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Technical Paper

CONVEYOR EQUIPMENT IN A SMALL PRODUCTION PLANT1

1923-01-01
230052
To install conveyors in a going automobile manufacturing plant of moderate size, without interrupting production, and with a minimum amount of rearrangement of the plant and an investment commensurate with the saving to be effected, was the problem, the solution of which is herein described. The conditions that determined whether power-driven or gravity-actuated conveyors should be used are discussed and the various types required for handling raw stock, for machining operations, for sub-assemblies and for finished assemblies are indicated.
Technical Paper

SPUR-GEAR GRINDING AND TESTING 1

1923-01-01
230050
A grinding-machine for finishing spur-gears is illustrated and described; claims are made that it will grind transmission gears on a production basis after they have been heat-treated and will produce correct tooth-contour, smooth finish and accurate tooth-spacing, these features being necessary in producing gears that are interchangeable and that run quietly. This machine is of the generating type, its action being that of rolling a gear along an imaginary rack and using the grinding wheel as one tooth of the rack. The dished grinding-wheel is reversible, 30 in. in diameter, mounted below the gear, and can be swiveled to the right or left of the center position up to an angle of 25 deg. The work-spindle carries the indexing and the generating mechanisms at the rear, where they are accessible and yet are protected.
Technical Paper

THE PACKARD SINGLE-EIGHT

1923-01-01
230039
Stating the fundamental characteristics of the modern motor-car under the headings of performance, safety, economy, comfort and taste, the authors define these terms and discuss each basic group. The specifications of the car in which the single-eight engine is installed are given, and the reasons governing the decision to use an eight-cylinder-in-line engine are enumerated. Following a somewhat lengthy discussion of the components of engine performance, the design of the engine is given detailed consideration under its divisions of crankshaft design and the methods employed, gas distribution, the operation of the fuelizer, cylinders, valve gear and the arrangement of the accessories. Transmission design and the wearing quality of gears receive similar treatment.
Technical Paper

SINGLE-VALVE ENGINE DESIGN AND OPERATION

1923-01-01
230038
Specification is made of 13 essential factors that the author believes are necessary for attaining better engine performance; he then describes how improved results have been obtained by the use of a single-valve mechanism on an engine having an unusually high compression-ratio and using ordinary gasoline as fuel. The latest type of engine built with the single-valve mechanism is illustrated, and detailed descriptions of its development, design and operation are given, together with comments upon its factors of advantage and data obtained from tests. In designing this single-valve mechanism, the primary object was to solve the problem of positively closing poppet-valves without using springs and thus to produce a type of engine that would operate efficiently at greater speeds than are possible with spring-closed valves. Another object was to reduce the temperature of the exhaust-valve.
Technical Paper

COMPARATIVE MERITS OF STEEL DISC AND WOOD WHEELS

1923-01-01
230045
Disc wheels are the answer to a demand for something better at a more reasonable price. The art of making wood wheels has been established, the machinery has become standardized and further reduction in cost is improbable; whereas the cost of suitable wood is steadily advancing and the trend, consequently, is upward. When the wire wheel was first introduced its use was a mark of distinction and to it can be traced the origin of the sport model, but its price cannot be reduced and it cannot compete, therefore, with the disc wheel on a price basis. The development of the disc wheel brought an equal distinctiveness of design and of pleasing appearance, but its progress has been different. The initial expenditure involved in the production of disc wheels is large; but the output also is large, and, as the volume increases, the prices become lower.
Technical Paper

REAR AXLES FOR TRUCKS

1923-01-01
230043
The five types of final-drive now in use on motor vehicles are stated by the author to be (a) the chain-and-sprocket, (b) the bevel-gear, (c) the worm-gear, (d) the double-reduction and (e) the internal-gear. The advantages of each type as emphasized by its maker are presented and commented upon, and the same procedure is followed with reference to their disadvantages. Following these comparisons of the different drives, which cover about the first third of the paper, the bearing loads and shaft stresses of typical semi-floating and full-floating axles are calculated for the conditions (a) maximum torque plus the normal radial-load on the wheel, (b) the wheel locked and skidding forward when the brakes are applied and (c) the wheel skidding sidewise while the truck is moving. A tabulation of the results obtained from the mathematical calculations is included.
Technical Paper

TAXICAB-BODY CONSTRUCTION1

1923-01-01
230015
The author states briefly the phenomenal growth of taxicab usage and consequent demand for this type of motor vehicle, mentioned the differences in body requirements for taxicabs as compared with those of passenger cars, and describes the methods used to secure durability in taxicab-body construction to discount the severe service to which the body is subjected. Tabular data are presented and comments made regarding the woods that are suitable for body framework, and the methods of joining frame members and reinforcing frame joints are outlined. The desirable types of roof and the factors that influence design are discussed at some length, illustrations being presented also, and minor considerations, such as types of hardware, dash and instrument-boards, are included. A brief summary states present conditions, and a bibliographical list is appended of informative publications relating to the subject.
Technical Paper

INVESTIGATION OF HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK DRIVE-AXLES1

1923-01-01
230017
A record of an investigation of heavy-duty truck-axles carried out by the Bureau of Standards at the request of the motor transport division of the Quartermaster Corps, this paper deals in particular with the mechanical efficiency of the axles tested. The investigation included, in addition to several worm-drive Class-B Army-truck axles with different types of bearing, a number of axles usually designated respectively as “internal-gear” and “multiple-reduction” type. Each of these types was represented by axles in successful use in commercial trucks of 5-ton rating. In analyzing the results of the tests it was found possible to separate the losses into no-load losses and load losses; the total loss being the sum of these two. In general, the no-load losses were primarily controlled by the viscosity and the method of application of the lubricant. They were greater in those axles in which the parts rotating at high speeds were immersed most completely in the lubricant.
Technical Paper

GEAR GRINDING1

1923-01-01
230018
The author discusses only gear-grinding work on gear teeth subsequent to heat-treatment and pays particular attention to automobile transmission gears. He states that as yet very little is being done in the grinding of gear teeth that have not been heat-treated. The salvaging of gears that have been rejected and the finish-grinding of gears that have grinding stock remaining upon the teeth are commented upon, together with remarks on the cost of grinding, the history of gear grinding, the different classes of work performed, gear-grinding machines in general, tooth-form and gear wear. It is stated that gear grinding is commercially a production operation having as its aim the placing of the correct tooth-shape and proper surface-finish on gear teeth so that the gears can move accurately, noiselessly and without wear; and that the cost of finished acceptable transmissions is less than when the process of finish-grinding is used.
Technical Paper

HOW TO USE GEAR-CUTTING HOBS

1923-01-01
230020
Detroit Section Paper - Since a gear is a product of the cutting tool, the gear-cutting machine and the operator, it can be no more accurate than the combined accuracy of these fundamental factors. All gear manufacturers aim to eliminate split bearings, high and low bearings, flats and other inaccuracies in tooth contour, because a gear having teeth the contours of which comply with the geometrical laws underlying its construction is by far the most satisfactory. Illustrations are presented to convey an understanding of the geometrical principles involved, together with other illustrations of testing instruments and comments thereon. The application of these instruments is termed quality control, which is discussed in some detail under the headings of hob control, machine control and gear control.
Technical Paper

ENGINE CHARACTERISTICS UNDER HIGH COMPRESSION

1923-01-01
230007
This Annual Meeting paper is a report of a series of tests conducted during the summer of 1922 by the authors at the Engineering Experiment Station of Purdue University. The work consisted of research into the operation of internal-combustion engines under comparatively high compression on ordinary gasoline without detonation. The compression-ratio of the engine was 6.75 and the compression pressure was 122 lb. per sq. in., gage. The ingoing charge was passed through a hot-spot vaporizer and thence through a cooler between the carbureter and the valves. Jacket-water temperatures between 150 and 170 deg. fahr. were carried at the outlet port of the jacket. The theory held by the authors as to the causes of detonation of the combustible charge is presented briefly. The source of the two phases of detonation encountered in this work is believed to be overheated areas in the combustion-chamber.
Technical Paper

COOLING CAPACITY OF AUTOMOBILE RADIATORS

1923-01-01
230012
Annual Meeting Paper - The heat-dissipating properties of three types of radiator core have been investigated at the Mason Laboratory, Yale University. These include the fin-and-tube, the ribbon and the air-tube groups, so classified according to the flow of the water and the air. The ratio of the cooling surface to the volume is shown to be nearly the same in the fin-and-tube and the air-tube cores, while that of the ribbon core is somewhat greater. A formula is derived for computing the heat-transfer coefficient, which is defined as the number of heat units per hour that will pass from one square foot of surface per degree of temperature-difference between the air and the water and is the key to radiator performance, as by it almost any desired information can be obtained. When the heat-transfer coefficients have been found for a sufficiently wide range of water and air-flows the cooling capacity of a radiator can be computed for any desired condition.
Technical Paper

AIR-COOLED AUTOMOTIVE ENGINES

1923-01-01
230037
The author believes that the universal power unit will be direct air-cooled, but states that the direct air-cooled engine is now in the minority because, until very recently, there has not been a sufficiently broad series of established engineering facts and development work available to form a foundation for improvement. The satisfactory air-cooling of an 8 x 10-in. cylinder has been reported, and the development in a smaller cylinder of 138 lb. per sq. in. brake mean effective pressure; also, in a three-cylinder, air-cooled, radial-engine, a brake mean effective pressure of more than 125 lb. per sq. in. was developed and the engine endured beyond the ordinary expectations for water-cooled engines.
Technical Paper

EXPERIENCE NOTES FROM A PRODUCTION NOTEBOOK

1922-01-01
220055
While investigating the sources and causes of noise in automobiles during an extensive connection with one of the largest automobile companies, the authors recorded their experiences in the shop in the form of notes. Some of these are offered with a view to stimulating the discussion of the subject and with the hope that additional information will be brought out by an exchange of ideas, particularly on the problem of eliminating gear-noises. In many cases they found that noise was caused by failure to allow sufficient clearance for an adequate oil-film. And it was noted frequently that when one noise had been located and silenced another appeared that had not been apparent before. The topics that have been considered include the running-in of brake-bands, engine knocks, oil-pump gear-noise and that of gears in general, the clearances of ball bearings, backlash, and rear-axle bevel-gears.
Technical Paper

CHASSIS FRICTION LOSSES

1922-01-01
220046
Metropolitan-New England Sections Paper - The loss of power due to the friction of the various parts of the chassis has been carefully and elaborately investigated by a dynamometer, the dual purpose being the determination of the amount of internal frictional resistance of the front or rear wheels and the measurement of the power that can be delivered at the rear wheels with the concomitant rate of fuel consumption. The rolling-friction due to the resistance of the wheels as a whole is taken up first and afterward the separate resistances of the tires, bearings and transmission are studied under varying conditions of inflation-pressure and load. The five frictional resistances that were chosen as giving the most useful information are those of the front tires, the rear tires, the front bearings, the rear bearings and the engine.
Technical Paper

VALVE ACTIONS IN RELATION TO ENGINE DESIGN

1922-01-01
220041
The authors present and discuss the results obtained from combined road and laboratory tests made to determine the amount of power required to maintain a given car speed. The specifications of the car and its engine are stated and the variable-ratio rocker-arm of the engine is illustrated and its advantages explained, together with those of the valve-timing. The subject of manifold gas-velocity is treated in some detail, inclusive of a diagram showing the hot-spot or vaporizing device that was used. The test data are reduced to curve form, eight charts being shown. The curves include those for brake horsepower, indicated horsepower, comparative performance, performance at different throttle-openings and at different loads, fuel consumption and indicated thermal efficiencies.
Technical Paper

OVERHEAD CAMSHAFT PASSENGER-CAR ENGINES

1922-01-01
220040
The gradual trend toward overhead valves in automobile engines, as indicated by an increase in their use on American cars from 6 per cent in 1914 to 31 per cent in 1922, has been accelerated, in the opinion of the author, by their successful application to aircraft engines and by the publicity given them by their almost universal adoption on racing machines. Tractor engines recently brought out show the advantage of this construction.
Technical Paper

DURALUMIN1

1922-01-01
220061
The author gives a short history and general description of duralumin and quotes the Navy specification of its physical properties as drawn by the Naval Aircraft Factory. The manufacture of duralumin is described and commented upon, inclusive of an enumeration of the improvement in physical properties produced at each stage. The physical properties are stated for annealed, heat-treated and hard-rolled duralumin, and some of the possible automotive applications are suggested, inclusive of wormwheels, hearings, gears, connecting-rods, rims and wheel parts and chassis and body trimming. A report by the research department of the Fifth Avenue Coach Co. on the results of a test it made on duralumin wormwheels is included and the author details the advantages he claims as being attendant upon the use of duralumin.
Technical Paper

PROCESSING SPLINE SHAFTS BY A NEW METHOD1

1922-01-01
220058
The process devised by the author was evolved to eliminate the difficulties incident to the finishing of the spline and body portions of a spline shaft, such as is used in transmission gearing, by grinding after the shaft has been hardened, and is the result of a series of experiments. The accuracy of the finished shaft was the primary consideration and three other groups of important considerations are stated, as well as four specific difficulties that were expected to appear upon departure from former practice. Illustrations are presented to show the tools used, and the method of using them is commented upon step by step. The shaft can be straightened to within 0.005 in. per ft. of being out of parallel with the true axis of the shaft, after the shaft has been hardened, and it is then re-centered true with the spline portion.
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