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Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations to Extend the Load Range of Premixed Charge Compression Ignited Light Duty Diesel Engine through Fuel Modifications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0953
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) is one of the most promising low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies to achieve near zero oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions along with higher thermal efficiency. One of the major problems in diesel PCCI is a narrow operating load range because of very early ignition and knocking combustion at higher loads owing to higher reactivity of diesel fuel. Further, low volatile diesel resist vaporization, resulting in fuel spray wall wetting and higher unburned emissions in PCCI. Thus, high reactivity and low volatility of diesel fuel make it not suitable for PCCI combustion. The present work attempts to address these limitations, by blending diesel with high volatile and low reactive fuels, viz. gasoline and butanol at 10% and 20% blend levels by volume.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Non-Bypass Exhaust Heat Recovery System Using Highly Heat-Conductive SiC Honeycomb

2019-04-02
2019-01-0153
An exhaust heat recovery (EHR) system is an effective and attractive means of improving fuel economy and in-vehicle comfort, especially of hybrid cars in winter. However, many conventional bypass systems, which have a bypass pipe and bypass valve with a thermal actuator, are still large and heavy, and it is necessary not only to effectively improve the heat recovery but also to minimize the size and weight of EHR systems. Sakuma et al. reported new-concept heat exchangers and EHR systems using a highly heat-conductive SiC honeycomb, including a non-bypass system. However, since this non-bypass system always recovers heat from the exhaust gas, its heat recovery performance was set so as not to exceed the cooling capability of the radiator at a high engine load to prevent overheating of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Single Bubble Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer in Engine Cooling System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0147
In the pursuit of extracting the most performance, engines are being continuously down sized and their power density continuously increased. This significantly increases the heat load on the engine for which the traditional cooling systems may not be sufficient. In the view of this fact; it is worth to explore controlled nucleate boiling to optimize engine cooling system designs. In order to utilize nucleate boiling in cooling systems, a detailed understanding of single bubble dynamics and its associated heat transfer is essential. In this work, a contact line evaporation model is developed which is then coupled to a conjugate surface to understand the individual contribution of micro layer and other sub processes towards overall heat transfer mechanism. The models use volume of fluid (VOF) interface capturing method and incorporates physics like contact line evaporation, transient conduction and bubble growth.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Acoustic Surface Power on a Cooling Fan Using the Mesh Morpher Optimizer

2019-04-02
2019-01-0833
A cooling fan is an essential device of the engine cooling system which is used to remove the heat generated inside the engine from the system. An essential element for successful fan designs is to evaluate the pressure over the fan blade since it can generate annoying noices, which have a negative impact on the fan’s performance and on the environment. Reducing the acoustic surface power will assist in building improved designs that comply with standards and regulations in achieving a more quiet environment. The usage of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), with support of mesh morphing, can provide simulation study for optimizing the shape of a fan blade to reduce the aeroacoustic effects. The investigation process will assist in examining and analyzing the acoustic performance of the prototype, impact of different parameters, and make a solid judgement about the model performance for improvement and optimization.
Technical Paper

The Emission of a Diesel Engine in Different Coolant Temperature during Cold Start at High Altitude

2019-04-02
2019-01-0730
Emissions of diesel engine have been received much more attention since the Volkswagen Emission Scandal. The Euro VI emission standard has already included cold start emissions in the legislative emission driving cycles which is one of the hardest part of emission control. High altitude performance is also considered in the latest regulations which will be stricter in the future. Heating the coolant is one of the most common method to improve the cold start performance. But researches focus on the emission of a diesel engine in different coolant temperature at high altitude which up to 4500m have not been seen. The present research investigated the effect of coolant temperature on performance and exhaust emissions (gaseous and particulate emissions) during the cold start of a diesel engine. A plateau simulation system controlled the inlet and exhaust pressure to create altitude environments from 0m to 4500m, and the coolant temperature was controlled from 20°C to 60°C.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Impact of Production Lubricant Composition and Fuel Dilution on Stochastic Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged, Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0256
The occurrence of abnormal combustion events leading to high peak pressures and severe knock can be considered to be one of the main challenges for modern turbocharged, direct-injected gasoline engines. These abnormal combustion events have been referred to as Stochastic Pre-Ignition (SPI) or Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI). The events are characterized by an undesired, early start of combustion of the cylinder charge which occurs before or in parallel to the intended flame kernel development from the spark plug. Early SPI events can subsequently lead to violent auto-ignitions that are often referred to as Mega- or Super-Knock. These heavy knock events lead to strong pressure oscillations which can destroy production engines within a few occurrences. SPI occurs mainly at low engine speed and high engine load, thus limiting the engine operating area that is in particular important to achieve good drivability in downsized engines.
Technical Paper

Development of Engine Test Method to Discriminate Engine Oils and Additives in Terms of Motoring Torque

2019-04-02
2019-01-0589
Improvement in fuel economy and reduction in emissions are the two major driving forces in the advancement of automotive engine technologies, fuel quality, lubricants, and aftertreatment devices. Engine design, operating conditions such as speed and load, and engine oil behavior have a significant influence on engine friction and then the vehicle fuel economy. There is no standard short duration engine test available to evaluate engine oil’s friction. This study developed a test protocol to discriminate friction reduction efficacy of engine oils/additives to support in the development of engine oils. The engine test facility was modified to conduct the motoring test over the speed range of 1000 - 4500 rpm and at 50 - 100 °C coolant and oil temperatures. Different viscosity grades and additive chemistry i.e. combination of friction modifiers & viscosity modifiers was evaluated over the motored torque test.
Technical Paper

Time-Accurate CFD Analysis of Liquid Cold Plates for Efficient Thermal Performance of Electric Vehicle Li-Ion Battery Modules

2019-04-02
2019-01-0500
An efficient Thermal Management System (TMS) is crucial for superior performance of an automotive Li-ion Battery Module (BM). Liquid-Cooled TMS, consisting of a coolant flow through a cold plate, offers higher rate of heat transfer compared to passive or forced-air cooled TMS, thus allowing cells to charge/discharge at aggressive rates and higher ambient temperatures while maintaining the cell temperatures within an optimal range. In the current study, we investigate the effect of a variety of cold plate channel sizes and configurations on the overall thermal performance of a liquid-cooled BM using three-dimensional, time-accurate CFD simulations with variable heat load from cylindrical 21700 Li-ion cells. Specifically, we consider 8 different cold plate designs by varying the size and the flow path of the coolant channels. For all the cold plate designs, we evaluate the average and maximum cell temperatures, and heat transfer rate at a module discharge rate of 1C.
Technical Paper

Fuel Efficiency Technology Impact on Radiator Thermal Durability

2019-04-02
2019-01-0498
With the increasing stringency of emission regulations, auto makers are now improving vehicle fuel efficiency via all kinds of technologies, such as hybrid systems, turbocharged or supercharged engines, engine auto start/stop, active grille shutters, etc. By implementing a variety of technologies, the engine cooling module’s working environment and work load has changed. This paper will mainly focus on the impact to the thermal durability of the engine cooling module’s main radiator from active grille shutter and electric thermostat implementation. A 2017MY hybrid vehicle using the above technology is evaluated by a wind tunnel test at a variety of ambient temperatures and driving conditions. First, such technologies’ control logic is studied by the wind tunnel test, so that the evaluation condition for evaluating the radiator’s thermal stress can be properly chosen to represent the actual field usage.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management of a Hybrid Vehicle Using a Heat Pump

2019-04-02
2019-01-0502
This paper presents the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle (HV) using a heat pump system in cold weather. One advantage of an HV is the high efficiency of the vehicle system provided by the coupling and optimal control of an electric motor and an engine. However, in a conventional HV, fuel economy degradation is observed in cold weather because delivering heat to the passenger cabin using the engine results in a reduced efficiency of the vehicle system. In this study, a heat pump, combined with an engine, was used for thermal management to decrease fuel economy degradation. The heat pump is equipped with an electrically driven compressor that pumps ambient heat into a water-cooled condenser. The heat generated by the engine and the heat pump is delivered to the engine and the passenger cabin because the engine needs to warm up quickly to reduce emissions and the cabin needs heat to provide thermal comfort.
Technical Paper

DC Link Capacitor Active Discharge by IGBT Weak Short Circuit

2019-04-02
2019-01-0606
DC link active discharge is mandatory in new energy vehicles. This paper first analyzes the necessity of active discharge in automotive inverters and then introduces the commonly used discharge methods. After reviewing the pros and cons of the current methods, a new discharge solution using IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) modules WSC (Weak Short Circuit) is proposed. The essence of WSC is to make one of the shooting through IGBTs (two IGBTS forms a half bridge topology) entering into active work area by controlling its gate voltage VGE, where the short current is controlled in safe range and IGBT VCE voltage is relative large. Hence, large transient power is produced inside IGBT in this condition. By this method, the DC link capacitor energy will be consumed by the weak turned on IGBT gradually. Since the IGBT module has a dedicated cooling loop, the heat generated during discharging process can be transferred into coolant.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cold Start Mode Fuel Economy Simulation Model Making Methodology

2019-04-02
2019-01-0898
The air pollution and global warming has become a major problem to the society. To counter this worldwide emission norms have become more stringent in recent times and shall continue to get further stringent in the next decade. From OEMs perspective with increased complexity, it has become a necessity to use simulation methods along with model based systems approach to deal with system level complexities and reduce model development time and cost to deal with the various regulatory requirements and customer needs. The simulation models must have good correlation with the actual test results and at the same time should be less complex, fast, and integrable with other vehicle function modelling. As the vehicle fuel economy is declared in cold start condition, the fuel economy simulation model of vehicle in cold start condition is required. The present paper describes a methodology to simulate the cold start fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Thin Ceiling Circulator to Enhance Thermal Comfort and Cabin Space

2019-04-02
2019-01-0913
In hot climate regions, there is demand for improved thermal comfort for rear occupants in vehicles not equipped with a rear air conditioner. One solution to this challenge is a circulator mounted on the ceiling. The circulator is a product designed to enhance thermal comfort for occupants by circulating the air in the cabin. The conventional circulator design, which employs a cross flow fan with a large cross section, juts into the cabin space, because it is difficult to package. Consequently, the challenge for the circulator is to provide thermal comfort for rear occupants while taking up the minimum cabin space under the ceiling. To solve this challenge, that is, to enable a substantially thinner structure, while retaining the same level of air flow delivered as before for the same thermal comfort as the conventional circulator, we divided the structure into an air outlet and an air blower.
Technical Paper

Features of Modeling Thermal Development Processes of the Vehicle Engine Based on Phase-Transitional Thermal Accumulators

2019-04-02
2019-01-0906
The utilization of different types of energy in phase-transitional thermal accumulators and its further use for thermal development of different subsystems of hybrid vehicles enables to significantly increase their operational efficiency. The system of the combined utilization of thermal and electrical energy in phase-transitional thermal accumulators (TA) is offered. To charge TA, it uses thermal energy of exhaust gas, a coolant and motor oil of the internal combustion engine and electrical energy which is utilized by energy recovery system when braking the vehicle. It consists of consecutive stages of heat accumulation when charging TA from different energy sources of the hybrid vehicle, its storage and use for rapid heating of vehicle separate subsystems. The main heat and power characteristics of system components and heat accumulating materials used in phase-transitional TA have been justified.
Technical Paper

Cooling Fan Selection in Power Car Application Using CFD and FEA Analysis

2019-04-02
2019-01-0900
This paper describes the methodology used to select an application-based fan that has optimum operating characteristics in terms of cooling air flow rate, fan power, and noise. The selected fan is then evaluated for structural strength. To evaluate different fans, complete rail coach under-hood simulations were carried out using steady-state 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. These simulations considered an actual, highly non-uniform flow field. For each fan option, fan power, air flow rate, and surface acoustic power was evaluated. Pressure profiles on the fan blades were studied to assess the effect of non-uniform downstream air passage designs. Surface acoustic power was calculated using broadband noise source (BNS) model in ANSYS Fluent®. Surface pressure profiles over fan blades imported from 3D CFD were used in finite element analysis (FEA) in ANSYS. Analyses were carried out for blade linear and non-linear properties.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Electric Motor Cooling System for Hybrid Vehicles - Model and Test

2019-04-02
2019-01-1076
Enhanced electric motor performance in transportation vehicles can improve system reliability and durability over rigorous operating cycles. The design of innovative heat rejection strategies in electric motors can minimize cooling power consumption and associated noise generation while offering configuration flexibility. This study investigates an innovative electric motor cooling strategy through bench top thermal testing on an emulated electric motor. The system design includes passive (e.g., heat pipes) cooling as the primary heat rejection pathway with supplemental conventional cooling using a variable speed coolant pump and radiator fan(s). The integrated thermal structure, “cradle”, transfers heat from the motor shell towards an end plate for heat dissipation to the ambient surroundings or transmission to an external thermal bus to remote heat exchanger.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Engine Aftertreatment System Cooling for Hybrid Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0989
Exhaust aftertreatment systems are essential components in modern powertrains, needed to reach the low legislated levels of NOx and soot emissions. A well designed diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment system can have NOx conversion rates above 95%. However, to achieve high conversion the aftertreatment system must be warm. Because of this, large parts of the total NOx emissions come from cold starts where the engine has been turned off long enough for the aftertreatment system to cool down and loose its capacity to reduce NOx. It is therefore important to understand how the aftertreatment cools down when the engine in turned off. Experimental data for a catalyst cool-down process is presented and analyzed. The analysis shows that it is important to capture the spatial distribution of temperatures both in axial and radial directions. The data and analysis are used to design a catalyst thermal model that can be used for model based catalyst temperature monitoring and control.
Technical Paper

Methodology Development for Coolant Boiling Prediction in EGR Coolers

2019-04-02
2019-01-1197
Coolant boiling detection is a key issue to ensure Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) coolers performance and durability. Accurate boiling detection and prediction tools are thus increasingly demanded to support EGR coolers design in a context of raising requirements, mainly driven by the stringent regulations and the recent application of this technology to gasoline engines. In this scenario, a numerical tool for the detection and quantification of coolant boiling in EGR coolers has been developed. It is based on Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations and its results have been successfully validated against experimental data obtained on a test bench fully instrumented for boiling analysis. As for the predictive tool, a mathematical model describing the EGR cooler performance, including conjugate heat transfer and sub-cooled boiling, has been developed. Then a numerical methodology to solve this model has been implemented using OpenFOAM® (open source CFD toolbox).
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effect of Vehicle Platooning on the Optimal Control of a Heavy Duty Engine Thermal System

2019-04-02
2019-01-1259
One promising method for reducing fuel consumption and emissions, particularly in heavy duty trucks, is platooning. As the distance between vehicles decreases, the following vehicles will experience less aerodynamic drag on the front of the vehicle. However, reducing the velocity of the air contacting the front of the vehicle could have adverse effects on the temperature of the engine. To compensate for this effect, the energy consumption of the engine cooling system might increase, ultimately limiting the overall improvements obtained with platooning. Understanding the coupling between drag reduction and engine cooling load requirement is key for successfully implementing platooning strategies. Additionally, in a Connected and Automated Vehicle (CAV) environment, where information of the future engine load becomes available, the operation of the cooling system can be optimized in order to achieve the maximum fuel consumption reduction.
Technical Paper

Research on Constant Speed Control Strategy of Water Medium Retarders for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-1304
Hydraulic retarders are extensively used in heavy-duty vehicles because of their advantages, such as their large braking torque and long continuous operating hours. They can reduce the vehicle velocity by converting the kinetic energy of a traveling vehicle to the thermal energy of the working fluid. The water medium retarder is a new type of hydraulic retarder with the characteristics of high power density and simple structure. It uses the engine's coolant as the working medium, and the heat is directly taken away by the vehicle cooling system. Therefore, the heavy-duty vehicle can achieve long-term continuous braking during the downhill process. One of the main functions of water medium retarder is driving downhill at a constant speed which determines whether the vehicle drives stably and safely. Therefore, studying the constant-speed control strategy during downhill driving is particularly important.
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