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Technical Paper

Uncontrolled Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engines

1954-01-01
540218
PREIGNITION, Mr. Heron points out, is an old, if not well-known, disease of Otto-cycle engines. Despite its long history, however, there is much confusion in the terms used to describe it and the other forms of uncontrolled combustion in spark-ignition engines. The author has tried to bring some order out of the confusion by defining the three terms: knock, preignition, and autoignition. He also relates his experiences with destructive, runaway preignition in aircraft engines during World War I. THIS paper and the four that follow, by Melby-Diggs-Sturgis, Hirschler-McCullough-Hall, Williams-Landis, and Winch, constitute the complete Symposium on Preignition that was presented at the 1953 SAE Summer Meeting. Discussion of all papers is published at the end of the last paper in the group, by Winch.
Technical Paper

A MODERN ENGINE TEST PLANT

1952-01-01
520095
A new type engine test plant is described, and service experience and cost information collected during six years of actual operation is given. The new design seems to give several advantages compared to conventional test plants, such as: Better sound proofing More compact size Higher capacity - up to 1200 engines per year per test bed may be run due to the sound proofing permitting round the clock operation and because very little time is lost on engine changes More convenient working conditions due to engine being installed at suitable working height above the floor and all work being carried out in regular shop standard localities Better engine cooling through ram pressure simulating airplane operation, and easily adjustable, sufficient air flow for the entire power range Better measuring facilities Constant induction air temperature and carburetor altitude chamber No requirements for auxiliary power (the amount absorbed by servo and lighting circuits is negligible).
Technical Paper

Research and Development in the United States Air Force

1952-01-01
520235
IN this paper Maj. -Gen. Putt presents the four major limitations today facing the United States Air Force. As mechanical limitations decrease, nature imposes ever new challenges; these natural barriers are paralleled by increased enemy interference, need for the development of new material, more efficient utilization of all resources, and the demand for automatic reliability which will compensate for the inadequacies of the human mind and body in combat flight operations. This factor of human frailty is cited as being responsible for explorations in the new and vast field of space medicine; also for the miniaturization of electronic equipment, leading to weight reduction and the resultant acceleration of development of pilotless aircraft. The writer stresses the dangers inherent in traditionalism, or the turning to the past at the expense of the dynamic future.
Technical Paper

ELIMINATION OF COMBUSTION KNOCK-TEXACO COMBUSTION PROCESS

1951-01-01
510173
AT least 30% more miles per gallon of fuel-this is the prediction of the authors for the Texaco combustion process or TCP typa of engine. The authors also make the following claims for TCP: 1. It ehminates combustion knock over a broad range of engine operating conditions, regardless of the octane number of the fuel used. 2. It can handle fuels of broad boiling range and it can burn very lean mixtures, with the re- sult that there is a high part-load efficiency and load control by fuel quantity alone. The conditions to be met for TCP operation and the permissible tolerances on these conditions were investigated by the authors and found to be commensurate with the requirements for construction, servicing, and use of engines. The requirements for high efficiency of engine operation are also outlined and the progress that has been made in this direction is illustrated by a comparison of TCP thermal efficiencies with those of otto- and diesel-cycle engines.
Technical Paper

Treatise On Experience: REVIEW OF SOME DETAIL DESIGN EXPERIENCES

1951-01-01
510162
PREFACE There always is a first time. There need not be a second. Many articles have been written to shake persons from a lethargy, or as might be better stated, to keep them from getting into a state of lethargy. The latter is the author's intent for this article. We apparently have not as yet learned the art of extending our total knowledge. We can accomplish complex and brilliant basic designs but then we miss some detail point, and the principle of that point missed may have been known for years. We can, and have, learned to profit by others experience. But not consistently. We have avoided repeating the difficulties of others. But there are times we miss. If this prior information or these experiences are not continually passed along to each and every one, then all cannot benefit and some must of necessity repeat the experiences of others. Some new person or group will then run the gamut, experience the same pitfall.
Technical Paper

AUTOMOTIVE DIFFERENTIALS

1951-01-01
510197
MANY of the automotive differentials that have been developed since the first one was built in 1827 are described here. The ideal differential would distribute torque equally to the two driven wheels being differentiated, under any condition of relative motion as dictated by ground speed. At the same time it would never permit torque to be applied to any one wheel in excess of the available traction without causing both wheels to slip simultaneously. The complete answer to this problem has not yet been found and, the authors admit, may be what we are looking for is a mechanical or electronic brain to do the job.
Standard

Water Solution Type Hand Fire Extinguisher

1948-11-01
HISTORICAL
AS245
.This specification covers the following types and classes of extinguishers: Type I Stored pressure type, Category A - Temperature range -40 to +140, Category B - Temperature range +35 to +140. Type II Cartridge operated type, Category A - Temperature range -40 to +140, Category B - Temperature range +35 to +140. To specify minimum requirements for a water solution type hand fire extinguisher which shall be suitable for use on incipient fires which may occur in an airplane cabin interior. The type of fire for which these units are intended is one involving combustible materials such as paper, textiles and similar materials
Technical Paper

DESIGN OF INSTRUMENT DIALS FOR EASE OF READING

1948-01-01
480220
THIS survey of psychological research in the field of reading aircraft and other instruments shows that the majority of serious errors cannot be eliminated by mere improvements in visibility, such as could be obtained by increases in size or illumination. Rather, it is said, we must find methods of indication that actually simplify the interpretational processes interposed between the seeing of an instrument and the making of an appropriate control action. For instance, it appears that most errors in the reading of such instruments as the altimeter can be eliminated by the use of a single-pointer instrument with a counter to indicate the number of revolutions of the pointer.
Standard

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS FOR AIRCRAFT ENGINES

1944-05-01
HISTORICAL
AS177
This specification covers the requirements for the preparation of Operating Instructions in published form or in manuscript form suitable for publication as designated herein.
Technical Paper

Relation of Diesel Fuel Properties to their Engine Performance

1940-01-01
400132
THAT reasonably good diesel fuel quality pays dividends is indicated by tests covering a good cross-section of present-day engine construction, the authors reveal. Beyond this point, there is little to be gained, they believe, and the most promising means of improving engine performance is in the hands of the engine designer and builder. The determination of suitable fuel characteristics for the modern high-speed diesel engine, they explain, resolves itself into two basic problems. The first is named as that involving engine life and maintenance costs, both of which are studied most satisfactorily in the field. The second problem is covered in their paper, and deals with engine performance as evidenced immediately after the fuel is put into the engine, they announce. An attempt was made, they report, to handle the test equipment in a manner which yields results directly applicable to the customer's problems.
Technical Paper

What About the Engine?

1939-01-01
390147
MR. TAUB predicts that the time for intensive work on the fuel-economy problem, such as has been done recently in England, is near at hand because of the imminence of increased fuel taxation. Tank mileage, he explains, depends on the ability of an engine to utilize lean mixtures- not just lean mixture from the carburetor, but modification of an engine to burn these lean mixtures without interference with flexibility or performance in any way. A study of what happens in the combustion chamber is cited as the major opportunity for engineering improvement in the ability to burn lean mixtures. In his discussion of his work at Vauxhall Motors, Mr. Taub considers wide gaps and their effect on ignition lag, long-reach spark plugs, tappet adjustment, effect of higher compression ratios, variation per cycle, detonation, and means of forecasting combustion roughness.
Technical Paper

Body Engineering - Past, Present and Conjecture as to Future

1939-01-01
390167
THE development in constructional design which appears to be nearest at hand is the so-called unit construction, Mr. Allen believes. Rear-engine mounting is inevitable, he reasons, if cars are to become more blunt of nose and more tapered at the tail, but the change-over will evolve slowly. Speculating on future body materials and processes, he first takes up the possibility of molding the complete body in large sections of some plastic material, giving his views on the improvements that must be made in the plastic materials and necessary changes in production equipment and processes. The three major periods - past, present, and future - are considered separately in the light of their influence upon: 1. The body engineer himself, his development, his ever-changing responsibilities and opportunities. 2. Constructional design and probable reasons for adopting each successive type of construction used. 3. Styling and contour changes, illustrating trends affecting outward appearance.
Technical Paper

Engine Flame Researches

1939-01-01
390173
CALLING knock “the cancer of engine combustion,” Mr. Boyd explains that his paper- a review of research on engine combustion which has been pursued steadily for many years - is concerned chiefly with this phenomenon. Of the many aids to observation which have been developed for the research, or adapted to it, he describes first an optical engine indicator by means of which it was observed early that knock is not caused by preignition, as was then thought, but that it arises from a pressure disturbance which occurs several degrees after the ignition spark.
Technical Paper

The Ear as a Noise-Measuring Instrument

1936-01-01
360136
OF all problems involving noise measurement, the human ear is the final judge and the court of last resort. In most situations, as in the case of the motor-car buyer, it is the untrained ear of the average customer that ultimately passes judgment. Likewise in all instrument calibration, it is necessary in the final analysis to depend upon the ear as a basis. For this reason the measurement of noise must be so conducted that results and predictions will agree with ear judgments. A discussion is given of the various characteristics of noise that the ear recognizes, that is, loudness, pitch, quality, and discomfort or annoyance. The physical quantities corresponding to these psychological characteristics are discussed, and also methods of converting from one set of quantities to the other. The experimentally established relationships between pitch, loudness, and annoyance are given.
Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption Problems

1936-01-01
360103
THE fuel consumption prevailing today is no better than it was five years ago. Higher road speeds are responsible. Cars in the hands of owners today are below potential economy between 10 and 15 per cent. Minor adjustments can correct this. Phasing of the burn with valve and piston movement is necessary for economy. Spark-plug position relative to the whole chamber is important. Spark-plug points position inward is important. The spark-plug gap width must be worked out. Mixture “fish hooks” to determine leanest mixture that will burn without raggedness, are the yardstick. Mixture distribution is important. The attitude of today is that a specific type of manifold does not exist. The manifold must be “tailored” to fit individual conditions. Offside mixtures out of the carburetor is real problem of distribution. Exhaust dilution of the mixture is the handicap to clean operation with lean mixtures. Timing is the most important avenue of progress.
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