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Technical Paper

Experimental studies on weldability of Oil Hardening Non Shrinking die steel

2020-09-25
2020-28-0424
The Oil Hardening Non Shrinking (OHNS) die steel refers to a variety of carbon and alloy steels that are particularly well-suited for making tools. Though these steels are weldable, there is risk of crack formation. But, this can be avoided with convinced specifications like pre heating, proper choice of electrode etc., In the present work, OHNS die steel is welded with three different electrodes. The chosen electrodes are mild steel electrode, E312-16 chromium based electrode and E-NiCrFe-3 nickel based electrode. The OHNS steel is welded with these three electrodes and the welded specimens were examined for hot cracking tendency and mechanical properties of the joint. The hot cracking tendency was assessed by Houldcroft`s weldability test (Fishbone test). All the three electrodes proved the good results in terms of hot crack resistance and the specimen welded with E312-16 chromium based electrode provides good mechanical properties.
Technical Paper

Tribological properties evaluation of newly developed friction material for automotive disc brake pad

2020-09-25
2020-28-0511
The present work aims at investigating the tribological behaviour of newly developed semi metallic friction materials and its performance is compared with the commercial brake pad under dry conditions. The developed brake pad material in the form of cylindrical pin is tested in pin and disk machine to investigate the tribological properties such as coefficient of friction, wear resistant followed by thermal degradation analysis. The measured properties were compared with the commercial brake pad properties. The results from the laboratory test shows that the coefficient of friction for the newly developed friction material is 0.346 which is 30 percent higher than the commercial brake pad. It can be concluded that the newly developed asbestos-free friction material has a potential to be used as brake pad in commercial automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Optimization and experimental analysis of Magnesium alloy (AZ91E) hybrid nano composite by drilling operation

2020-09-25
2020-28-0509
The usage of AZ91E series magnesium alloy material increases in the field of automobile, aero space and structural applications because of its enhanced mechanical properties, light weight and good machinability characteristics. The present investigation is to optimize the drilling process parameters of magnesium alloy (AZ91E) hybrid nano composite consisting of chopped basalt fiber (9wt%) and SiCnp(7.5wt%) fabricated by vacuum stirring technique.. AZ91E hybrid nano composite is drilled by M-Tab vertical machining centre equipped with CNC under dry state (without coolant). The dry state drilling operation was performed by HSS tool with varied input parameters like drill diameter (4mm, 6mm, 8mm and 10mm), drill diameter prevailing with spindle speed, feed rate and constant depth of cut. The effect of machining time, metal removal rate and surface roughness is evaluated and optimum level of drilling parameters is determined through taguchi technique.
Technical Paper

Effect of Shot Peening Exposure Time on Mechanical Behavior of Al 7075-T6 Alloy

2020-09-25
2020-28-0430
This investigation addresses the effect of exposure time applied through shot peening as one of the severe plastic deformation technique on mechanical behavior of Al 7075-T6 alloy. Shot peening induces hardened layer in the surface region due to work-hardening effect by shot peening. The specimen shot peened for 105 s (SP105) exhibited highest values of tensile strength (591 MPa), yield strength (550 MPa) and surface hardness (265 VHN) as compared with untreated specimen with 568 MPa, 504 MPa and 184 VHN respectively. The increment in tensile properties are due to rapid improvement in the surface work-hardening by virtue of peening treatment with 105 s duration. In contrast, the shot peened alloy exhibited lower percentage elongation and higher surface roughness as compared with untreated one. The surface morphology and roughness studies before and after the treatment analyzed by suitable characterization.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Air Compressor Intake Valve Body Casing by Metallic Material and Hybrid Polyamide Composite

2020-09-25
2020-28-0377
An industrial air compressor is finding a wide range of usage in manufacturing and assembly areas. The intake valve body is one of the major parts in the industrial air compressor which serves numerous functions like regulating the amount of air into the compressor for pressurizing and prevents the backflow of oil. The main intern of our proposed work is to design and conduct Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in air intake valve body casing part with commercially used metallic material of LM6 aluminium alloy and proposed hybrid polymer composite. The proposed polymer material Polyphthalamide (PPA) reinforced with 30wt% glass fiber and 5% Poly tetra fluro ethylene (PTFE) hybrid composites were prepared through the injection moulding route and the obtained tested responses were taken as input data for the further analysis.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Metallurgical and Mechanical Properties of Stir cum Squeeze Cast A356 with 5wt. % SiC and x wt. % flyash Hybrid Composites

2020-09-25
2020-28-0397
The forged connecting rod and pin experience a large amount of stresses due to cyclic load for a long period of time induced from the reciprocating movement of piston. The main objective of the industries is to produce lightweight components with high strength using with a novel and simple manufacturing process.In this context, the proposed experimental work was formulated to develop aluminium hybrid metal matrix composite of A356 with silicon carbide and flyash, processed through stir cum squeeze casting process under optimal parametric condition. The samples were subjected to a varying fly ash weight percentage of 0,5,10 and rest are kept constant. Responses like metallography, hardness, impact strength, flexural strength, fatigue strength was observed for the manufactured components. There was a significant improvement in the properties of components with higher weight percentage addition of A356 with 5wt% SiC and 10 wt% flyash hybrid composites.
Technical Paper

Free Vibrational Characteristics of Dual Side Nd: YAG Laser Welded Stainless Steel 304 joints Reinforced with Al2O3 Micro Powder Particles

2020-09-25
2020-28-0393
Nd: YAG Laser Welding Process (LWP) is the most efficient method commonly used for the joining of different kinds of materials, whether it can be a sheet or plate.LWP in general,uses high power density, frequency and travel speed or feed rate as primary process parameters in order to perform a joining process across the metals. This paper investigates the effect on free vibrational characteristics for Stainless Steel 304 (SS 304) joints which are reinforced with Al2O3 micro particles processed by dual side (welding performed on the top and bottom surface of sheets) Nd: YAG LWP. The inclusion of micro particles was inserted directly across the weld pool region, by fabricating drills with a constant gap between each drilled holes. Totally 12 samples were fabricated with different laser power, travel speed and by keeping the frequency level as constant for all the experiments.
Technical Paper

Unraveling the mechanical behavior of AA 7075 - WC nanocomposites developed through FSP route

2020-09-25
2020-28-0404
Friction Stir Processing (FSP) is a solid-state processing approach that alters and enhances the properties of the matrix material. The prime objective of this research work was zinc-based 7075-T6 Aluminium Alloy (AA) with reinforced by varying 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 wt.% Tungsten carbide (WC) nanoparticles by FSP route. During experimentation, the FSP processing parameters like tool speed, traverse speed, axial load, and tool were being kept constant with three passes of processing. The test samples were prepared and tested as per standard procedures like hardness, impact strength, ultimate tensile strength, and average values were recorded. Also, fracture surface morphology was studied. Among all the combinations of test samples at a 10 wt% addition of WC nanoparticles of FSP AA7075-T6 sample exhibited a higher value of 53 HV microhardness and 5.1 impact strength and 150 MPa in the UTS were obtained.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Influence of Iron Oxide Nano particles on Characteristics of a Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engine Operated with Methyl Esters of Waste Cooking Oil

2020-09-25
2020-28-0412
In this study, an attempt was made to investigate the influence of Iron Oxide Nano particle on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of Low Heat Rejection (LHR) diesel engine operated with methyl esters of Waste Cooking Oil (WCOME). In the first phase of the work, single cylinder, direct injection diesel engine test rig was developed and tested for its baseline readings with diesel at different power output. In the second phase of the work, test engine was operated with WCOME and tested for its characteristics. Test engine was modified to operate in the LHR mode in the third phase of the work. Engine's cylinder head, valves and piston crown were coated with lower thermal conductivity materials namely, 200 microns of Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia & 100 microns of Nickel, Chromium and aluminium alloys. LHR engine was tested with WCOME and tested for its characteristics in the fourth phase.
Technical Paper

The effect of TiB2 on mechanical and microstructural properties of AZ91 matrix composites manufactured by cold chamber die casting process

2020-09-25
2020-28-0425
In these work AZ91 magnesium matrix composites reinforced with two weight fractions (5 and 10 wt. %) of TiB2 particulates were fabricated by cold chamber die casting process technique. The microstructure, density, hardness, mechanical properties of the specimens was investigated. Microstructure studies showed that fairly uniform distribution of reinforcements was achieved up to the weight fraction studied. As compared to base alloy AZ91, the hardness and tensile strength considerably increased with increasing reinforcement content. The presence of TiB2 particles improved the hardness around 24.4 %, compressive strength around 67.2% and the yield strength around 20%. The enormous amount of increment in the compressive strength due to the dislocation density created by the difference in thermal properties of matrix and composites and also due to the micro-pores presence in the composite.
Technical Paper

Comparative Studies on Conventional groove SMA and GMA welds of Dissimilar 304LN ASS and HSLA Steels.

2020-09-25
2020-28-0405
Dissimilar metal welds (DMWs), between austenitic stainless steel (ASS) and micro-alloyed high strength low alloy steel (HSLA), are used in high temperature applications in power stations and petrochemical plants. The gas metal arc welding (GMAW) has surpassed the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process due to its advantages of producing fast, long, clean continuous weld at any position [1-4]. A studies on mechanical and metallurgical properties of conventional V-groove SMAW and GMA Welding of dissimilar 20 mm thick 304LN ASS and micro alloyed HSLA steel plate were carried out by using austenitic E308L- 15 electrode with gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) root pass. The tensile (axial and all-weld) properties, hardness and microstructure of the weld and HAZ are analyzed.
Technical Paper

Prediction of material removal rate in wire electrical discharge machining of Aluminum Composites for Automotive Components

2020-09-25
2020-28-0399
Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) is a contemporary approach of material removal which is conceived from the concept of Spark Erosion Machining process. Wire Spark Erosion Machining which is known as WEDM, predominantly employed for removing material from hard materials and also especially used for making intricate shapes on any electrically conductive work material with irrespective of the hardness. Composite materials offers improved mechanical properties depends upon the constituents to be added. Graphene is identified as outstanding reinforcing element which provide support to enhance the desired properties of aluminium metal matrix composites in a considerable manner. In this present exploration an analysis has been performed on WEDM of Al-GNP composites. Pulse on time (µs), pulse off time (µs) and servo voltage (V) are deemed as input process parameters in this present exploration.
Technical Paper

Design & Development of Metal Matrix Based Mounting bracket for Commercial vehicle application

2020-09-25
2020-28-0463
Automakers are being subjected to increasingly strict fuel economy requirements which led OEMs to focus more on Light weighting and Energy efficiency areas. Considering the aforesaid challenges, efforts has been taken in Light weighting of Mounting bracket for Engine application. This paper deals with conversion of Engine accessory bracket from Aluminium material to Metal Matrix composite (MMC). In Design phase, existing bracket has been studied for its structural requirements and further Bracket is designed to meet MMC process requirement and CAE carried out for topology optimization and Structural integrity. In Validation phase, Component is Validated at Test bed and Vehicle level for its reliability and durability. Finally observations and results were compared for Existing design and Proposed design and further optimization proposed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Austenitic Filler Wires on Duplex Stainless Steel 2205 Weldment Made by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

2020-09-25
2020-28-0431
Duplex stainless steel (DSS) contained with dual phase such as austenite and ferrite exhibit higher strength and resistance to corrosion in numerous environmental conditions over several decades. The need of duplex stainless steel is increased gradually in the field of petrochemical, powerplant, marine and other engineering applications, where the dual phase steels are being espoused that need welding for production of components. These duplex alloys are challenging to weld due to the formation of various embrittling precipitates and variations in the metallurgy. The imbalance phase ratio of ferrite/austenite due to welding leads to solidification cracking. DSS 2205 is in need of welding with proper welding processes and consumables for corrosive environments such as shipbuilding and pipeline. In this connection, to achieve the desired requirements, austenitic filler wires (ERNiCrMo-3 and ERNiCrMo-4) are utilized for welding DSS 2205 grade using gas tungsten arc welding technique.
Technical Paper

Development of a Magnesium alloyed Front cover for a Light duty Diesel Engine.

2020-09-25
2020-28-0459
With Continuous increase in demand to reduce weight is forcing Automotive Designers towards finding ways to explore new materials for the Engine components. Currently, Aluminium, Thermoplastics and Composites are widely used in Engine application. This papers examines the potential of a Magnesium alloy Front Cover designed to replace the Cast iron Front Cover in a Light duty Diesel engine. In presented study, a Cast iron Engine front cover is re-designed for Magnesium alloy and components developed. Further Magnesium alloy component tested at vehicle level and it has been demonstrated that a magnesium alloy Front cover can achieve key functional requirements such as Structural durability, Sealing, NVH, while providing substantial Weight saving.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Wear and Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites for Automotive Applications

2020-09-25
2020-28-0461
This research is an attempt to investigate the possibility of enhancing wear and corrosion behavior of aluminum alloy and composites for high-temperature applications. The 319 alloy with minor additions of Ni, Ti and Fe elements using the liquid metallurgy technique, Al-Si-Cu-Mg matrix alloy (Al alloy) was obtained and it was used as a base alloy and it is reinforced with Silicon carbide (SiC), Magnesium oxide (MgO) under the following composites, namely Al alloy/3wt % MgO (AA-SRM), Al alloy/ 3wt % SiC (AA-SRS) and Al alloy/3wt % SiC-3wt % MgO (AAHRSM) using stir casting route. The wear test was investigated under the following factors, namely constant sliding velocity 3.21 m/s, sliding distance up to 10000 m under different loadings (4.9, 9.8, 14.7, 19.62, and 24.5 N) using wear test by a pin on the disc test rig. The wear rate was calculated using the tested samples under different loadings, sliding distance and weight concentration conditions.
Technical Paper

Design Analysis of Multipole Sensor Magnet for Peel Off Strength of the Plastic Bonded Magnet from the Metal Cup

2020-09-25
2020-28-0493
In this paper, the study of plastic bonded magnetic material is studied for the surface adhesion of the material on to the surface of a metal cup. The bonded magnetic material is formed as a mixture of plastic material blended with ferrite or NdFeB Magnetic powder. The amount of magnetic material used is confined to the magnetic property of the magnetic powder that can exhibit the required magnetic performance as higher rotational speed and higher temperature. The magnet is injection moulded onto the outer circumference of the metal cup. The magnet is bonded onto the metal surface which is of cup shape and this assembly is magnetized to form a multipole magnet. This multipole magnet is designed to withstand high centrifugal force during the magnet rotation at higher rpm say 40000 rpm.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Design and Analysis of Passenger Car Body Crash-worthiness in Frontal Impact using Radioss

2020-09-25
2020-28-0498
The development of Automobile Technology, more and more lightweight materials are applied to automobile body for the purpose of light weighting and passenger protection. The accidents are unexpected incidents most drivers cannot be avoided that trouble situation. Frontal crashes are responsible for occupant injuries and fatalities 42% of accidents occur on frontal crash. This paper aims at studying the frontal collision of a passenger car frame for frontal crashes based on numerical simulation of a 35 MPH. The model was developed to simulate frontal crash into a rigid barrier with a velocity of 15.6 m/s (56km/hr). The vehicle’s exterior body is designed by CATIA V5 R20 along with two material properties to our design. The existing Aluminum alloy 6000 series is compared with carbon fiber IM8 material. The simulation is being carried out by us in the “Radioss” available in “Hypermesh 17.0” software.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Automotive AC Components (Condenser & Piston) with Experimental Validation

2020-09-25
2020-28-0357
Automotive Air Conditioning is the process of removing the heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space to improve comfort of occupants. A condenser is a device or unit used to condense refrigerant from its gaseous to its liquid state, by cooling it. In so doing, the latent heat is given up by the substance and transferred to the surrounding environment. It is made of Aluminum Alloy Material and subjected to very high internal stresses due to refrigerant pressure, thermal / inertia and dynamic load. In order to evaluate the structural integrity of the condenser assembly under these loading conditions, operating frequency should be far away from the resonance frequency and component design should be robust to sustain external excitation load coming from the engine & road. The above design evaluation criteria is also applicable for piston of AC’s reciprocating compressor.
Technical Paper

Development of Cost Effective and Light Weight Integrated Engine Cover Cum Air Filter.

2020-09-25
2020-28-0323
Currently automotive sector is facing bi-fold challenge of light weighting and cost reduction. As end-customer is getting more focused on total cost of ownership, it is need of time that light weighting and cost reduction goes hand in hand. Presently light weight materials such as magnesium, aluminum & composites are used but often this impact towards cost increase. In present study, a novel approach has been followed which not only focus on light weighting but also integrate design functions of two engine systems. The new system has been design to focus on low cost, light weight, NVH friendly and low development time. In design phase, function of two engine systems i.e. engine cover and Air filter were integrated followed by structural analysis. In final phase of this project, the experimental component was developed and validated for its intended function. In this study, current sheet metal design engine cover has been converted in to Thermoplastic cover with integrated Air filter.
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