rather than their chemical aspects and, unless otherwise indicated, refers to the flames of common gasoline and kerosene only. To gain a reasonably clear understanding of the requirements and characteristics of the different kinds of flame, it is necessary to begin with a study of atoms and molecules. The author therefore discusses the present atomic theory, the shape of the atom and molecular structure, and follows this with a lengthy detailed description of the beginning of combustion. The requirements and characteristics of the inoffensive variety of combustion are considered next and nine specific remedies are given for use in accomplishing the burning of heavy fuels with a blue flame in present engines.
Technical Paper

ELEMENTS OF AUTOMOBILE FUEL ECONOMY

1921-01-01
210048
The paper analyzes and states the factors affecting the power requirements of cars as rubber-tired vehicles of transportation over roads and the factors affecting the amount of power supplied the car as fuel to produce at the road the power required for transportation. Quantitative values are given wherever possible to indicate the present knowledge of the relation between the factors involved, and the text is interspersed with numerous references, tables, charts and diagrams. Among other important factors specifically discussed are mixing and vaporization, charge quantity control, the heat of combustion, gas-pressure, transformation loss and power transmission efficiency. Six appendices contributed by other associates of the Bureau of Standards are included.
Technical Paper

PRACTICE AND THEORY IN CLUTCH DESIGN

1921-01-01
210052
The objects of this paper are to (a) set down in convenient form for reference purposes particulars concerning American and British practice in clutch design, (b) compare the advantages and disadvantages of various types of clutch and (c) give some notes on the theory of design without attempting comprehensive treatment of the numerous factors involved. The descriptive portion deals almost entirely with clutches used on passenger cars and trucks, but some of the clutches described are applicable to other automotive uses. The notes on the theory of design apply in general to all automotive clutches. The clutches considered are divided into the four general classes of cone, single-plate, multiple-disc and shoe-or-band types, these being discussed at length and illustrated with drawings. After a consideration of the details of their design and a brief presentation of the subject of clutch brakes, the notes on the theory of clutch design are presented.
Technical Paper

MANIFOLD DEVELOPMENT ELIMINATES CRANKCASE DILUTION

1921-01-01
210046
About 1917 the heavy ends of the fuel sold as gasoline required such an amount of heat to vaporize them that the expression “crankcase dilution” appeared; now they have increased to a maximum boiling-point of 446 deg. fahr., which has made it necessary to go still farther in the direction of heat application. After a brief consideration of the relative heat-absorption of air and fuel and the time factor in its relation to vaporizing, the author describes experiments with a specially designed manifold for increased vaporization efficiency and presents photographs of the device. With this type of manifold it has been possible to eliminate crankcase oil dilution completely and effect a reduction in carbonization. The lubrication efficiency has been improved, as well as other features that are enumerated.
Technical Paper

IMPORTANT FACTORS IN PISTON-RING DESIGN

1921-01-01
210050
The purpose of piston rings in an internal-combustion engine is to reduce to a minimum the leakage of gas from and the seepage of oil into the combustion-chamber. Asserting that the widely held idea that the leakage of gas past the piston can be eliminated by the use of good piston-rings is incorrect, the author states three possible paths for such gas-leakage and, after commenting upon them, discusses diagonal and lap joints and the subject of leakage with special reference to them. After considering the design of rings for gas-tightness, the author shows a fortunate mathematical relationship, in connection with the application of uniform radial pressures, regarding the bending-moment stresses. Oil leakage is treated in a similar manner and the conclusion is reached that the properties of the material used are of extreme importance.
Technical Paper

EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN AUTOMOBILE PRACTICE COMPARED

1921-01-01
210054
The paper surveys the differences between American and European conditions in the automotive industry and then considers briefly the reasons for them. The governing conditions are stated and their effects are traced. The subjects discussed include motorcycles and small cars, road conditions, car idiosyncracies, selling conditions in Europe, and a comparison of design in general. The differences of practice are stated and commented upon. Six specific points are emphasized in the summary. The author states that the outlook for American cars the world over is seemingly good. In recent American designs, equal compression - volumes are often assured by machining the heads; six-cylinder crankshafts have seven bearings and are finished all over in the circular grinding machine; pressure lubrication is used for all moving parts of the engine; and in all ways the highest practice is aimed at. America is trying to improve the quality without increasing the cost.
Technical Paper

THE METALLURGIST AND THE TRACTOR

1921-01-01
210055
The author considers first the materials available for construction, in connection with the S.A.E. standard specifications, and presents a comparison of the different metals with comments thereon. In regard to metallurgical problems the designer's first task is to determine what the various stresses in the parts are and their magnitude; hence, a true appreciation of the terms “shock” and “fatigue” is necessary; a somewhat lengthy explanation of their meaning is given. The construction features of the different parts of the tractor are treated in general, no attempt being made to cover details; comments are presented on front axles, wheels, bearings, cylinders, valves, valve-seats, transmissions and gears. Heat-treating is then considered in some detail, three specific reasons for annealing before machining being given and five which are governing factors in regard to heat-treatment in general.
Technical Paper

NEBRASKA TRACTOR TESTS

1921-01-01
210033
Before taking up the results of the tests, the author states briefly the provisions of the Nebraska tractor law, the kind of tests conducted and the equipment used. Applications covering 103 different tractors were received during the season; of the 68 that appeared for test, 39 went through without making any changes and 29 made changes. The results of the tests are described and illustrated by charts. The fuel consumption was studied from the three different angles of volumetric displacement, engine speed and the diameter of the cylinders, the tractors being classified accordingly and the results presented in charts which are analyzed. The weaknesses of the tractor as shown by the tests are commented upon at some length with a view to improvement of the product.
Technical Paper

THE CONSEQUENTIAL ADVANTAGES OF WEIGHT REDUCTION

1921-01-01
210036
Stating that it is conceded by engineers that weight reduction is desirable economically but that it is not unusual to find that weight reduction is looked upon as incompatible with reliability and road-holding properties, the author outlines briefly the normal weight-distribution in an automotive vehicle and gives a short analysis of the power required to drive it having in mind the necessity of reducing the absolute friction-loss. The use of aluminum for various parts is debated, especially those in which reliability is distinctly a function of lightness and not of weight such as engine pistons, and the application is made general to cover all parts of an automobile in which the stresses are determined by road shocks and speed. The trend of design in general and recent research in particular are stated to be along the lines of weight reduction without any sacrifice of essentials.
Technical Paper

AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST GASES AND VEHICULAR-TUNNEL VENTILATION

1921-01-01
210006
The data given in this paper were obtained from an investigation by the Bureau of Mines in cooperation with the New York and New Jersey State Bridge and Tunnel Commissioners to determine the average amount and composition of the exhaust gases from motor vehicles under operating conditions similar to those that will prevail in the Hudson River Vehicular Tunnel. A comprehensive set of road tests upon 101 motor vehicles including representative types of passenger cars and trucks was conducted, covering both winter and summer operating conditions. The cars tested were taken at random from those offered by private individuals, corporations and automobile dealers, and the tests were made without any change in carbureter or other adjustments. The results can therefore be taken as representative of motor vehicles as they are actually being operated on the streets at the various speeds and on grades that will prevail in the tunnel.
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