Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

DIAGRAMS FOR SHOWING HEADLAMP PERFORMANCE1

1923-01-01
230048
Instead of representing light intensity by lines to indicate photometric values the author recommends an arrangement for denoting the intensity by varying degrees of tint on the surface of a chart that is supposed to represent the roadway. In the opening paragraph the thought is brought out that present-day automobile lighting-equipment is not designed in such a way as to make its performance a selling feature and the several reasons why the efficient distribution of light on the road has been overlooked are pointed out, emphasis being laid on the fact that the average car-designer is not an illuminating engineer, and that even if he did wish to use the best light available on the car he would have to make personal tests of the devices under all conditions of night driving before being in a position to recommend the most efficient head-lighting device.
Technical Paper

PRODUCTION GRINDING IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY1

1923-01-01
230049
In production grinding the progress made during the past few years has been along the line of grinding multiple parts simultaneously, such as piston-rings, ball and roller-bearing cups and so forth. This kind of grinding brought about the use of wider wheels to cover the entire surface of the work, whereas formerly narrow wheels had been used with the traversing table method. With the development of these operations came the cylindrical grinding of square and distributor cams; also square shafts, using the oscillating cam-grinding attachments; piston-relief grinding with the same attachments; and two-wheel or double-wheel grinding for such parts as steering-knuckles and pinion shafts of different diameters or where two diameters are separated by some protrusion, as in steeringgear worm-shafts.
Technical Paper

FACTORS GOVERNING “OUT-OF-ROUNDNESS” MEASUREMENT1

1923-01-01
230051
It is stated that an out-of-round surface having an even number of high-spots requires a checking instrument that has opposed measuring points; and that, if the number of high-spots on the surface is uneven, an instrument having three-point contact, and one of the points of contact located on the center line between the other two, is necessary. Concerning the use of the three-point method, for close work, the angle between the three points of contact must be selected according to the number of high-spots. Divisions of the subject include types of out-of-roundness and those peculiar to certain machines, the three-point measurnig system, errors of the V-block method, use of the V-block for elliptical objects, other methods of checking elliptical forms and indicator-reading correction. Three items for instrument improvement are suggested to manufacturers.
Technical Paper

HOW TO USE GEAR-CUTTING HOBS

1923-01-01
230020
Detroit Section Paper - Since a gear is a product of the cutting tool, the gear-cutting machine and the operator, it can be no more accurate than the combined accuracy of these fundamental factors. All gear manufacturers aim to eliminate split bearings, high and low bearings, flats and other inaccuracies in tooth contour, because a gear having teeth the contours of which comply with the geometrical laws underlying its construction is by far the most satisfactory. Illustrations are presented to convey an understanding of the geometrical principles involved, together with other illustrations of testing instruments and comments thereon. The application of these instruments is termed quality control, which is discussed in some detail under the headings of hob control, machine control and gear control.
Technical Paper

DATA ON THE EFFECTIVE VOLATILITY OF MOTOR-FUELS1

1923-01-01
230009
Since the authors presented a paper on this subject that included the test results of only three fuels, the number of fuels investigated has been increased to 14 and several improvements have been made in the method relating to the manner of the preparation of the equilibrium solution and in the apparatus used for the measurement of vapor-pressures. In addition to describing these improvements, the present paper includes data on the fuels; a series of empirical curves from which it is possible to determine, aided by the data from the distillation curve, the dew-points of non-aromatic hydrocarbon fuel; a table showing a comparison of the more important properties of the fuels; and definite evidence that the 85-per cent point is the best single measure of the effective volatility of a motor-fuel, from a standpoint of distribution and crankcase-oil dilution.
Technical Paper

ONE HUNDRED TON-MILES PER GALLON1

1923-01-01
230034
The two-fold purpose of the tests described was to acquire as many data as possible regarding the peculiar requirements of motorbuses, as viewed from the standpoint of power requirements and fuel economy, and to analyze the discrepancy found so often between the performance of an engine on the test block and the fuel economy obtained from the same engine under actual service conditions. Following a general statement of conditions to be met, and an examination of the problems of the manufacturer as to why his choice of the various units and accessories is such a vital factor in fuel economy, the improvements accomplished are enumerated, together with the reasons and inclusive of the desirable and undesirable features of carbureter specification and miscellaneous factors. The test equipment and methods are specified and discussed, the results obtained when using a steam cooling-system are presented and the general results are stated and commented upon.
Technical Paper

PERTINENT FACTS CONCERNING MALLEABLE-IRON CASTINGS

1922-01-01
220020
Annual Meeting Paper - Addressing the structural engineer and the purchasing agent particularly, the author discusses the relationship between them and the foundryman with regard to malleable-iron castings and enumerates foundry difficulties. The characteristics necessitating adequate gating for such castings are described and illustrated, inclusive of considerations regarding pattern design, followed by a statement of the considerations that should influence the purchasing agent when dealing with foundrymen. Possible casting defects are described, illustrated and discussed, comment being made upon casting shrinkage and machinability. Improvements in annealing-oven construction and operation are reviewed and the records of 100 consecutive heats in different plants are tabulated. The materials for casting that compete with malleable iron are mentioned and its physical characteristics are considered in some detail.
Technical Paper

MANUFACTURE AND APPLICATION OF AUTOMOBILE VARNISHES

1922-01-01
220023
Dividing the ability of an automobile finish to remain new into the elements of proper quality of the materials, engineering of application systems, methods of application and care of the finish, the author states that the responsibility for them rests jointly upon the manufacturer of the varnishes and paints, the builder of the automobile and the owner of the finished product. Five basic materials that are necessary in automobile painting are specified and discussed. Engineering systems of application and the actual methods of application are treated in some detail, inclusive of drying, and of surfacing or rubbing. The care of the finish is important and the precautions necessary in this regard are outlined. The paper deals with the application and not the manufacture of the different varnishes and paints that are mentioned.
Technical Paper

COMMERCIAL AVIATION IN THE EASTERN HEMISPHERE

1921-01-01
210024
This paper is illuminative and affords an opportunity for better comprehension of the remarkable progress and accomplishment made in Europe along the lines of commercial aviation. Reviewing the present European routes now in regular or partial operation, the author stresses the essentialness of the attitude of the press in general being favorable if commercial aviation is to become wholly successful. The airship appears most practical for long-distance service, to the author, and he mentions the possibility of towns and cities growing up around “air ports.” The cost of airship travel is specified, although it is difficult to figure costs and necessary charges because so few data on the depreciation of equipment are available. Regarding successful operation, much depends upon the efficiency of the ground personnel and organization.
Technical Paper

THE PACKARD FUELIZER

1921-01-01
210037
The general requirements for ideal carburetion are considered first, as an introduction to what the Packard fuelizer is and how it functions. Since it is difficult to secure uniform distribution with what is termed a wet mixture, this problem is discussed in general terms and it is stated that the fuelizer was evolved only after several different types of exhaust-heated manifold had been tested and found wanting. Detonation is treated at some length, four specific rules being stated that apply to the most desirable mixture temperatures to be maintained, and the source of the ignition spark for the fuelizer is discussed as an important element in the device. Further consideration includes comments upon the comparative merits of the hot-spot and the fuelizer, “hot-spot” being intended to mean any of the exhaust-heated manifold-designs in which the heat is more or less localized.
Technical Paper

TRACTOR SERVICE REQUIREMENTS

1921-01-01
210031
The paper treats of the service, commercial and technical aspects of the subject in turn. The author calls attention to the fact that there can be no such thing as free service, because the customer pays in the end, and gives a specific definition of service. He argues that the engineering departments should urge upon merchandising departments intelligent distribution through dealers, the stocking of an adequate supply of parts and the maintaining of a well qualified mechanical force for the purpose of making engineering development work in the form of farm power automotive apparatus effective. There is a great need for a suitable system of training mechanics for tractor service work, and there should be a definite plan to assure that men making repairs and adjustments in the field are well qualified.
Technical Paper

PISTON-RINGS

1920-01-01
200075
The free, resilient, self-expanding, one-piece piston-ring is a product of strictly modern times. It belongs to the internal-combustion engine principally, although it is applicable to steam engines, air-compressors and pumps. Its present high state of perfection has been made possible only by the first-class material now available and the use of machine tools of precision. The author outlines the history of the gradual evolution of the modern piston-ring from the former piston-packing, giving illustrations, shows and comments upon the early types of steam pistons and then discusses piston-ring design. Piston-ring friction, the difficulties of producing rings that fit the cylinder perfectly and the shape of rings necessary to obtain approximately uniform radial pressure against the cylinder wall are considered at some length and illustrated by diagrams.
Technical Paper

TRACTOR WEIGHT AND DRAWBAR PULL

1920-01-01
200080
The best weight for a tractor of given horsepower must be a compromise based upon a mean of the many conditions to be encountered by a given machine or by different machines of the same model. While the weight logically will bear some relation to the drawbar pull, the latter in turn depends upon tractor speed. The next item is weight distribution, which requires the utmost skill of the designer; this is elaborated and diagrams are shown of tractors operating in comparatively firm and in soft ground, ascending a grade and when the drive-wheels are mired. The four-wheel-drive tractor requires a modification of the foregoing analysis and the diagrams are applied to afford a similar analysis for this type. The author's conclusion is that, while careful engineering will make the light-weight tractor of conventional type stable under most conditions, there is a possibility that any future trend toward lighter machines will open the field to other types.
Technical Paper

CURRENT DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRIES

1920-01-01
200035
The paper surveys the economic and engineering aspects of the automotive industry, so that engineers can align themselves with its future development. Better performance and longer life due to improved design and materials distinguish the 1920 car from its predecessors. One of the healthiest signs in the industry is the uniform determination of practically every manufacturer to improve the quality of his product. The designer has been forced to extend himself in getting the highest possible output from the smallest possible units. This trend is very noticeable. Conditions relating to prices, the return to peace-time production, the potential demand for cars and the present supply, and the probable improvements in cars are then reviewed, the thought then passing to a somewhat detailed discussion of detachable-head engines.
Technical Paper

FLEXIBILITY IN ORGANIZATION

1920-01-01
200036
The only direction in which flexibility of an organization can be considered is that of successful progress. Flexibility uncontrolled is liable to lead to retrogression instead of progression. During the war, every available unit of man-power was called into use, and all specialized intelligence was stretched almost to the breaking point. This was particularly true of the intelligence in the automotive industry. Demands were made in connection with the airplane, tanks, agricultural tractor and submarine chasers, as well as the more stabilized automobile and trucks. The most skilful men naturally gravitated to the most difficult work, in the problems surrounding the airplane and the tank, and, while in general there were not nearly enough men, the scarcity of skill was more noticeable in the older branches of the industry. It was there that the necessity for a flexible organization demonstrated itself. The first necessity was a rigid base from which progress could be made.
Technical Paper

CARBURETION AND DISTRIBUTION OF LOW-GRADE FUELS

1920-01-01
200052
Continued lowering in the grade of fuel obtainable compels automotive engineers to produce engines that will utilize it with maximum economy. The manufacture of Pacific coast engine-distillate with an initial-distillation point of about 240 and an end-point of 480 deg. fahr. was abandoned by the principal oil companies early in 1920. Utilizing this fuel efficiently through its period of declining values forced advance solution of some fuel problems prior to a general lowering of grade of all automotive fuels.
Technical Paper

MOTOR-BUS TRANSPORTATION

1920-01-01
200053
Since the Fifth Avenue Coach Co. of New York is the largest successful company operating motor-buses in this country, the author gives a rather comprehensive description of this company's systems and methods, stating the three main divisions as being the engineering, mechanical and transportation departments, and presenting an organization chart. Departments concerned with finance, auditing, purchasing, publicity, claims and the like, which follow conventional lines, are not considered. The engineering, research, mechanical, repair and operating departments are then described in considerable detail. Six specific duties and responsibilities of the research department are stated and six divisions of the general procedure in carrying out overhauls for the operating department are enumerated. Regarding fuel economy, high gasoline averages from the company's standpoint mean economy, well-designed and maintained equipment, and skilled and contented operatives.
Technical Paper

USE OF HEAVY FUEL IN AUTOMOTIVE ENGINES

1920-01-01
200049
Emphasizing the necessity of persuading fuel manufacturers to improve the suitability of internal-combustion engine fuel by the mixture of other materials with petroleum distillates, and realizing that efficiency is also dependent upon improved engine design, the author then states that results easily obtainable in the simplest forms of automotive engine when using fuel volatile at fairly low temperatures, must be considered in working out a future automotive fuel policy. The alternatives to this as they appear in the light of present knowledge are then stated, including design considerations. The principles that should be followed to obtain as good results as possible with heavy fuel in the conventional type of engine are then described. These include considerations of valve-timing and fuel distribution. Valve-timing should assist correct distribution, especially at the lower engine speeds.
Technical Paper

ENGINE PERFORMANCE

1919-01-01
190030
EVERY plow in use should have 10 b.-hp. available. Every tractor engine should deliver continuously at least 33 hp. If the 330-cu. in. engine mentioned were as good as a Liberty airplane engine, it could deliver 57 hp. at 1000 r.p.m. The horsepower actually obtained is as follows: 41.5 in the laboratory 33.0 at the factory 29.0 when burning gasoline 23.0 when burning kerosene 21.0 with poor piston-rings 19.0 with poor spark-plugs 9.5 available at the drawbar The great engineering problem of the future lies between the 57 and the 23 hp. From 19 to 9.5 hp. is the manufacturer's problem. The main difficulties, as outlined by the figures given, lie in the combustion chamber and its ability to dissipate the surplus heat, and in the limitations of fuel. There will be no need for refiners to continue to break up the heavier fuels by processes already so successful, if by ingenuity and good understanding of thermodynamics these can be made to burn in present-day engines.
Technical Paper

HEAVY-FUEL CARBURETER-TYPE ENGINES FOR VEHICLES

1919-01-01
190069
Manufacturers of carbureters and ignition devices are called upon to assist in overcoming troubles caused by the inclusion of too many heavy fractions in automobile fuels. So far as completely satisfactory running is concerned, the difficulty of the problem with straight petroleum distillates is caused by the heaviest fraction present in appreciable quantity. The problems are involved in the starting, carburetion, distribution and combustion. An engine is really started only when all its parts have the same temperatures as exist in normal running, and when it accelerates in a normal manner. Two available methods, (a) installing a two-fuel carbureter, using a very volatile fuel to start and warm-up the engine, and (b) heating the engine before cranking by a burner designed to use the heavier fuel, are described and discussed.
X