Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

RELATION OF THE TRACTOR TO THE IMPLEMENT

1919-01-01
190059
The author considers the adaptation of farming implements to the farm tractor the most important engineering problem confronting tractor manufacturers. The problems are intricate in their ramifications, all-inclusive in their scope and fundamental. They can never be solved by theoretical discussion and laboratory tests alone. Extensive field experiments are needed with the machines operated by the farmers themselves. It is the implement which does the work. The mold-board plow and the disk harrow are standard for soil preparation; the oscillating sickle, the reel and the knotter-head for harvesting; the revolving toothed cylinder and the oscillating rack for threshing. Power must be transmitted to these fundamental devices. The automotive tractor fills a place in the farm power field not successfully covered heretofore by any single prime mover.
Technical Paper

WORKING PROCESSES OF INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES

1919-01-01
190058
A new type of automotive engine should be the quest of all designing engineers. Investigation has revealed the fact that 68 per cent of all tractor engine troubles occur in magnetos, spark-plugs and carbureters, the accessories of the present-day automotive engine. Four-fifths of the fuel energy supplied is regularly wasted, yet the fuel is a liquid meeting severe requirements of volatility, etc., and is already becoming scarce and costly. In an airplane, fuel is carried by engine power. In ocean-going cargo vessels it increases available revenue space. It is at once clear that for purely practical reasons the question of fuel economy, no less than the question of the nature of the fuel, becomes momentous. What fuel will do is entirely a question of what process it is put through in the engine; in what way combustion is turned into power.
Technical Paper

TORQUE RECOIL AND CAR WEIGHT

1919-01-01
190053
Few points have aroused such discussion among users and engineers as that of the desirable number of cylinders in an engine. A large part of the work of the author has been in the direction of attaining the same ends as those achieved by the multi-cylinder engine but by different means. He discusses the relations between torque at clutch and number of cylinders and multicylinder engines and uniform torque, the factors governing torque recoil, torque recoil as a function of car weight and engine balance. His conclusion is that the multi-cylinder engine now so widely used exceeds the real requirements and obtains its smoothness of operation at the expense of more desirable qualities. A reduction in car weight would in his opinion enable existing standards of performance to be maintained and even improved by the use of four cylinders for the heavier type, with all that this means in tremendous advantages to the automotive industry and to the user.
Technical Paper

THE PASSENGER CAR OF THE FUTURE

1919-01-01
190051
The limit of acceleration has been reached. What may well be considered a maximum for practical service has been secured. The present seven-passenger body is as roomy as could be desired. There should be no need for further increase in size. The author believes the total weight of this large car will be reduced to between 3500 to 4000 lb. To make this reduction without sacrifice of durability greater use must be made of alloy steels and aluminum alloys. The tendency in body design and style is toward smoother lines, fewer breaks and a more graceful contour. The number of closed cars is increasing. There will be a general simplification of detail throughout, better wiring, better lubrication, an increased use of oilless bushings and fewer grease-cups. Brakes and wearing parts will be made more accessible and easier of adjustment. The take-up points for the various adjustments will be placed so that they can be reached with ease.
Technical Paper

THE FUTURE PASSENGER CAR

1919-01-01
190049
Efficiency, appearance and comfort will be the catchwords of the car of the future. Extreme simplicity of chassis will be needed to reduce weight and permit the use of substantial sheet-metal fenders, mud-guards and bodies. The center of gravity should be as low as possible consistent with good appearance. For comfort the width and angle of seats will be studied more carefully and the doors will be wider. A new type of spring suspension is coming to the fore, known as the three-point cantilever. Cars adopting it will have a certain wheelbase and a longer spring base. A car equipped with this new mechanism has been driven at 60 m.p.h. in safety and comfort without the use of shock absorbers or snubbers. It is the opinion of the author that this new spring suspension will revolutionize passenger-car construction.
Technical Paper

THE ENGINE-FUEL PROBLEM

1919-01-01
190045
The engine-fuel situation has changed almost overnight. Oil-consuming activities have taken on an accelerated expansion and the situation has shifted from excess supply to a position where demand is assuming the lead and is seeking a supply. A gasoline stringency, accompanied presumably by a marked rise in price, is a prospect to be anticipated. The production of gasoline is increasing more rapidly than the production of its raw material, crude petroleum. The available supply of the latter is very limited in view of the size of the demand. As a direct result of the situation, gasoline is changing in character and becoming progressively less volatile. The low thermal efficiency of the prevailing type of automotive apparatus contributes strongly to the demand for gasoline as engine fuel and has a bearing upon the quantity and the price of this specialized fuel.
Technical Paper

HEAT-FLOW THROUGH CYLINDER WALLS

1918-01-01
180008
Modern requirements have already forced the rotative speed of high-duty gas and oil engines to a point where the difficulty of heat-flow control, especially with cast iron cylinders, tends to arrest further progress in this direction. In view of this inherent limitation the art of high-speed engine design can best be advanced, not by continued experimental exploration, but rather by first establishing the basic principles underlying heat-flow effects. The purpose of the present paper is to demonstrate that every internal-combustion engine of given size and type has a safe speed limit and that this can be predetermined upon a rational heat-flow basis. This paper provides an explicit method of procedure, by means of which the design characteristics of a normal gas or oil engine can be critically analyzed for heat-flow effects.
Technical Paper

HEAT-BALANCE TESTS OF AUTOMOBILE ENGINES

1917-01-01
170003
The authors outline some of the problems that confront the automobile engineer today, showing how the demand for better performance and economy and the ever-increasing cost of volatile fuels has emphasized the necessity for thorough engineering work in the successful automobile manufacturing plant. Believing that the accurate analysis of the heat distribution in a modern automobile engine will be of great value, the authors describe a comprehensive test, made under their direction, of such an engine. This test includes measurements of the brake horsepower, friction horsepower, fuel consumption and heat losses to jackets, exhaust and cooling air. The engine tested was inclosed in a hood, similar to that used on the car in normal service and an air blast was directed through this hood at speeds approximating those at which the engine would drive a car with a given gear ratio.
Technical Paper

FUNDAMENTALS OF A SUCCESSFUL KEROSENE-BURNING TRACTOR ENGINE

1917-01-01
170029
After noting that the early development of the automobile industry took place at a time when gasoline was a drug on the market, this paper reviews the cycle of operations of a standard gasoline engine in order to point out its limitations and the possibilities of utilizing a less volatile fuel than gasoline and of securing lower consumptions of fuels of all kinds. Compression and expansion limitations and the reduction of mean effective pressures at light loads are considered. Disadvantages of throttling control are pointed out, citing as a parallel example the trend of steam engine design away from this means of control. The author then outlines the advantageous features of the improved Diesel engine design, and by means of curves shows the great fuel economy of this type as compared with gasoline engines. He concludes by defining “the ideal tractor engine.”
Technical Paper

PROBLEMS OF CRANKSHAFT DESIGN

1917-01-01
170040
The forces necessary to induce and maintain gasoline engine speeds of 3000 r.p.m. or faster, as well as other forces closely associated with high speeds, are numerous. The author has, however, confined his discussion to the three most important groups of forces upon which, in the main, the smooth running and the life of an engine depend. The different component forces were determined in respect to two engines of equal capacity for twenty-four crank positions, uniformly spaced at intervals of 30 degrees, which constitutes two revolutions and one complete cycle in the case of four-stroke cycle engines. Medium-sized six and twelve-cylinder engines were chosen for investigation. Corresponding components were combined as resultant forces and graphically represented in magnitude and direction. Several such characteristic diagrams of the resultant forces acting upon crankpins and main bearings of the two engines investigated are reproduced throughout the paper.
Technical Paper

LABORATORY TESTING IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

1917-01-01
170043
This paper emphasizes the importance of using standardized testing equipment in order that mental calculations may be avoided in interpreting the reports of other engineers. The situation and environments of the engine-testing plant, cooperation among the men conducting tests, standardized methods of conducting tests, value of venturi meters and testing of accessories are among the subjects discussed in the first part of the paper. The subject of the testing of engine cooling systems is treated at some length, the importance of obtaining operating conditions being emphasized. The paper concludes with two sections covering spark-plug testing and tests for preignition.
Technical Paper

DESIGN OF AN ENDURING TRACTOR

1917-01-01
170049
After a few general introductory remarks the author outlines the operating requirements for tractors, and takes up the matter of the proper sizes of tractors, stated in horsepowers per given number of plows. The use of lower-grade fuels, value of water in the engine, cylinder construction, methods of lubrication and design of drive-wheels are the subjects covered by the balance of the paper.
Technical Paper

MAGNETO VS. BATTERY IGNITION

1917-01-01
170050
This paper discusses the principles of battery ignition and then describes high-tension magneto ignition. A comparison between the two types of ignition is given, and the paper concludes by illustrating diagrammatically how and why a very hot spark causes the engine to produce more power and to economize on fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

METROPOLITAN SECTION PAPERS TREATMENT OF HYDROCARBON FUELS

1917-01-01
170046
The author states that the objects of the paper are to define and trace the development of the various processes of carburetion, and to offer such suggestions along these lines as may assist the investigator in developing motorboats, automobiles and self-contained unit motor cars for railway purposes. The surface carburetor is mentioned chiefly as of historic interest. In considering the jet carbureter the author discusses the proportion of gas desired, the effect of the varying inertia of the air and the liquid gasoline and the breaking up of the combustible needed. Following sections review the devices for using kerosene, such as gasoline jet carbureters to which heat is applied, devices of the fixed gas type, the introduction of combustible directly into the cylinder, forcing combustible directly upon a hot surface in the cylinder and devices which raise the combustible to the boiling point.
Technical Paper

SOLVING THE GASOLINE PROBLEM

1917-01-01
170047
The author first compares mineral oils with certain other liquids in order to point out clearly certain of their characteristics. He then shows the economic benefits that would result from making more of the crude available for use as fuels. He discusses such topics as cracking methods in use, advantages of dry gas, initial flame propagation, gas producers, hot mixtures, wet mixtures and difficulties of correcting existing engines. He concludes by proposing as a solution of the gasoline problem the more general use of superheated homogeneous fixed dry gases made in vaporizing devices independent of engine cylinders, and outlines means for attaining this end. Performance data covering the use of mixtures of kerosene and gasoline on several cars are included in a table, and several charts throughout the paper illustrate many of the topics discussed.
Technical Paper

CARBURETER INVESTIGATIONS

1916-01-01
160035
The results are given of laboratory investigations made of a number of different types of carbureters, showing the relation between their gasoline and air consumptions over a wide range. This relation is plotted on so-called quality diagrams, on which is indicated the range between which high power and high efficiency can be expected. A description is given of a carbureter arranged in two stages, the first being used at light load and the second coming into action when the throttle is nearly open, thereby more than doubling the carbureter capacity. Engine performance curves are presented showing the result when only one or both stages of this carbureter are used.
Technical Paper

THE FARM TRACTOR

1916-01-01
160034
Inasmuch as horses cannot meet the demand for increased farm power, the tractor must come at once. So far the supply of tractors has been entirely inadequate to meet the demand. The author specifiies some of the problems that confront designers of farm tractors. To make the tractor immediately available for farm work, it must be adaptable to practically all of the existing types of horse-drawn implements, besides furnishing belt power for a wide variety of present power-driven farm machinery. In designing tractors it must be remembered that the horse is a very flexible unit, capable of a wide variation in power output. Designing a tractor to furnish the necessary power for the majority of farm conditions, requires an intimate knowledge of crops, soils and farm management. These must be analyzed carefully so as to make the machine have as wide a range of usefulness as possible.
Technical Paper

FOUR-CYLINDER ENGINES OF TO-DAY*

1916-01-01
160043
The paper gives the value of certain factors in engine design that are good practice and uses these values to calculate the horsepower of a four-cylinder engine. The author holds that the deciding factor in comparing four-cylinder engines with those of the same displacement but with a greater number of cylinders, is the thermal efficiency. Both the cooling medium and the mechanical losses increase in proportion to the number of cylinders. He suggests in closing, that the demand for power output beyond the possibilities of four cylinders must be met by the use of a greater number.
Technical Paper

FIELD OF FOUR-CYLINDER ENGINES*

1916-01-01
160042
The author confines his discussion to engines used on pleasure cars, inasmuch as practically all commercial vehicles use the four-cylinder type. The performance expected of their cars by automobile owners is outlined, particularly as regards performance, durability and maintenance cost. In-asmuch as the horsepower required is often determined by the acceleration demanded, the argument in favor of four-cylinder engines is based mainly on a comparison of its acceleration performance with those of engines having a larger number of cylinders. A number of acceleration curves are given for these engines. The paper next considers smoothness of operation at low, medium and high running speeds, asserting that the decrease in inertia forces due to lighter reciprocating parts has made it possible to increase the speed and thus reduce remarkably the vibration of the four-cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

POSSIBILITIES OF THE CONSTANT PRESSURE CYCLE

1916-01-01
160021
The authors first define the elementary conditions governing combustion efficiency, dividing these conditions into three main classes. They next compare engines operating on constant volume, constant temperature and constant pressure cycles, dealing specifically with the Otto, Diesel and semi-Diesel types. The main part of the paper is devoted to an outline of the constant pressure cycle, analyzing its advantages as compared with the merits of the constant volume cycle now used in internal-combustion engines. The paper is concluded with a detail description of a proposed constant pressure engine.
X