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Standard

Three-Point Hitch (Type A) Backhoe Personnel Protection

2019-05-03
WIP
J1518
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to three-point hitch (Type A) backhoes as defined in SAE J326 when mounted on either an agricultural tractor as defined in ANSI/ASAE S390 or other off-road self-propelled work machine as defined in SAE J1116. This criterion is intended for the manufacturer of the backhoe, whether or not the backhoe is manufactured or marketed by the same company that manufactures or markets the propelling machine.
Book

Stapp Car Crash Journal Vol. 62, 2018

2019-04-30
This title includes the technical papers developed for the 2018 Stapp Car Crash Conference, the premier forum for the presentation of research in impact biomechanics, human injury tolerance, and related fields, advancing the knowledge of land-vehicle crash injury protection. The conference provides an opportunity to participate in open discussion about the causes and mechanisms of injury, experimental methods and tools for use in impact biomechanics research, and the development of new concepts for reducing injuries and fatalities in automobile crashes.
Standard

On-Board System Requirements for V2V Safety Communications

2019-04-28
WIP
J2945/1
This standard specifies the system requirements for an on-board vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) safety communications system for light vehicles , including standards profiles, functional requirements, and performance requirements. The system is capable of transmitting and receiving the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J2735-defined Basic Safety Message (BSM) [1] over a Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) wireless communications link as defined in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1609 suite and IEEE 802.11 standards [2] – [6].
Standard

Gaining Approval for Seats with Integrated Electronics in Accordance with AC21-49 Option 7b

2019-04-26
WIP
AIR6448A
The primary purpose of this document is to provide roles, responsibilities and accountabilities to meet AC 21-49 Section 7.b ‘Type Certification using TSO-approved seat with electronic components defined in TSO design’. This document may be applied to all applicable seat TSOs (C39(), C127()…etc). The approval for the integration of the electronics will fall, in part or in full, under the type design authority of the Seat Installer rather than the Seat Supplier shipping the integrated seat. The defined responsibilities, areas of authority and accountability of each party, as well as necessary communication protocols, must ensure configuration management, design control and quality control. These definitions, controls and protocols are agreed (thru normal commerical agreements and binding contracts) and adhered to by all parties ensuring all parts in the supply chain remain approved (e.g. certified and conformed).
Standard

ADS Data Logger

2019-04-16
WIP
J3197
The data elements defined in this document are unique to ADS and provide additional background of the events leading up to a collision in the absence of an eye-witness account. The camera(s), LiDAR(s), and other sensor data will provide this eye-witness record. The data included in this data logger is expected to be used in conjunction with the J1698 EDR record and traditional accident reconstruction analysis. The EDR and Data Logger will capture information leading up to the collision. This Recommended Practice provides common data output formats and definitions for a variety of data elements that may be useful for analyzing the performance of ADS during an event that meets the trigger threshold criteria specified in this document. The document is intended to govern data element definitions, to provide a minimum data element set, and to specify a common ADS Data Logger record format as applicable for motor vehicle applications.
Technical Paper

Constructing a Concept Vehicle Structure Optimized for Crashworthiness

2019-04-02
2019-01-0613
Multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) of a vehicle structure at the earliest stages of design is critical as OEMs are pressed to reduce the design time in order to respond to various demands from the market. MDO for the three essential areas of performance of the vehicle structure (NVH, Crash, and Durability) needs the throughput for each of the major disciplines to be approximately in the same range of turn-around time. However, crashworthiness simulation typically takes significantly longer than the others, making it difficult to include crashworthiness in the MDO. There have been many approaches to address crash simulation in a shorter time. The lumped mass-spring method is one of the approaches but has not been widely accepted since there are many difficulties in modeling and replicating the existing structure.
Technical Paper

Accuracy Assessment of Three-Dimensional Site Features Generated with Aid of Photogrammetric Epipolar Lines in PhotoModeler and Using Minimal sUAS Imagery

2019-04-02
2019-01-0410
Photogrammetry is widely used in the accident reconstruction community to extract three-dimensional information from photographs. This article extends a prior study conducted by the authors, whereby model accuracy was assessed for a technique that exploited vehicle edges and epipolar line projections to construct 3D vehicle models, by examining 3D roadway and site features. To do so, artificial images were generated using an ideal computer-generated camera within a computer-assisted drawing environment to allow for a known reference model to compare with results produced using photogrammetry. A systematic study was undertaken by modeling the curvature, elevation, and super-elevation of a roadway and associated markings, sidewalks, and buildings, either by relying on discrete points or utilizing epipolar lines. The models were assessed for accuracy, and the sensitivity of the accuracy to camera elevation was considered.
Technical Paper

Hazard Cuing Systems for Teen Drivers: A Test-Track Evaluation on Mcity

2019-04-02
2019-01-0399
There is a strong evidence that the overrepresentation of teen drivers in motor vehicle crashes is mainly due to their poor hazard perception skills, i.e., they are unskilled at appropriately detecting and responding to roadway hazards. This study evaluates two cuing systems designed to help teens better understand their driving environment. Both systems use directional color-coding to represent different levels of proximity between one’s vehicle and outside agents. The first system provides an overview of the location of adjacent objects in a head-up display in front of the driver and relies on drivers’ focal vision (focal cuing system). The second system presents similar information, but in the drivers’ peripheral vision, by using ambient lights (peripheral cuing system). Both systems were retrofitted into a test vehicle (2014 Toyota Camry). A within-subject experiment was conducted at the University of Michigan Mcity test-track facility.
Technical Paper

Active Steering and Anti-Roll Shared Control for Enhancing Roll Stability in Path Following of Autonomous Heavy Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0454
Rollover accident of heavy vehicle during cornering is a serious road safety problem worldwide. In the past decade, based on the active intervention into the heavy vehicle roll dynamics method, researches have proposed effective anti-roll control schemes to guarantee roll stability during cornering. Among those studies, however, roll stability control strategies are generally derived independent of front steering control inputs, the interactive control characteristic between steering and anti-roll system have not been thoroughly investigated. In this paper, a novel roll stability control structure that considers the interaction between steering and anti-roll system, is presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Using Adjusted Force-Displacement Data to Predict the EBS of Car into Barrier Impacts

2019-04-02
2019-01-0425
Our goal was to evaluate whether modifications to the force-displacement curves derived from a high-speed NHTSA frontal barrier test could be used to improve predictions of the equivalent barrier speed of a low-speed crash involving the same vehicle. Using an earlier iteration of the technique described here, Hunter et al. [2] showed that the F-D curves from higher-speed tests over-predicted the EBS of lower-speed tests by 21±17%. After modifying the earlier technique to account for powertrain stack-up and barrier force attenuation prior to reaching peak dynamic crush, the technique evaluated here reduced this error to 1% with a standard deviation that varied between ±9% and ±13% depending on which engine accelerometers were chosen for the adjustment. These findings suggest that the method and modifications proposed here can be used to reconstruct car crashes provided that there is a relationship between dynamic crush and residual crush.
Technical Paper

Inter-Vehicular Sliding Friction and Crush Energy Losses in Impulse Momentum Planar Collision

2019-04-02
2019-01-0422
New in this study is the mathematical formula for calculating energy dissipated due to sliding under the action of Coulomb kinetic friction in the context of Impulse Momentum Planar Collision (IMPC) with isotropic restitution. The surface sliding dissipated energy theorem established here is precisely consistent with the laws of physics underlying IMPC. A principal goal of distinguishing between surface sliding energy dissipation and energy dissipation due to vehicle crush is to improve the rational basis for use of crush energy analysis with IMPC. Also new in this study is a consistent interpretation of Newton's, Poisson's and Stronge's restitution hypotheses as they apply to IMPC with Coulomb kinetic friction. While this paper adds to the understanding of energy dissipation, the IMPC method presented here is not new.
Technical Paper

Multi-Material Topology Optimization for Crashworthiness Using Hybrid Cellular Automata

2019-04-02
2019-01-0826
Structures with multiple materials have now become one of the perceived necessities for automotive industry to address vehicle design requirements such as light-weight, safety, and cost. The objective of this study is to develop a design methodology for multi-material structures accountable for vehicle crash durability. The heuristic topology synthesis approach of Hybrid Cellular Automaton (HCA) framework is implemented to generate multi-material structures with the constraint on the volume fraction of the final design. The HCA framework is integrated with ordered-SIMP (solid isotropic material with penalization) interpolation, artificial material library, as well as statistical analysis of material distribution data to ensure a smooth transition between multiple practical materials during the topology synthesis.
Technical Paper

Estimation of the Relative Roles of Belt-Wearing Rate, Crash Speed Change, and Several Occupant Variables in Frontal Impacts for Two Levels of Injury

2019-04-02
2019-01-1219
Driver injury probabilities in real-world frontal crashes were statistically modeled to estimate the relative roles of five variables of topical interest. One variable pertained to behavior (belt-wearing rate), one pertained to crash circumstances (speed change), and three pertained to occupant demographics (sex, age, and body mass index). The attendant analysis was composed of two parts: (1) baseline statistical modeling to help recover the past, and (2) sensitivity analyses to help consider the future. In Part 1, risk functions were generated from statistical analysis of real-world data pertaining to 1998-2014 model-year light passenger cars/trucks in 11-1 o’clock, full-engagement frontal crashes documented in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS, 1997-2014). The selected data yielded a weighted estimate of 1,269,178 crash-involved drivers.
Technical Paper

Residual Injury Situation and Accident Characteristics of Severe Motorcycle Accidents

2019-04-02
2019-01-0638
The total number of persons severely and fatally injured in road traffic accidents has reduced considerably in recent decades. However, the number of motorcyclists involved in accidents has not reduced to the same extent, and some countries have even recorded an increase. The aim of this study is to analyse the circumstances of motorcycle accidents in Germany involving vehicles with a cubic capacity of over 125 cm3 with particular reference to severely or fatally injured riders. An analysis is to be made of the characteristics and patterns of injuries suffered by the most severely injured motorcyclists and proposals developed for injury prevention. The study included accident data from 464 motorcycle accidents collected in Hanover and Dresden between 2010 and 2015 by an academic research team in the course of the GIDAS project (German In-Depth Accident Study). This data represents a statistically representative sample from real accidents occurring in Germany.
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