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Technical Paper

Exploration of Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Sisal Fiber Reinforced Cashew Nut Shell Liquid and Epoxy Polymer Matrix Composite as an Alternative Friction Material in Automobiles

2019-10-11
2019-28-0173
The brake pad is one of the foremost imperative parts of the vehicle. Due to the environmental requirement, natural materials were the alternate source for products manufacturing. The product composite made by using hot press techniques with mixing ingredients such as natural fiber (treated sisal), cashew nut filler, graphite and alumina with resin (cashew nut shell liquid - CNSL and epoxy). Two formulas and four samples of each set were composed by varying the resin type of CNSL and epoxy and prepared the test samples with attaining better hardness. The main intern of this proposed effort is to appraise the wear in dry sliding and performance of friction of the prepared composites. The composites are taken for tribo test by varying the load of 10,20,30,40 N and sliding distance of 1000, 2000 m respectively. Experiments were performed at stated process parametric conditions to record the responses.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Tribological Performance of Lubricating Oils with Zinc Dialkyl Dithiophosphate and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Additives

2019-10-11
2019-28-0174
The present work compares the tribological properties of ZnO (Zinc Oxide) nanoparticle based lubricant with ZDDP (zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate) based lubricant. The nanolubricant was prepared by mixing the nanoparticles in base oil followed by ultrasonification and ZDDP based lubricant was prepared by mixing ZDDP and stirring with base oil. Base oil used was mineral base oil. Both the lubricants were tested at three different temperatures, loads and roughness values. The test was carried out on AISI 52100 steel samples prepared by wire cutting and were grinded to three different levels of surface roughness. Friction and wear tests were performed using a reciprocating sliding tribo-tester at three different loads and temperatures. Taguchi orthogonal array was used to reduce the number of experiments. SEM, EDS and AFM analysis were carried out to study the surface wear phenomenon.
Technical Paper

Effects of Dual Biodiesel on a LHR-DI Diesel Engine Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics

2019-10-11
2019-28-0176
Importance of this investigation is 100% biodiesel make use as fuel for low heat rejection diesel engine. Due to this reason bio-fuels namely, eucalyptus oil along with paradise oil be selected and utilized as dual fuel. Conventional engine hardware parts were coated with lanthana-doped yttria-stabilized zirconia (the doping of YSZ coatings with small amount of La2O3) with a thickness of 300 μm, so as to analyses the operating parameters of paradise oil-eucalyptus oil blends. Tests run were replicated on the conventional diesel engine and outcomes were compared. Test outcomes confirmed that the major intention of this research was attained as engine operating parameters like, brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature were increase with decrease of fuel consumption. In addition, engine emissions of HC, CO and smoke were reduced with exception of NOx for LHR diesel engine than conventional engine.
Technical Paper

Corrosion and Corrosive Wear of Steel for Automotive Exhaust Application

2019-10-11
2019-28-0178
In the current scenario, durable exhaust system design, development and manufacturing are mandatory for the vehicle to be competitive and challenging in the automotive market. Material selection for the exhaust system plays a major role due to the increased warranty requirements and regulatory compliances. The materials used in the automotive exhaust application are cast iron, stainless steel, mild steel. The materials of the exhaust systems should be heat resistant, wear and corrosion resistant. Stainless steel is the most commonly used material in the automotive exhaust system. Due to increasing cost of nickel and some other alloying elements, there is a need to replace the stainless steel with EN 8 steel. Recent trends are towards light weight concepts, cost reduction and better performance. In order to reduce the cost and to achieve better wear and corrosion resistance, the surface of the EN 8 steel is modified with coatings.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Combined Effect of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Coated Combustion Chamber Components and Emulsification Approach on the Behaviour of a Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled with Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters

2019-10-11
2019-28-0164
Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) is generated in large quantity worldwide due to the increase in population and change of food habits. This work is about utilizing this WCO as an alternative fuel for Compression Ignition (CI) engine, in view of addressing the constraints in the domain of land as well as air pollution. A fuel and engine level modification were carried out to analyse the behaviour of the test engine. In the first phase of the study, collected WCO was converted into its methyl esters (i.e. WCOME) and tested for its properties. A single cylinder, water cooled, direct injection, compression ignition engine was developed with suitable emission and combustion parameters computing equipments in the second phase of the work. In the third phase of the work, the developed engine was tested with neat diesel, WCO and WCOME under different engine power outputs. WCOME was converted into its emulsion (WCOMEE) and tested in the developed engine in the fourth phase of the work.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Turning Characteristics of TiC/MoS2 Nanoparticles Reinforced Al7075 Using TiN Coated Cutting Tool

2019-10-11
2019-28-0165
In recent years, aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMC) are found as a potential material for numerous applications owing to its excellent tribological and mechanical properties. In this work, the machining characteristics of aluminum alloy (Al7075) reinforced with TiC/MoS2 having nanoparticle has been studied. The samples of aluminum metal matrix composites by varying TiC in 0, 2 and 4 and MoS2 in 0 and 2 of the percentage weight of aluminum alloy (Composite 1(Al7075), Composite 2 (Al7075/2TiC/2MoS2) and composite 3 (Al7075/4TiC/2MoS2), respectively) are fabricated by the stir-casing method. The turning characteristics of the developed metal matrix composites are studied at various parameters such as cutting velocity (30 m/min, 60 m/min and 90 m/min), cutting depth (0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm) and composites (1, 2 and 3) using TiN coated cutting tool by dry turning at 0.05 mm/rev feed rate.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Aluminium-Flyash Composite for Connecting Rod

2019-10-11
2019-28-0166
In this modern era of rapid growth of technology and need of economical machining processes and materials, there is an increasing demand for new materials for different mechanical applications. Composites with fly ash as reinforcement are likely to overcome the cost barrier for wide spread applications in automotive and small engine applications. To improve wettability, elements such as Mg and Si are added into Al melt to incorporate the ceramic particles. The chemical composition and engineering properties of fly ash, its physical and chemical properties make it an ideal raw material for producing various application based composites. The main objective is to fabricate an Aluminium- Flyash composite material suitable for parts like engine connecting rod which demand high strength and temperature sustainability at comparatively less weight. The composite will be made using casting process and Engine connecting rod will be designed in AutoCAD software.
Technical Paper

Fabrication and Machinability Study of Al2219 Metal Matrix Composites Reinforced with SiN/MoS2 Nanoparticles

2019-10-11
2019-28-0170
Composites materials are substituting constituents for traditional materials due to their remarkable properties, and the addition of nanoparticles gives a new development in the material domain. The nanoparticles influence on fabrication and machinability investigation study is essential as the composites to be used in applications like automotive and aerospace. The current study investigates the machinability characteristics of Al2219 based metal composites reinforced with nanoparticles of SiN/MoS2. Al2219- reinforcements (SiN and MoS2) composites are fabricated by the method of stir casting. Four different compositions (Al2219/SiN (2 wt% and 4 wt%), , Al2219/2 wt.% SiN/ 2 wt.% MoS2, Al2219/2 wt.% MoS2) are fabricated by varying the different weight percentages of nanoparticles reinforcements. An attempt is made to study the investigation analysis of force, surface roughness, and tool wear using CNC machine lathe to consider the effect of cutting speed, cutting depth, and samples.
Technical Paper

Design, Development and Analysis of Mullite Catalytic Converter for CI Engines

2019-10-11
2019-28-0017
Emissions of Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) are the largest concerns for fossil fuel driven automotive vehicles. Catalytic converter is an important component in the selective catalytic reduction process. It oxidizes harmful CO and HC emission to CO2 and H2O in the exhaust system and thus the emission is controlled. Different kinds of problems are associated with noble metal based catalytic converter. A catalytic converter with a new catalyst for compression ignition engine is considered in this study. The catalytic converter is designed and developed with a new catalyst. Due to better durable characteristics and poison resistant nature, non-noble metal based material limestone (mullite) is selected as a catalyst for catalytic convertor and the emission characteristics are studied on four stroke single cylinder CI engine by using mullite based catalytic converter. The results are compared without catalytic converter in the same engine.
Technical Paper

Emission and Noise Optimization of CRDe Engine with Pilot Injection Strategies

2019-10-11
2019-28-0019
The combustion strategies play a key role in emission improvisation and noise reduction on diesel engines equipped for higher emission norus. This paper clearly discussed on the selection of various operating points for optimization and employing of proper calibration strategies like pilot strategy, Main injection timing, EGR type and rail pressure variation for best emission and noise output. Various optimization techniques have been implemented in our study. Since the pilot injection quantity as well as timing are varied in our paper, careful matrix formulation is required to determine the best optimum point. Around 340 points were obtained on varying pilot quantity and pilot separation sweep chosen at single engine speed and load for both the pilots. Out of the above points, 5 sensitive points were selected ensuring the sensitivity of the emissions and noise.
Technical Paper

Optimization of In-Cylinder Flow and Swirl Generation Analysis for a Naturally Aspirated Diesel Genset Engine for Emission Reduction through Intake Port Design

2019-10-11
2019-28-0024
Engine in-cylinder flow structure governs the combustion process and directly influences emission formation and fuel consumption at the source. In naturally aspirated DI diesel engine, combustion process coupled with low pressure mechanical fuel injection systems set different requirements for inlet port performance. In-cylinder swirl needs to be optimized for efficient combustion to meet emission levels and fuel consumption targets. Thus, intake port design optimization process becomes a vital requirement. In the present paper intake port design optimization is carried out for single cylinder naturally aspirated engine using mechanical fuel injection systems. The objective is to investigate in-cylinder flow field developed by intake port designs, study the effects of geometrical details of various port cross sections on flow velocity and pressure fields and establish a relationship with intake port performance parameters i.e. swirl and flow coefficient.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Prediction of the Pressure Drop Reduction of Catalytic Converter under Various Mass Flow Rate of Exhaust Gas for a Naturally Aspirated Diesel Engine

2019-10-11
2019-28-0030
Nowadays, Diesel emission control strategies are stringent across the globe which caused the rise in need of diesel after treat treatment devices that are more reliable and efficient. The optimized design of the catalytic converter aids in the durability of the product as well as the improvement in efficient operation of the Indian driving cycle. By changing the convergent and divergent cone angles of the catalytic converter, the consequential decrease in pressure drop leads to efficient flow of exhaust gases. The purpose of this study is to design, test, and analyse the catalytic converter in order to reduce the pressure drop in the exhaust system of a naturally aspirated diesel engine using both experimental and CFD techniques. In this study, a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Catalytic Converter is investigated. For numerical analysis, ANSYS Fluent is used.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Intake Ports for 2-Valve & 4-Valve Configurations for Heavy Duty Off-Highway Diesel Engine

2019-10-11
2019-28-0042
Future emission limits for off-highway application engines need advanced power train solutions to meet stringent emissions legislation, whilst meeting customer requirements and minimizing engineering costs. Development of diesel engines for off-highway application for different power segments need different intake port design solutions to optimise in-cylinder flow structure for efficient combustion. With adaptation of low pressure mechanical fuel injection system, intake port development becomes an important stage for reduction of emission formation at the source and improvement in fuel economy. In this paper, intake port design and development process is elaborated for two different power ratings of 75 hp and 120 hp of off-highway engine. 2-valve and 4-valve configurations are deployed for the same cylinder bore size.
Technical Paper

Impact of Waste Plastic Oil and Its Blends on Performance Combustion and Emission Characteristics of CRDI Engine

2019-10-11
2019-28-0047
Utilization of diesel is augmented consistently by transportation and industrial sectors which is making its existence obsolete in near future. Tremendous research has been done by many researchers to find an appropriate alternative for diesel fuel, in this scenario abundant acquisition of plastic wastes and their improper retreating techniques has grabbed the attention of researchers to convert them into alternative fuel for IC engines. This experimental investigation aims to study the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of common rail direct injection (CRDI) fuelled with waste plastic oil and diesel blends at different injection strategies and at various loading conditions. From the results it is noticed that slight decline in the thermal efficiency of the engine when operated with waste plastic oil (100%) due to high viscosity and lower heating value. There was a momentous diminishment in NOx emissions for low injection pressures of plastic diesel blend (P30).
Technical Paper

Assessment of Numerical Cold Flow Testing of Gas Turbine Combustor through an Integrated Approach Using Rapid Prototyping and Water Tunnel

2019-10-11
2019-28-0051
In the present work, it is aimed at developing an integrated approach for combustor modeling involving rapid prototyping and water tunnel testing to assess the cold flow numerical simulations; the physical model will be subjected to cold flow visualization and parametric studies and CFD analysis to demonstrate its capability for undergoing rigorous cold flow testing. A straight through annular combustors is chosen for the present study because of it has low pressure drop, less weight and used widely in modern day aviation engines. Numerical Analysis has been performed using ANSYS-FLUENT. Three dimensional RANS equations are solved using k-ɛ model for the Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.64 x 105-1.5 x 105 based on the annulus diameter. Post processing the results is done in terms of jet penetration, formation of recirculation zone, effective mixing, flow split and pressure drop for different cases.
Technical Paper

Multi Characteristics Optimization of Treated Drill Tool in Drilling Operation Key Process Parameter Using TOPSIS and ANOVA Technique

2019-10-11
2019-28-0055
To survive in the present global competitive world, the manufacturing sectors have been making use of various tools to achieve the high quality products at a comparatively cheaper price. Appropriate cutting set up must be used to further better the machinability of a work piece material. A longer life of the tools and equipment’s are important factors in any industry. Since the inception of the machine tool industry, cutting tool life and tool wear remain a subject of deep interest to study its failure and improvement. The present study finds out the optimum cutting results in drilling of AM60 magnesium alloy using different cryogenically treated cutting inserts. The Utility concept coupled with Taguchi with Multi response approach (TOPSIS) was employed. According to Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results, the feed was the major dominating factor followed by the cutting speed.
Technical Paper

A Study on Mechanical Properties and Multi Response Optimization of Process Parameters for Showing Signs of Improvement Product Quality in Drilling AlSi7Cu4 Utilizing GRA in Taguchi Method

2019-10-11
2019-28-0058
Showing and streamlining of cutting parameters are a champion among the most essential components in drilling processes. This examination displays the change of drilling procedures parameters on AlSi7Cu4 made by Gravity Die Casting and with replies in light of OA with Taughi GRA and ANOVA. The effects of alloying parts were bear on the Chemical Composition, microstructures, mechanical property, Hardness, X-Ray and S Das response is particularly analyzed. Motivations on the progression of Drilling parameters using the Taguchi strategy to obtain slightest surface Roughness (Ra), Circularity Error, Burr size and Thrust Force. Different Drilling Trails were coordinated using the L9 OA on CNC Milling machine. The examinations were accomplished on AlSi7Cu4 composite piece cutting tool of an ISO 460.1-1140-034A0-XM GC3 of 12 mm measurement with Tool 140 degrees, used all through the preliminary work under dry cutting conditions.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of AA8011 Reinforced with Zirconium Oxide and Aluminium Oxide Hybrid Composites Processed through Multi-Direction Forging

2019-10-11
2019-28-0057
The Cardinal goal of this research work is to fabricate hybrid composites of AA8011 with reinforcement particles of Zr2O3 and Al2O3 which was taken in equal (5wt%) weight percentage. The hybrid composites were cast in a square shape (50x50x50 mm size) under the optimal stir casted process parametric condition, further, it was taken for the forging process. The prepared specimens were induced for uni-direction (x), bi-direction (x and y) and multi-direction (x,y, and z) forging route and the response of microhardness of 53, 68, 81 and 96 VHN were obtained respectively due to microstructural phase changes with an even distribution of particles in the matrix. Thus, the tribological properties of prepared specimens were tested using pin-on-disc Tribometer at room temperature under dry sliding condition of load 5,10,15,20 N and by adjusting the sliding speed as 266 and 531 rpm respectively.
Technical Paper

Parameter Optimization during Minimum Quantity Lubrication Turning of Inconel 625 Alloy with CUO, Al2O3 and CNT Nanoparticles Dispersed Vegetable-Oil-Based Cutting Fluid

2019-10-11
2019-28-0061
Inconel 625, nickel based alloy, is found in gas turbine blades, seals, rings, shafts, and turbine disks. On the other hand, the manufacturing of this alloy is challenging, mainly when machining processes are used due to excellent mechanical properties. Application of nanofluids in minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) shows gaining importance in the machining process, which is economical and eco-friendly. The principal objective of this investigational work is to study the influence of three types of nanofluids in the MQL turning of Inconel 625 nickel based alloys. The used nanofluids are multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT), alumina (Al2O3) and copper oxide (CUO) dispersed in vegetable oil. Taguchi-based L27 orthogonal array is used for the experimental design. The parameter optimization of design variables over response is carried out by the use of Taguchi-based derringer's desirability function.
Technical Paper

Turning of Inconel 825 with Coated Carbide Tool Applying Vegetable-Based Cutting Fluid Mixed with CuO, Al2O3 and CNT Nanoparticles by MQL

2019-10-11
2019-28-0060
Inconel 825 is nickel (Ni)-iron (Fe)-chromium (Cr) alloy with additions of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), and titanium (Ti). The alloy has excellent resistance to corrosion and is often the most cost-effective alloy in sulphuric acid piping vessels and chemical process equipment. No attempt of applying MQL with three nanofluids was reported conferring to the works accessed. The present study is focused on evaluating the effect of the addition of three nanoparticles (CuO, Al2O3, and CNT) in vegetable oil applied by MQL mode during turning of Inconel 825 with coated carbide tool. Cutting force, surface roughness, and tool wear are evaluated. The results showed that the addition of nCNT substantially improved the machining performance and smaller flank the tool edge, while the adhesion and abrasion are observed as wear mechanism and better results are obtained at 0.5% of nCNT+ vegetable oil to produce the lowest values.
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