Two-wheeler plays a significant role in personal transportation in India. People prefer two-wheelers, which has better fuel economy, comfort, and performance. It is vital to enhance comfort, as the seat is in direct contact with the user. Better user comfort improves the vehicle feel and behavior. Dynamic comfort analysis is necessary to understand and improve the vibration characteristics of the human-seat system. The vibration characteristics under analysis are Natural frequency, Maximum transmissibility, Attenuation frequency, and Transmissibility at 6 Hz. A test set-up was developed to collect data samples with different seat characteristics. The data collected from the seat are IFD, Hysteresis, Air-Permeability, Resilience, Thickness, and Mass. The relation between the seat parameters and vibration characteristic is established by statistically analyzing the data. Best seat was identified by ranking vibrational characteristics.
The automotive industries around the globe is undergoing massive transformation towards technological capability to meet stringent legislative norms on fuel economy and emission. It is a challenging process to meet the regulatory standards without compromising on performance. The torque delivered by the engine at wide open throttle position in a transient condition from low idle to higher engine rpm is known as dynamic torque, which always need not to follow the defined FTP curve. The engine dynamic torque plays a crucial part in performance benchmarking of a vehicle as a visualization parameter to set the project targets. There exist a few methodologies to measure the engine brake torque like direct measurement using torque transducer which adds complexity and cost to the vehicle, ECU measured torque based on amount of fuel injection and empirical calculation using known engine speed.
The sustainability of energy generation is primarily based on the effectiveness of the methods used for minimizing the wastes and optimum utilization of available energy resources. Mobility and its ease is therefore being an essential component of development. Automotive technology is an area where methods are explored in recent times to provide sustainable solution for reduction of fuel consumption and carbon emission by switching to hybrid technology and electric vehicles where regeneration of energy plays an important role. At present the research is focused on achieving methods of solid state conversion of heat into electricity but its limited to thermoelectric which has lower conversion efficiency. A comparative analysis of the direct energy convertors shows that thermionic energy conversion stands better with a higher conversion efficiency.
Introduction :- Nowdays, Automatic transmissions (AT) have taken over more in the automotive market. Because of traffic, frequently clutch pedal pressing and shift lever operation becomes annoyance in manual transmission.Automatic Transmissions (AT) has better driving comfort, simple operation, but a lower transmission efficiency, higher fuel consumption, can't be competed with manual transmissions. Fuel economy of Automatic Transmissions is poor especially in city drive (Because of driving @ low engine speeds where Torque Converter(TC) is opened). Objective :- The objective of this paper is to present a methodology for torque converter clutches (TCC) to enable clutch slip control at low engine speeds in torque converter without adversely affecting noise and vibration (N&V) performance and increasing fuel economy. The effect of gear state, torque converter slip and power delivered to the driveline on fuel economy are to be discussed.
The quality of combustion is affected by factors like engine components design, combustion chamber design, EGR, after treatments systems, engine operating parameters etc. The role of fuel injector is crucial on achieving the desired engine performance and emissions. Efficient combustion depends on the quantity of fuel injected, penetration, atomization and optimum injection timing. The nozzle through flow, cone angle, no of sprays and nozzle tip penetration are the factors which decide the selection of perfect injector for an engine. This paper focuses on the selection of the best fit injector suiting the BS6 application on evaluating the performance and emission characteristics. Injectors used were with varying cone angles and NTP which was varied by changing the sealing washer thickness. With all the above injector configuration, the performance and emission were thoroughly analysed at each level.
This research paper presents controller development and performance analysis for the two-wheeler. The comparison for different performance parameters is carried out with and without automated manual transmission (AMT) controller. The AMT considered, in this case, includes a conventional manual transmission gear-box with a conventional clutch pedal. It is equipped with clutch actuation with the help of linear actuator and the gear shifting using a servo motor. The upshift and downshifting of the gears and the clutch actuation is done through the decisions of the controller. The results generated during the engine dynamometer test are used as input creating a two-wheeler vehicle model using AVL cruise software. This vehicle model is used to predict vehicle performance. These vehicle performance results are validated with chassis dynamometer test data. The vehicle model is modified for the generation of gear shifting plot.
Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) is generated in large quantity worldwide due to the increase in population and change of food habits. This work is about utilizing this WCO as an alternative fuel for Compression Ignition (CI) engine, in view of addressing the constraints in the domain of land as well as air pollution. A fuel and engine level modification was carried out to analyse the behaviour of the selected test engine. In the first phase of the study, collected WCO was converted into its methyl esters (i.e. WCOME) and tested for its properties. A single cylinder, water cooled, direct injection, compression ignition engine was developed with suitable emission and combustion parameters computing equipment in the second phase of the work. In the third phase of the work, the developed engine was tested with neat diesel, WCO and WCOME under different engine power outputs. WCOME was converted into its emulsion (WCOMEE) and tested in the developed engine in the fourth phase of the work.
Kenaf fiber regarded as industrial crop for different applications. It is one of the most important plants cultivated for natural fibers globally. Natural fibers such as Kenaf fibers are getting attention of researchers and industries to utilize it in different composites due to its biodegradable nature. In this present investigation mechanical properties, vibration damping frequency factor and thermogravimetric analysis of Kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite (KFREC) have been evaluated and reported. The tests were conducted with different weight categories of Kenaf fiber such as 20%, 25%, 30% and 35%. The effects of fiber content on tensile, flexural, impact strengths, hardness and thermal decomposition properties of the composite were determined. The failure mechanism and damage features of the KFREC were categorized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results indicate that the increase in the fiber content decreases the damping vibration factor (ζ) correspondingly.
Butanol is attractive alcohol having closer properties to that of diesel. This experimental study is to investigate the performance of a variable compression ratio engine fueled with diesel butanol blends enhanced by two nano additives (nano alumina and nano zinc oxide) in various proportions. To start with a solubility test was conducted with various proportions of diesel and butanol (0% to 50%). Optimal blend (50% diesel and 50% butanol) of diesel butanol blends was selected from this step. Nano zinc oxide (100 - 500ppm) and nano alumina (0 - 100ppm) were blended with this optimal blend through ultrasonication. This blend was tested for essential properties such as cetane number, energy content, kinematic viscosity, oxygen content, the heat of vaporization and flash point. Out of the 10 proportions of diesel butanol blends with nano-additives, two blends were chosen with respect to the properties in comparison to that of diesel.
The conventional energy sources are getting depleted while at the same time the energy demand keeps growing. Hence, it is important to consider non-conventional energy sources to meet the future energy demands. The renewable energy based microgrid system is one of the promising solutions to meet this increas-ing energy demand. The major parameters under consideration in a micro-grid system are cost-effectiveness, quality of service and energy management. This paper concentrates on the energy management of the Photo-voltaic/Wind based microgrid system connected to the fuel cell, microturbine and battery under Islanding (or) Autonomous mode and Grid-Connected Mode. The optimal combination of these sources with the aim of min-imizing operating cost, pollutant treatment cost and maximizing reliability using single/multi-objective particle swarm optimization (PSO) has been considered.
Limited fossil fuel reserves, steadily rising prices, incremental vehicle population and increased environmental concerns have sparked a need to evaluate alternate fuels for internal combustion engine vehicles. Alcohol fuels with high oxygen content and higher octane number become an attractive option for spark ignition (SI) engines. In practice, there are so many techniques to improve the engine performance and emission characteristics with alcohol and gasoline fuel blends. However, continuous operation of single ground electrode causes erosion of electrodes that loosens its ignitability which intern leads to higher emissions and reduced performance. Hence, there is a need to explore the influence of spark plug design for further improvement in engine performance and emission reduction.
Utilization of diesel is augmented consistently by transportation and industrial sectors which is making its existence obsolete in near future. Tremendous research has been done by many researchers to find an appropriate alternative for diesel fuel, in this scenario abundant acquisition of plastic wastes and their improper retreating techniques has grabbed the attention of researchers to convert them into alternative fuel for IC engines. This experimental investigation aims to study the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of common rail diesel injection (CRDI) fuelled with waste plastic oil and diesel blends at different injection strategies and at various loading conditions. From the results it is observed that slight decline in the thermal efficiency of the engine when operated with waste plastic oil (100%) due to high viscosity and lower heating value. There was a significant reduction in NOx emissions for low injection pressures of plastic diesel blend (P30).
Experimental investigation on EGR technique and fuel antioxidant (p-Phenylenediamine) additive in plastic oil + diesel blend as test fuel in diesel engine is reported in this paper. The plastic oil is produced by waste plastics by the pyrolysis method. This plastic oil gives twin advantage of plastic waste management and also as alternate fuel for possible diesel fuel replacement. The plastic oil blend performance and emissions were nearer to neat diesel fuel. To reduce the NO emissions first EGR is fitted and tested. NO emission reduced by 18% compared to without EGR. Then antioxidant is added in (100 ppm level) with blended test fuel and found the NO emission reduction to be 15%. Performance, combustion and emission analysis were done in a single cylinder, four stroke, 5.2 kW diesel engine. Investigation results showed that the combined effect of EGR and antioxidant additive drastically reduces the NO emissions by 28%.
KEYWORDS - Intake port design, In-cylinder flow, steady flow test, CFD numerical simulation, emission reduction & fuel economy Engine in-cylinder flow structure governs the combustion process and directly influences emission formation and fuel consumption at the source. In naturally aspirated DI diesel engine combustion process, coupled with low pressure mechanical fuel injection systems set different requirements for inlet port performance. In-cylinder swirl needs to be optimized for efficient combustion to meet emission levels and fuel consumption targets. Thus, intake port design optimization process becomes a vital requirement. In the present paper intake port design optimization is carried out for single cylinder naturally aspirated engine using mechanical fuel injection systems. The objective is to investigate in-cylinder flow field developed by intake port designs.
Keywords - Four valve intake port design, steady flow test, CFD numerical simulation, off-highway engines Abstract: Future emission limits for off-highway application engines need advanced power train solutions to meet stringent emissions legislation, whilst meeting customer requirements and minimising engineering costs. Development of diesel engines for off-highway application for different power segments need different intake port design solutions to optimise in-cylinder flow structure for efficient combustion. With adaptation of low pressure mechanical fuel injection system, intake port development becomes an important stage for reduction of emission formation at the source and improvement in fuel economy. In this paper, intake port design and development process is elaborated for two different power ratings of 75 hp and 120 hp of off-highway engine. 2-valve and 4-valve configurations are deployed for the same cylinder bore size.
Importance of this investigation is 100% biodiesel make use as fuel for low heat rejection diesel engine. Due to this reason bio-fuels namely, eucalyptus oil and paradise oil were selected and used as dual fuel. Conventional engine hardware parts were coated with lanthana-doped yttria-stabilized zirconia (the doping of YSZ coatings with small amount of La2O3) with a thickness of 300 µm, so as to analyses the operating parameters of paradise oil–eucalyptus oil blends. Tests run were replicated on the conventional diesel engine and outcomes were compared. Test outcomes confirmed that the major intention of this research was attained as engine operating parameters like, brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature were increase with decrease of fuel consumption. In addition, engine emissions of HC, CO and smoke were reduce with exception of NOx for LHR diesel engine than conventional engine.
Environmental consciousness is being developed in each and every sector, automotive industry has concentrated in a greater manner. Reduction of tail pipe emission was concentrated and found that hybridization can ensure better results. Hybrid electric vehicle operates on electric motor as well as internal combustion engine. Battery power is one the major source of energy for driving electric motor and different battery technologies have been developed. Battery management system (BMS) controls battery parameters like State of Charge (SoC), State of Health (SoH) and Depth of Discharge (DoD) which definitely has an impact on power-torque ratings. Various drive train configurations are developed based on the power-torque requirements and size of engine/electric motor. Maintaining proper flow of energy can have better reduction in emissions, more battery life, less fuel consumption and optimum power-torque ratings.
The spoiler is an aesthetic as well as functional part fitted on the vehicles to increase the vehicle appeal and improve vehicle aerodynamics. The improvement of aerodynamics performance of the vehicle at higher speeds is achieved by reducing the overall vehicle coefficient of drag. This helps in better handling and improved fuel efficiency of the vehicle thus contributing to development of a greener vehicle. In this paper, the main focus is to reduce overall vehicle coefficient of drag, reduce the spoiler weight and improve the vehicle appeal thereby increase the customer appeal. Six-sigma design methodology (Define-Measure-Analyze-Design-Verify) and tools were used to arrive at the optimum solution for the stated objectives. QFD is used for converting the customer requirements into engineering parameters which define the final product. The QFD inputs are then used to define the critical to quality parameters (CTQ) for the spoiler.
The maximum power produced by the Engine is utilized in overcoming the Aerodynamic resistance while the remaining has been used to overcome rolling and climbing resistance. Increasing emission and performance demands paves way for advanced technologies to improve fuel efficiency. One such way of increasing the fuel efficiency is to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. Buses emerged as the common choice of transport for people in India. By improving the aerodynamic drag of the Buses the diesel consumption of a vehicle can be reduced by nearly about 10% without any upgradation of the existing engine. Though 60 to 70 % of pressure loads act on the frontal surface area of the buses, the most common techniques of reducing the drag in buses includes streamlining of the surfaces, minimizing underbody losses, reduced frontal area, pressure difference between the front & rear area and minimizing of flow separation & wake regions.