Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Fluidity and Other Properties of Aviation-Engine Oils

1929-01-01
290040
SELECTION of the proper crude is an important consideration in the manufacture of aviation-engine oils. The authors class petroleum into asphalt-base, paraffin-base and mixed-base crudes, stating that scientific research and actual-performance tests have demonstrated the advantages of paraffin-base oils over asphalt-base oils for aviation engines, and that their superiority is now conceded by most authorities. Much attention has been given recently to the dewaxing and fractionating of lubricating oils, and this has resulted in an improvement in their quality and in their unrestricted use as “all-weather aero oils.” After quoting statements from several authorities who agree that an oil which will meet both summer and winter requirements is desirable, the authors give the definitions of viscosity, fluidity, consistency and plasticity determined by the American Society for Testing Materials and then discuss the fluidity or consistency of aviation-engine oils below their A. S. T.
Technical Paper

Ignition Requirements for High-Compression Engines

1929-01-01
290038
ADVENT of engines operating at higher compression and higher speed than engines used a few years ago in automotive vehicles has necessitated refinement of all engine accessories, including the ignition equipment. It is necessary that the ignition units give unfailing performance at top speed of the engine without sacrifice of long life of the units. Storage-battery ignition, with a generator as a source of energy, is used almost universally in this Country today, and is asserted to be the cheapest, simplest, easiest to service and most reliable system known for vehicles in which a storage battery is required for starting, lighting and other purposes. The electrical circuit used in the ignition system of automobiles today is almost identical with that designed for the 1912-model Cadillac, which was equipped with the Delco electrical engine-starter, except for refinements and greater reliability.
Technical Paper

The Cooperative Fuel Research and Its Results

1929-01-01
290032
Herein Dr. Dickinson reviews briefly the causes leading to birth of the Cooperative Fuel Research, the appointment of the joint steering committee to confer on program and pass upon results, the progress made in the several phases of the work, and the projects now engaging attention. An outstanding feature has been the development of harmony and cooperation among engineers of the petroleum and the automotive industries. Mutual adaptation of the fuel and the engine to each other has been the guiding principle in the work, to the end of National economy and internal-combustion engine efficiency. Projects undertaken include the determination of the grade of gasoline that affords the maximum number of car-miles per barrel of crude oil; the causes of and remedies for crankcase-oil dilution; the effect of initial volatility on starting, acceleration and general behavior of the engine; and measurement of the detonating characteristics of a fuel.
Technical Paper

Present Status of Equilibrium-Volatility Work at Bureau of Standards

1929-01-01
290029
THIS paper is a concluding report on that phase of the equilibrium-volatility work at the Bureau of Standards which is applicable to engine performance as affected by vaporization in the manifold. New data on bubble-points are presented and an improved method is outlined for obtaining temperatures on specific air-vapor mixtures from the experimental observations. By taking into consideration the slope of the A.S.T.M. distillation curve, the 16-1 temperature at any percentage evaporated from 0 to 100 per cent can be computed from the A.S.T.M. temperature with an average deviation of 1 deg. cent. (2 deg. fahr.) by means of simple relations which are applicable to pure hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon mixtures, of any degree of complexity, within the gasoline range. Values for other mixtures can be readily obtained from the 16-1 temperatures.
Technical Paper

Volatility Data on Natural Gasoline and Blended Fuels

1929-01-01
290028
THE extension of the equilibrium-air-distillation work of the Bureau of Standards to more volatile fuels, requiring measurements at temperatures considerably below 0 deg. cent. (32 deg. fahr.) has shown that the general relations deduced from the previous work are equally applicable to natural gasoline and to straight-run aviation-fuels and to natural-gasoline motor-fuel blends. Data are presented on three ethylether blends with gasoline which give information on the amounts of ether to be added to gasoline for starting motor-vehicle or airplane engines at various temperatures. For comparison, data on two benzene-blends are reproduced from a previous report. A study of the entire mass of volatility data has indicated certain trends of the temperature ratios with the slope of the A.S.T.M. curve and with temperature.
Technical Paper

Developments in Lighter-than-Air Craft

1929-01-01
290053
NOTABLE developments in 1928 that have greatly increased interest in lighter-than-air craft were the transatlantic flight of the Graf Zeppelin as an experiment in commercial transoceanic air-service, the ordering by the United States Navy Department of the construction in this Country of two rigid airships larger than any yet built or under construction, the development and construction of two British airships for long-distance passenger and mail transportation, the starting of erection of the world's largest airship factory and dock at Akron, Ohio, and the construction and operation in this Country of a number of non-rigid airships to be used for commercial purposes. Each of these developments is dealt with in order. General dimensions, major characteristics, and unique features of the Graf Zeppelin, the new Navy airships, and the projected large transoceanic commercial airships are given.
Technical Paper

The deLavaud Automatic Transmission

1928-01-01
280038
MENTIONING the various attempts that have been made to secure continuous progressive changes of gear in the automobile, the author states that nothing of this sort is of value unless it is automatic. He has designed a transmission consisting of a wabble-plate which actuates six connecting-rods that operate as many roller clutches on the rear axle. Changes in speed result from varying the inclination of the wabble-plate, and this is controlled automatically through the combined effects of inertia and the reaction of resistance. This transmission has been applied to a number of cars of different weights, some of which have seen much service. The action of the various elements of the transmission is analyzed with the aid of drawings, diagrams and formulas, and the proportions that have been found most successful are stated. This transmission is combined with a gearless differential and a planetary reverse-gear.
Technical Paper

Present Tendencies in Motor-Fuel Quality

1928-01-01
280009
WE are entering a period in which the refiner is making a conscientious effort to give his fuel high antiknock value and such effective volatility that it will give superior performance in any automobile engine in which it is used. The present tendency is away from the misleading values such as color and gravity. Ease of starting and good acceleration, particularly of a cold engine, demand high partial volatility even more than antiknock value, while the development of maximum power and a high fuel efficiency in modern engines supplying a large amount of heat to the mixture demand a relatively high end-point in the distillation test. The author discusses the difficulties of using fuels possessing these characteristics in such engines, and indicates the desirability of the automotive and the oil industries cooperating in finding a solution of their joint problem of suiting the engines and the fuels to each other.
Technical Paper

Motor-Oil Characteristics and Performance at Low Temperatures

1928-01-01
280010
RESULTS of an experimental study of the viscosity characteristics of motor oils at low temperatures and their influence upon cranking torque and circulation within the engine are presented by the authors. At temperatures in the neighborhood of 0 deg. fahr., even oils of asphaltic origin appear to possess some plastic characteristics, while those of the mixed and paraffin-base types deviate widely from the generally accepted laws of viscous flow. Oils of these latter classes have apparent viscosities which tend to increase with decreasing shearing-stress and to become somewhat greater than might be expected from a study of their characteristics at normal temperatures. However, as resistance to cranking the engine is due mainly to oil in thin films on the cylinder walls, the relatively small temperature-viscosity coefficient of the wax-bearing oils gives them a marked advantage over those of asphaltic origin, an advantage which becomes greater as the temperature is lowered.
Technical Paper

Volatility Data from Gasoline Distillation Curves

1928-01-01
280005
FIRST referring to previous reports made on laboratory methods for measurement of volatility, the author states that data for a variety of gasolines, obtained by the equilibrium air-distillation method, have been analyzed recently in comparison with the distillation curves of these fuels as determined by the procedure practised by the American Society for Testing Materials. According to the author, this analysis appears to indicate a definite relationship between the results on volatility and those obtained by the standard A.S.T.M. distillation method, so that it seems possible to deduce from the latter with reasonable accuracy the information on volatility which is pertinent to satisfactory engine performance. It is stated also that volatility can be regarded as the tendency to escape into the vapor or gaseous state and this escaping tendency is determined by factors which must be precisely specified so that numerical values for volatility may have significance.
Technical Paper

Recent Developments in Aircraft Ignition-Systems

1927-01-01
270063
THE fundamental electrical and mechanical requirements of ignition equipment for aircraft engines are outlined and the special requirements peculiar to this service and that apply, in general, equally to military and commercial aircraft, are described. Brief descriptions are given of various new types of both magneto and battery ignition and the developments in each are pointed out. Characteristics of an ideal ignition system are enumerated as a basis for further development. Among the general requirements reliability is given place of first importance, followed by light weight, compactness, low cost and adaptability of a single model to engines of different types. The chief design-requirements are speed, ruggedness, simple mounting, light rotating-parts, resistance to vibration, ample lubrication, protection against moisture, and fire-proof ventilation. Each of these subjects is dealt with specifically.
Technical Paper

Fuel Requirements for Engine-Starting

1927-01-01
270001
PREVIOUS papers relating to the cooperative fuel-research investigation of engine-starting have attacked the problem along two distinct lines, namely, (a) by actual tests of the time required to start engines under various conditions, such as temperature, mixture supplied and the like, using different fuels; and (b) by laboratory tests of the volatility of the same fuels under somewhat similar conditions, using the method of equilibrium air-distillation. In this paper the results of these two methods of attack are correlated. For this purpose, it was necessary to extend the air-distillation data to lower temperatures than had been used in the tests. This involved an application of the laws of the perfect gas and the well-established law governing the relation between vapor pressure and temperature. The results of the engine tests were originally plotted with the rate of fuel supplied, as ordinate, and the time required to start, as abscissa.
Technical Paper

PROGRESS IN THE MEASUREMENT OF MOTOR-FUEL VOLATILITY

1926-01-01
260004
Laboratory test-methods of indicating the volatility characteristics and the starting capability of fuels used in internal-combustion engines are described, together with the testing apparatus and procedure, the objective having been the development of a simple method or methods of measuring the volatility of individual samples of motor fuel. The requirements are that the methods be practicable from the standpoint of routine laboratory, give directly the necessary information regarding characteristics of the fuel and be sufficiently precise to permit their use as specification tests. Defining “volatility” as the property of a substance which causes it to be dispersed readily into the air, the author states that volatility as regards fuels is understood to indicate the quantity of fuel that will evaporate into air under definite conditions, so as to be enabled to speak of volatility as a definite quantitative property, and discusses both operating and starting volatility.
Technical Paper

COINCIDENTAL LOCKS1

1926-01-01
260052
After quoting statistics that show the alarming increase in thefts of automobiles and analyzing numerous conditions under which automobiles are stolen, the authors discuss locks as theft retardants, saying that the providing and the improvement of locks has always been man's method of seeking security from thieves and comes in naturally for first consideration as the normal course to pursue in working toward adequate theft prevention. The present identification systems in use are mentioned, together with their features of advantage and disadvantage, and numerous practices that owners and drivers can adopt which tend to minimize theft are cited. The early forms of locking device are outlined and statistics are included which show the percentage of cars actually locked when they are equipped with a locking device.
Technical Paper

STUDIES OF THE OSCILLATION OF AUTOMOBILE LEAF-SPRINGS

1926-01-01
260048
Substitution of scientific data obtained by experiment for the mere opinions long since prevailing about the respective values of arguments pro and con in regard to the interleaf friction of springs, the effectiveness of many leaves versus few leaves, the lubrication of springs and kindred subjects, was the objective of the author and the results he has secured since the start of the experimental work early in 1924 are set forth. Tests were conducted with springs having leaves varying in number from 1 to 14 and, in all cases, both when dry and when copiously lubricated with thin oil. All the variable factors were included during the progress of the experiments, the number of combinations possible being indicated by the fact that about 250 tests were made and more than 50 different springs were used.
Technical Paper

FUNDAMENTAL REASONS UNDERLYING SAFETY COACH DESIGN

1926-01-01
260018
The problem in building the first “safety coach” was to short-cut evolution-to bridge the gap between what the industry had and what it needed. It is the purpose in this paper to consider the broad fundamentals and underlying principles of the Fageol safety-coach which have formed the basis of subsequent modern motorcoach construction, giving particulars of detailed design only to point out and illustrate the methods of definitely meeting the known needs. It was noted that equipment for all types of transportation had undergone a definite evolution, beginning with vehicles designed primarily for some other type of service. The early railroad equipment was adapted from the horse-drawn stagecoach. The first automobiles were literally “horseless carriages.” The first motor-stages were adapted from the touring car or the truck. Either of the latter was good for the purpose it was designed to fulfill-both had great shortcomings in public motor passenger-service.
Technical Paper

A SUGGESTED REMEDY FOR CRANKCASE-OIL DILUTION1

1926-01-01
260006
The dilution of crankcase oils with the heavy ends of gasoline constitutes the outstanding present-day problem in the lubrication of automobile engines. This paper first presents the results of extensive tests designed to determine the rate and extent of dilution for various types of car under various operating-conditions. From these results it appears that, in the average car in winter service in the northern half of the Country, the viscosity of the original oil drops to about one-third of its original value in the first 150 to 180 miles of intermittent operation. Beyond this the viscosity, contrary to general opinion, remains fairly constant at an equilibrium value corresponding to about 15 per cent dilution, where, on the average, the rate at which fresh diluent enters the oil is practically balanced by the rate at which it is eliminated therefrom.
Technical Paper

VOLATILITY TESTS FOR AUTOMOBILE FUELS1

1926-01-01
260032
Elementary theories regarding the evaporation characteristics of pure substances and mixed liquids are discussed briefly and the difficulties likely to be encountered in attempts to calculate the volatilities of motor fuels from data relating to pure substances or in the extrapolation of volatility data corresponding to the atmospheric boiling-range of the fuel to the range of temperatures encountered in utilization of the fuel are pointed out. A brief review of previous methods of arriving at fuel volatility is also presented. Volatility, as applied to motor fuels, is defined as being measured by the percentage of a given quantity of the fuel which can be evaporated under equilibrium conditions into a specified volume. The weight of air under known pressures is taken as a convenient measure of the volume. The new method described is an equilibrium distillation of the fuel in the presence of a known weight of air.
X