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Technical Paper

COMBUSTION OF FUELS IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

1920-01-01
200069
The automotive industry was considered a mechanical one until fuel difficulties caused a realization that the internal-combustion engine is only a piece of apparatus for the effective utilization of chemistry. The only great cloud on the horizon of the automotive industry today is the fuel problem, one way to dispel it being to increase the supply and the other to make the automotive device do what it has been designed to do. The author reviews the production of oil and of automotive apparatus, considers the available fuels and states the two distinct parts of the fuel problem as being first carburetion and distribution, external to the engine and one of purely physical relationship, and, second, the combustion of fuel inside the engine cylinder. The subjects of regulating combustion by additions to the fuel, the chemistry of fuels and the burning of heavy fuels are discussed at length.
Technical Paper

HIGH-SPEED HIGH-EFFICIENCY ENGINES

1919-01-01
190008
ENGINEERS have different ideas regarding highly efficient and moderately efficient engines, but designers dare not ignore the fact that the public requires today a small very high-speed engine, with good torque at low speeds, and capable of revolving efficiently at very high speeds. These two characteristics are difficult to attain, since in practice one is really opposed to the other. To obtain high speeds with power, the valve areas, valve parts, carbureter, etc., should not be restricted in any way, while to get a good mixture at low speed with heavy torque means a different valve-setting and more or less restricted port and valve areas, etc., to secure high gas velocities. The author states that the fundamentals of high-speed engines are high volumetric efficiency; high compression, to aid in obtaining rapid combustion at high speeds, and light reciprocating and rotating parts, to secure high mechanical efficiency.
Technical Paper

AN INTERPRETATION OF THE ENGINE-FUEL SITUATION

1919-01-01
190013
THE automotive industry is developing without due regard to the fuel situation. This situation is an integral part of the automotive field and should not be left out of account. Owing to the pressure of automotive demand, the supply of engine fuel is changing in character and price, with danger of precipitant alterations; there arises in consequence a fuel problem which cannot be adequately solved without the active participation of the automotive industry.
Technical Paper

PROBLEMS OF THE NAVAL AIRCRAFT FACTORY DURING THE WAR

1919-01-01
190017
THE Navy Department established the Naval Aircraft Factory (a) to assure a part, at least, of its aircraft supply; (b) to obtain cost data for the Department's guidance in dealing with private manufacturers, and (c) to have under its own control a factory capable of producing experimental work. The history of this development is given in some detail, including statistics of size, valuations and output.
Technical Paper

HEAVY-FUEL CARBURETER-TYPE ENGINES FOR VEHICLES

1919-01-01
190069
Manufacturers of carbureters and ignition devices are called upon to assist in overcoming troubles caused by the inclusion of too many heavy fractions in automobile fuels. So far as completely satisfactory running is concerned, the difficulty of the problem with straight petroleum distillates is caused by the heaviest fraction present in appreciable quantity. The problems are involved in the starting, carburetion, distribution and combustion. An engine is really started only when all its parts have the same temperatures as exist in normal running, and when it accelerates in a normal manner. Two available methods, (a) installing a two-fuel carbureter, using a very volatile fuel to start and warm-up the engine, and (b) heating the engine before cranking by a burner designed to use the heavier fuel, are described and discussed.
Technical Paper

THE ENGINE-FUEL PROBLEM

1919-01-01
190045
The engine-fuel situation has changed almost overnight. Oil-consuming activities have taken on an accelerated expansion and the situation has shifted from excess supply to a position where demand is assuming the lead and is seeking a supply. A gasoline stringency, accompanied presumably by a marked rise in price, is a prospect to be anticipated. The production of gasoline is increasing more rapidly than the production of its raw material, crude petroleum. The available supply of the latter is very limited in view of the size of the demand. As a direct result of the situation, gasoline is changing in character and becoming progressively less volatile. The low thermal efficiency of the prevailing type of automotive apparatus contributes strongly to the demand for gasoline as engine fuel and has a bearing upon the quantity and the price of this specialized fuel.
Technical Paper

THE HIGH-COMPRESSION OIL ENGINE

1919-01-01
190039
THE ever-increasing demand for highly volatile fuels and constantly decreasing volatility, constitute a serious problem. Synthetic fuels have been suggested as a remedy, but these require a change in carburetion methods. It is the author's conviction that, if any redesigning is necessary, this should embody a combustion method by which any of the existing liquid hydrocarbons can be utilized and further change of method obviated, if a new fuel should later be developed. The high-compression engine is presented as a solution. Proof is offered that by its adoption any liquid hydrocarbon fuel can be utilized under any temperature condition and a real saving in fuel accomplished through increased thermal efficiency. Sustained effort should be made along these lines to increase thermal efficiency and provide an engine of adequate power, flexibility, ease of control and ability to operate on any of the fuels obtainable now or later.
Technical Paper

HOT SURFACE OIL ENGINES FOR INDUSTRIAL PURPOSES

1919-01-01
190036
THE oil engines described are for stationary or land installations and are of the “hot-surface” design with combustion at constant volume. Progress in the design is referred to and the thermal efficiency of modern designs is compared with that found in engines twenty-five years ago. Three important features are reviewed, namely: (a) Reliability, (b) first cost and (c) economy. Improvements in the design of spraying devices, and other details of construction which have brought about greater reliability, are referred to. Dimensions of large two and four-cycle oil engines are given, and the first costs of each type are contrasted. The greater economy of the modern oil engine as compared with the earlier type is explained. Indicator cards, test data, speed, weights and other details of interest are enumerated concerning the De La Vergne SI type of oil engine, this being an example of the results obtained in a modern hot-surface-type oil engine.
Technical Paper

WORKING PROCESSES OF INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES

1919-01-01
190058
A new type of automotive engine should be the quest of all designing engineers. Investigation has revealed the fact that 68 per cent of all tractor engine troubles occur in magnetos, spark-plugs and carbureters, the accessories of the present-day automotive engine. Four-fifths of the fuel energy supplied is regularly wasted, yet the fuel is a liquid meeting severe requirements of volatility, etc., and is already becoming scarce and costly. In an airplane, fuel is carried by engine power. In ocean-going cargo vessels it increases available revenue space. It is at once clear that for purely practical reasons the question of fuel economy, no less than the question of the nature of the fuel, becomes momentous. What fuel will do is entirely a question of what process it is put through in the engine; in what way combustion is turned into power.
Technical Paper

RADIO TELEPHONY

1919-01-01
190048
In a rapid and illuminating sketch of the early work done in electricity and magnetism the subtle and close connection between pure research and so-called industrial research is shown. Building on the work of Faraday, Maxwell and Hertz, Marconi, in our day, had the confidence to do the practical thing. From the Hertz oscillating system he passed to grounded antennas at both sending and receiving stations. From the well-understood tuning of electrical circuits and the coherer of Professor Branly he secured increased efficiency and selectivity. Mr. Edison, following the early work of J. J. Thomson at Cambridge University, England, devised the first practical application of the electron apparatus, the Edison relay. The vacuum tube became in the radio field an amplifier, an oscillator and a modulator, the audion. In addition to these interesting developments are the Poulsen arc, the Alexanderson alternator and other alternators of German design.
Technical Paper

POSSIBILITIES OF THE CONSTANT PRESSURE CYCLE

1916-01-01
160021
The authors first define the elementary conditions governing combustion efficiency, dividing these conditions into three main classes. They next compare engines operating on constant volume, constant temperature and constant pressure cycles, dealing specifically with the Otto, Diesel and semi-Diesel types. The main part of the paper is devoted to an outline of the constant pressure cycle, analyzing its advantages as compared with the merits of the constant volume cycle now used in internal-combustion engines. The paper is concluded with a detail description of a proposed constant pressure engine.
Technical Paper

LARGE SINGLE VERSUS DUAL SOLID TIRES FOR REAR TRUCK WHEELS

1916-01-01
160030
This paper is mainly an argument in favor of the use of large, single rear wheel truck tires instead of smaller dual tires. Although the practice of using large singles is comparatively new, the author gives the results of experience and research to show the advantages of the newer method of rear tire equipment. In developing his arguments in favor of single tires, the author goes into the history of dual tire application to show why it was necessary to use two tires in the earlier days of truck operation. As the necessity for increased carrying-capacity grew, tire manufacturers found the then existing single tire equipment inadequate, and they set about to develop suitable equipment to meet the new condition, the result being dual practice. The method of attaching the earlier dual tires is shown to have been poor, resulting in circumferential creeping of the whole tire to a much greater extent as the width of the dual equipment increased.
Technical Paper

THE FARM TRACTOR

1916-01-01
160034
Inasmuch as horses cannot meet the demand for increased farm power, the tractor must come at once. So far the supply of tractors has been entirely inadequate to meet the demand. The author specifiies some of the problems that confront designers of farm tractors. To make the tractor immediately available for farm work, it must be adaptable to practically all of the existing types of horse-drawn implements, besides furnishing belt power for a wide variety of present power-driven farm machinery. In designing tractors it must be remembered that the horse is a very flexible unit, capable of a wide variation in power output. Designing a tractor to furnish the necessary power for the majority of farm conditions, requires an intimate knowledge of crops, soils and farm management. These must be analyzed carefully so as to make the machine have as wide a range of usefulness as possible.
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