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Technical Paper

RELATION OF TIRES TO TRUCK EFFICIENCY

1920-01-01
200033
The discussion is largely in regard to the ability of a truck to deliver merchandise economically under a given set of external conditions. The matter of truck tire equipment is reviewed in the light of recent experiences of many operators and service men. The general functions of tires, securing traction, cushioning the mechanism and the load and protecting the road, are elaborated and six primary and seven secondary reasons given for the use of pneumatic tires on trucks within the debatable field of 1½ to 3½-ton capacity. The deciding factors in tire choice, those affecting time and those affecting cost, are stated and commented upon, the discussion next being focused on how tires affect these factors. Considerations relating to both truck and tire repairs are then reviewed.
Technical Paper

TRACTOR TESTING FROM THE USER'S STANDPOINT

1920-01-01
200028
To test tractors for results valuable to the user, the reliability, durability, power, economy and utility should be determined. Standard tests measuring tractor utility and reliability are impossible practically and durability tests would be an extensive project, but tractor and engine-power tests and tests of the amount of fuel required for doing a unit of work can easily be made. The University of Nebraska tests described were for belt and drawbar horsepower and miscellaneous testing for special cases. The four brake-horsepower tests adopted are stated. Tractor operating conditions are then reviewed. The drawbar horsepower tests include a 10-hr. test at the rated load of the tractor, with the governor set as in the first brake-horsepower test, and a series of short runs with the load increased for each until the engine is overloaded or the drive wheel slips excessively, to determine the maximum engine horsepower.
Technical Paper

DESIGN OF PNEUMATIC-TIRED TRUCKS

1920-01-01
200031
After stressing the importance of transportation, the possible uses of the motor truck are considered. The increased cushioning and traction obtained from pneumatic truck tires accomplish faster transportation, economy of operation, less depreciation of fragile load, easier riding, less depreciation of roads and lighter-weight trucks. These six advantages are then discussed separately and various data to substantiate the claims made are presented. Following detailed consideration of transportation and operation economies, and depreciation of loads and roads, the practicability of pneumatic tires is elaborated, and wheels, rims and tire-accessory questions are studied. The four main factors bearing upon truck design for pneumatic tires are stated and discussed; emergency equipment for tire repair is outlined and a new six-wheel pneumatic-tired truck is described.
Technical Paper

ARTILLERY MOTORIZATION

1920-01-01
200029
Motorization, as developed during the war, is stated as the greatest single advance in military engineering since the fourteenth century. Excepting about 66 per cent of the 77-mm. guns in the combat division, all mobile weapons of the United States artillery are motorized and complete motorization has been approved. The history of artillery motorization is sketched and a tabulation given of the general mechanical development in artillery motor equipment to May, 1919. Caterpillar vehicle characteristics are next considered in detail, followed by ten specifically stated problems of design which are then discussed. Five primary factors affecting quantity production, successful construction and effective design, in applying the caterpillar tractor to military purposes, are then stated and commented upon. A table shows specifications of engines used by the Ordnance Department and three general specifications for replacing present engine equipment are made.
Technical Paper

FLYING AN AIRPLANE ENGINE ON THE GROUND

1920-01-01
200027
The very complete laboratory tests of airplane engines at ground level were of little aid in predicting performance with the reduced air pressures and temperatures met in flight. On the other hand, it was well-nigh impossible in a flight test to carry sufficient apparatus to measure the engine performance with anything like the desired completeness. The need clearly was to bring altitude conditions to the laboratory where adequate experimental apparatus was available and, to make this possible, the altitude chamber of the dynamometer laboratory at the Bureau of Standards was constructed. The two general classes of engine testing are to determine how good an engine is and how it can be improved, the latter including research and development work.
Technical Paper

THE HEAT-TREATING OF BRAZED FITTINGS FOR AIRCRAFT

1920-01-01
200022
A tendency exists in most shops to assume that brazed joints cannot be successfully heat-treated. As a consequence, many fittings used in aircraft work and assembled by brazing smaller parts together are finished and installed without being heat-treated after the brazing operation. This practice causes parts to be used that not only do not develop the available strength of the material, but which are in some cases, under internal stress due to the heating in the brazing operation. Recent experiments made at the Naval Aircraft Factory show that the assumption mentioned is entirely erroneous. The author considers this matter with a view to specifying the use of steels and brazing spelters which will permit the subsequent or perhaps the simultaneous heat-treatment of the parts.
Technical Paper

TRACTOR PLOWING SPEEDS

1920-01-01
200018
Among the problems before the designers of plowing tractors, none is more important than that of ascertaining the most economical plowing speed at which to operate a tractor to give first-class work at a minimum cost. The solution must be right from both the maunfacturer's and the farmer's standpoints. A variety of soil resistances, different speeds, widths and depth of cut, types and shapes of plows must be considered. The recently published draft data of Professor Davidson of Iowa State College and those of the Kansas State Agricultural College are used. They indicate in general that in each kind of soil, whether heavy or light, with speed increase there is a corresponding increase of draft, the amount of which is dependent upon the speed, shape of plow and nature of soil. The further experiments made relative to increased speed and draft and to the area plowed at different speeds are described and discussed, the results being shown by charts.
Technical Paper

COMPOSITE FUELS

1920-01-01
200012
The progressive decrease in the volatility of gasoline due to the insufficiency of the high-volatility supply has developed a problem of efficient utilization of internal-combustion-engine fuel that requires coordination between the engine and its fuel and a technical as well as economic adjustment between supply and demand. The three channels through which this adjustment tends toward accomplishment are stated and commented upon, consideration then passing to the three main resources from which the components of composite fuels can be drawn.
Technical Paper

THE MEASUREMENT OF VEHICLE VIBRATIONS

1920-01-01
200009
The five fundamental criteria of the performance of a motor vehicle as a whole are stated. Riding comfort is investigated at length with a view to determining methods of measurement of the two classes of vehicle vibrations that affect the riding qualities of a car, so that suitable springs can be designed to overcome them. The underlying principles of the seismograph are utilized in designing a specialized form of this instrument for measuring vehicle vibrations, the general design considerations are stated and a detailed description is given. This is followed by an explanation of the methods used in analyzing the curves obtained, thus making possible a standardized measurement of riding comfort. The factors determining riding comfort are then analyzed in connection with spring-development work, the most important are summarized and the preliminary experimental results of those directly determined by the seismograph are outlined.
Technical Paper

AUTOMOBILE BODY DESIGN

1920-01-01
200003
The author first considers the style and arrangement of the seats, the position of the rear axle as affecting the rear kick-up in the chassis frame, and the position of the rear wheels as determining the distance from the back of the front seat to a point where the curve of the rear fender cuts across the top edge of the chassis frame. The location of the driver's seat and of the steering-wheel are next considered, the discussion then passing to the requirements that affect the height of the body, the width of the rear seat, and the general shape. The evolution of the windshield is reviewed and present practice stated. Structural changes are then considered in relation to the artistic requirements, as regards the various effects obtained by varying the size or location of such details as windows, doors, moldings, panels, pillars, belt lines, etc., and the general lines necessary to produce an effect in keeping with the character of the car.
Technical Paper

SPRINGS AND SPRING SUSPENSIONS

1920-01-01
200004
The chief factors affecting the riding quality of a motor vehicle are spring deflection, or amplitude; periodicity, or the number of vibrations per second; and the proportion of the sprung to the unsprung weight. Other factors are the wheelbase, the tread, the height of the center of gravity of the car and the effect of the front springs on the rear ones. The three main factors are considered at some length, various experiments being described and illustrated by diagrams. Spring inertia and the fundamentals of periodicity are then investigated, by experiments and mathematical analyses, in considerable detail.
Technical Paper

BETTERING THE EFFICIENCY OF EXISTING ENGINES

1920-01-01
200005
First reviewing the history of the progressive insufficiency of the supply of highly volatile internal-combustion engine fuels and the early efforts made to overcome this by applying heat to produce rapid vaporization, the author gives an outline of the methods already found valuable in offsetting the rising boiling points of engine fuels and states the resulting three-fold problem now confronting the automotive industry. The tendency to subordinate efficient vaporization to the attainment of maximum volumetric efficiency is criticised at some length and the volatility of fuel is discussed in detail, with reference to characteristic distillation, time of evaporation and distillation-temperature curves which are analyzed. Heating devices are then divided into four classes and described, consideration then being given to fuel losses outside the engine.
Technical Paper

TRACTOR WHEELS

1920-01-01
200081
Three distinct types of wheel equipment are best able to meet conditions in the field; the pyramid lug, the spade lug and the angle-iron cleat. The author mentions the merits of each type of lug, discusses slippage and states that no one kind of wheel equipment can be recommended as a universal type.
Technical Paper

TRACTOR WEIGHT AND DRAWBAR PULL

1920-01-01
200080
The best weight for a tractor of given horsepower must be a compromise based upon a mean of the many conditions to be encountered by a given machine or by different machines of the same model. While the weight logically will bear some relation to the drawbar pull, the latter in turn depends upon tractor speed. The next item is weight distribution, which requires the utmost skill of the designer; this is elaborated and diagrams are shown of tractors operating in comparatively firm and in soft ground, ascending a grade and when the drive-wheels are mired. The four-wheel-drive tractor requires a modification of the foregoing analysis and the diagrams are applied to afford a similar analysis for this type. The author's conclusion is that, while careful engineering will make the light-weight tractor of conventional type stable under most conditions, there is a possibility that any future trend toward lighter machines will open the field to other types.
Technical Paper

TORSIONAL VIBRATION AND CRITICAL SPEED IN CRANKSHAFTS

1920-01-01
200070
It has long been recognized that, in automotive engines, particularly those of six or more cylinders, excessive vibration is apt to occur despite all precautions taken in balancing; and that this is because the engine impulses coincide at certain speeds with the torsional period of the crankshaft, or rate at which it naturally twists and untwists about some point or points as nodes. Very serious vibration occurred in the main engines for the United States submarines S 4 to S 9, which are required to complete five specified non-stop shop tests and an investigation was made of which the author reports the findings in detail, illustrated with photographs and charts.
Technical Paper

A STUDY OF ROAD IMPACT AND SPRING AND TIRE DEFLECTION

1920-01-01
200073
The purpose of the tests described was to subject various models of truck to shocks far in excess of anything likely to be encountered in actual service, to study the effect of different spring and tire equipment on impact and the effect of unsprung weight upon road impact, as well as the effect of varying speed on these impacts. A series of “jumping tests” for motor trucks was conducted and a new system of motion pictures, capable of being afterward slowed down for analysis, was used to record the results. Trucks were run at speeds of from 15 to 18 m.p.h. along a straightaway course and over a sharp incline. The trucks sprang into the air and struck the ground as from a vertical drop of several feet. The apparatus and the five trucks used are described fully, the data obtained and the method of computing results are presented, and the analysis and conclusions which follow are sufficiently detailed to afford much constructive information on this subject.
Technical Paper

PISTON-RINGS

1920-01-01
200075
The free, resilient, self-expanding, one-piece piston-ring is a product of strictly modern times. It belongs to the internal-combustion engine principally, although it is applicable to steam engines, air-compressors and pumps. Its present high state of perfection has been made possible only by the first-class material now available and the use of machine tools of precision. The author outlines the history of the gradual evolution of the modern piston-ring from the former piston-packing, giving illustrations, shows and comments upon the early types of steam pistons and then discusses piston-ring design. Piston-ring friction, the difficulties of producing rings that fit the cylinder perfectly and the shape of rings necessary to obtain approximately uniform radial pressure against the cylinder wall are considered at some length and illustrated by diagrams.
Technical Paper

SINGLE-DISC METAL WHEELS

1920-01-01
200065
Although disc wheels have not been produced in such great quantities as some of the other types, they have advanced far enough in practical application to demonstrate their possibilities and fundamental correctness. Distinction should be made between the wheel itself, the single-taper dished disc and other features such as tire, rim and hub applications. Single-taper dished-disc wheels were developed in France and in this country at about the same time but, on account of the variation in European and American tire practice, the resultant wheels took different forms. The author describes these forms and comments upon them, the argument being favorable to the single-taper disc, and the statement is made that, given the data as to the service expected, the weight and power of the car, the single-disc wheel will compare favorably with any other type, since, when properly designed, the strains are diffused over the entire surface.
Technical Paper

PNEUMATIC-TIRE AND MOTOR-TRUCK DEVELOPMENT EXPERIENCES

1920-01-01
200066
These experiences relate to the Akron-Boston motor-truck express, established in April, 1917, the Wingfoot Highway Express between Akron and Cleveland which began active operations in January, 1919, and the Goodyear Heights motor omnibuses for passenger service in Akron inaugurated in December, 1917. The preliminary difficulties are reviewed and a mass of specific data regarding construction, operation, maintenance and costs is presented in textual and tabular form, the latter including a summary of pneumatic-tire accomplishment, comparative truck efficiency, an operating summary for six months, the operating cost and efficiency of two 3½-ton twin trucks running on pneumatic and on solid tires respectively, and an operative summary of the Goodyear Heights buses.
Technical Paper

WIRE WHEELS

1920-01-01
200067
The early wheels merely rolled, carried weight and resisted side strains; later they were called upon to transmit braking forces and still later the driving force. Prior to the automobile, wire wheels were not called upon to support much weight and the usual type was that used for bicycles. When automobiles were first built, bicycle-type wire-wheels were employed and used until the demand for larger wheels presented unsurmountable obstacles. From that time a development was in progress in this country and in England that resulted in the triple-spoke wire-wheel which has grown in popularity since 1912. The different types of wheels are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of wire wheels stated; three diagrams are shown. As the wire wheel is a “suspension” wheel, the car weight is hung or “cradled” from scores of resilient, flexible spokes, and the pull is always on three-quarters of the spokes.
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