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Technical Paper

Machinability and parametric optimization of Inconel 600 using Taguchi-Desirability analysis under dry environment

2019-10-11
2019-28-0068
Inconel 600 is a face-centered cubic structure and nickel-chromium alloy. Alloy 600 has good resistance to oxidation, corrosion resistant, excellent mechanical properties and good creep rupture strength at higher temperature. Alloy 600 is used in chemical and food processing, heat treating, phenol condensers, soap manufacture, vegetable, and fatty acid vessels. In this context, the present paper investigates the machinability characteristics of Alloy 600 under dry environment. Also, the parametric effect of cutting speed, feed rate and cutting depth on the force, surface roughness and tool wear are carried out using 3-Dimensional surface and 1-Dimensional plots. The optimal parameters are determined systematically based on Taguchi-desirability analysis with turned with TiAlN coated carbide insert. From the graphical analysis of collected data, the low rate of feed and moderate cutting for roughness and cutting force and average feed rate for tool wear with low cutting depth.
Technical Paper

Investigation of machinability characteristics and chip morphology on Inconel 718: Dry and MQL

2019-10-11
2019-28-0066
Nickel based superalloys Inconel 718 has a unique property. It contains oxidation corrosion resistant materials. This property makes it highly suitable for extreme environments subjected to pressure and heat. In the present study, dry and MQL(Minimum Quantity Lubrication) experiments are carried out on Inconel 718 alloy based on designed L16 orthogonal array using the advanced coated cutting tool and uncoated tool, respectively. The levels of turning parameters are varied at 70, 120, 170 and 220 m/min of turning speed, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25 mm/rev of feed rate and 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mm of cutting depth. The cutting forces, surface roughness, flank wear, and chip morphology are taken for current investigation. The factor effect on output responses is studied using responses surface 3D and 1D plots.
Technical Paper

Investigation of machinability characteristics on turning of Nimonic 90A using Al2O3 and CNT Nanofluids in Groundnut oil

2019-10-11
2019-28-0072
Nimonic 90A alloy is a nickel-chromium-cobalt alloy and found as a potential material for turbine blades, discs, forgings, a ring section, and hot-working tools. This paper presents the effect of concentration along with cutting speed and feed rate on Fz: cutting force, Ra: surface roughness and Vba: tool wear with the application of two different nanofluids (NFS) on turning of Nimonic 90A by AlTiN PVD carbide cutting inserts. The nanoparticles suspended in oil taken for present investigation are nAl2O3, nCNT, and groundnut oil. The Taguchi L9 orthogonal array parameter design and response surface optimization has been employed. 3D surface plots, 1D main effects plots, Taguchi S/N and variance tests are used to study the effect of concentration on the machining of Nimonic 90A. The statistical analysis revealed % concentration for nCNT and cutting speed for nAl2O3 are found as an influenced parameter on performance characteristics.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation on turning characteristics of TiC/MoS2 nanoparticles reinforced Al7075 using TiN coated cutting tool

2019-10-11
2019-28-0165
In recent years, aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMC) are found as a potential material for numerous applications owing to its good tribological and mechanical properties. In this work, the machining characteristics of aluminum alloy (Al7075) reinforced with TiC/MoS2 having nanoparticle. The samples of aluminum metal matrix composites by varying TiC in 0, 2 and 4 and MoS2 in 0 and 2 of the percentage weight of aluminum alloy (Composite 1(Al7075), Composite 2 (Al7075/2TiC/2MoS2) and composite 3 (Al7075/4TiC/2MoS2), respectively) are fabricated by the stir-casing method. The turning characteristics of the developed metal matrix composites are studied at various parameters such as cutting velocity (30 m/min, 60 m/min and 90 m/min), cutting depth (0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm) and composites (1, 2 and 3) using TiN coated cutting tool by dry turning at 0.05 mm/rev feed rate.
Technical Paper

Fabrication and machinability study of Al2219 metal matrix composites reinforced with SiN/MoS2 nanoparticles

2019-10-11
2019-28-0170
Composites materials are substituting constituents for traditional materials due to their remarkable properties, and the addition of nanoparticles gives a new development in the material domain. The nanoparticles influence on fabrication and machinability investigation study is essential as the composites to be used in applications like automotive and aerospace. The current study investigates the machinability characteristics of Al2219 based metal composites reinforced with nanoparticles of SiN/MoS2. Al2219- reinforcements (SiN and MoS2) composites are fabricated by the method of stir casting. Four different compositions (Al2219/SiN (2 wt% and 4 wt%), , Al2219/2 wt.% SiN/ 2 wt.% MoS2, Al2219/2 wt.% MoS2) are fabricated by varying the different weight percentages of nanoparticles reinforcements. An attempt is made to study the investigation analysis of force, surface roughness, and tool wear using CNC machine lathe to consider the effect of cutting speed, cutting depth and samples.
Technical Paper

Squeak behavior of plastic interfaces

2019-10-11
2019-28-0083
Automotive is getting advanced and increasingly comfortable with new technologies and demand from customers. Car cabins have become much quieter as compared yesteryears. Where the outside noise has gone down significantly, secondary and small noises like squeak and rattle have become more prominent. Squeak though a transient and short lived, is an unexpected noise and often considered as an irritant. There is an increasing need felt to eliminate squeak completely from the interiors of the vehicle where choice materials play dominant role. This article briefs about the work done on evaluating different plastic interfaces for squeak behavior using Stick-Slip method. Some plastic surfaces were even tested with other interfaces like leather and vinyl coated fabrics. Choice of plastic material and interfaces to be tested were shortlisted after studying many different vehicles and benchmarking.
Technical Paper

Turning of Inconel 825 with coated carbide tool applying vegetable-based cutting fluid mixed with CUO, Al2O3 and CNT Nanoparticles by MQL

2019-10-11
2019-28-0060
Inconel 825 is nickel (Ni)-iron (Fe)-chromium (Cr) alloy with additions of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), and titanium (Ti). The alloy has excellent resistance to corrosion and is often the most cost-effective alloy in sulphuric acid piping vessels and chemical process equipment. No attempt of applying MQL with the addition of nanoparticles was reported conferring to the works accessed. The present study is focused on evaluating the effect of the addition of nanoparticles (CUO, Al2O3 and CNT) in vegetable oil applied by MQL mode during turning of Inconel 825 with coated carbide tool. Cutting force, surface roughness and tool wear are evaluated. The results showed that the addition of nCNT substantially improved the machining performance, smaller flank and crater wear on the tool edge, while the adhesion and abrasion are observed as wear mechanism and better results are obtained at 0.5% of nCNT+ vegetable oil to produce the lowest values.
Technical Paper

Parameter optimization during minimum quantity lubrication turning of Inconel 625 alloy with CUO, Al2O3 and CNT Nanoparticles dispersed vegetable-oil-based cutting fluid

2019-10-11
2019-28-0061
Inconel 625, nickel based alloy, is found in gas turbine blades, seals, rings, shafts, and turbine disks. Application of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) in turning process provides as an advanced and green machining concept. The addition of nanoparticle of weight percentage parameters along with machining parameters has a significant influence on the machining characteristics and so, parameter optimization is vital role to obtain the best machining performance. In this study, MQL with CUO, Al2O3 and CNT nanoparticles dispersed vegetable-oil-based cutting fluid is prepared in turning of Inconel 625. The nanofluids are prepared by dispersing 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 wt% into vegetable oil-based nanofluids to improve the machining characteristics of the Inconel 625. Then Taguchi-Desirability analysis optimization method is used to evaluate the effect of MQL+ machining parameters on the turning characteristic and determine the optimal conditions combination.
Technical Paper

Study of Mechanical Properties of Similar and Dissimilar Metals of Monel 400 and SS 321by using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Process

2019-10-11
2019-28-0141
In the present study the fabrication of joints between the nickel base alloys and steels of various grades have been under taken, joining of these metals has assumed new importance by virtue of their widespread in nuclear and aerospace applications. Such joints provide excellent strength, oxidation and corrosion resistance. This paper deals with the study of weldability, and mechanical properties of weld joints of two different alloys such as nickel based alloy- monel 400 and austenitic stainless steel AISI 321. The joining of the similar and dissimilar metals is carried out by GTAW process by employing two different types of filler rods such as SS321 and ERNiCrMo-3.
Technical Paper

Experimental study on tool wear and cutting temperature during machining of Nimonic C-263 and Waspaloy based on Taguchi Method and Response Surface Methodology

2019-10-11
2019-28-0144
Nickel based materials of Nimonic C-263 and Waspaloy are used nowadays for aerospace applications owing to its superior strength properties that are maintained at a higher temperature. Tool wear and cutting temperature in the vicinity of cutting edge are two essential machinability characteristics for any cutting tool. In this regard, this study is pursued to examine the influence of factors on measuring of tool wear (Vba) and cutting temperature (Ts) during dry machining of two alloys are studied experimentally based on Taguchi method and Response surface methodology. Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array is used to design the experiment and a PVD (TiAlN), CVD (TiN/Al2O3/TiCN) coated carbide inserts are used on turning of two alloys. The factor effect on output responses is studied using analysis of variance, empirical models and responses surface 3D plots. To minimize the response and to convert into one single optimum level, responses surface desirability function approach is applied.
Technical Paper

Corrosion and Corrosive Wear of Steel for Automotive Exhaust Application

2019-10-11
2019-28-0178
In the current scenario, durable exhaust system design, development and manufacturing are mandatory for the vehicle to be competitive and challenging in the automotive market. Material selection for the exhaust system plays a major role due to the increased warranty requirements and regulatory compliances. The materials used in the automotive exhaust application are cast iron, stainless steel, mild steel. The materials of the exhaust systems should be heat resistant, wear and corrosion resistant. Stainless steel is the most commonly used material in the automotive exhaust system. Due to increasing cost of nickel and some other alloying elements, there is a need to replace the stainless steel with EN 8 steel. Recent trends are towards light weight concepts, cost reduction and better performance. In order to reduce the cost and to achieve better wear and corrosion resistance, the surface of the EN 8 steel is modified with coatings.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulation on turbulent forced convection of CuO-Water Nanofluids in a horizontal circular pipe

2019-10-11
2019-28-0131
The present study provides a detailed investigation on simulation of Copper oxide nanofluids in a simple horizontal circular pipe considering turbulent forced convection, with a constant heat flux boundary condition. The simulation is carried out using three different models available in fluent viz. Newtonian single phase model, Eulerian-mixture and Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase models. The Reynold number of the flow is varied along with volume concentration of nanoparticles varying from low to high. Nanofluids rheology is studied by considering standard k-ε two equation turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment considering appropriate wall y+ values. The effective temperature dependent thermo-physical properties for nanofluids were seized from the literatures. The results from the simulation clearly showed an increase in the heat transfer characteristics with the addition of nanofluids compared to that of base fluid alone.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation Mechanical and Corrosion Characteristics of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloy 7075-T6

2019-10-11
2019-28-0175
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a quite new solid-state joining process. This joining technique is energy efficient, environment friendly, and adaptable. In particular, it can be used to join high-strength Aluminium alloys and other metallic alloys that are difficult to weld by conventional fusion welding. Friction Stir Welding heats metal to the temperature below re crystallization. FSW avoids welding defects like porosity and hot cracking which are frequently in conventional welding techniques due to alloy’s very low re-crystallization temperature and higher heat dissipating nature. This process combining deformation heating and mechanical work to obtain high defect free joints. Aluminum alloy 7075-T6 is generally used in various industrial applications such as automobile, ship building and aerospace due to their light weight, good mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

Tensile and Fatigue behavior of shallow cryogenically treated En19 alloy steel

2019-10-11
2019-28-0100
Wear, tensile and axial fatigue tests were conducted on shallow cryogenically treated En19 medium carbon alloy steel to investigate its mechanical behavior. The test samples are conventionally heat treated then oil quenched at 34 ˚C. Followed by the samples were kept under shallow cryogenic treatment to -80˚C for 12 hours using liquid nitrogen. Then the samples were tempered in a muffle furnace to relieve the induced residual stresses. Wear, Tensile and axial fatigue test was carried out on both treated and non-treated samples to measure its wear resistance, tensile strength and fatigue behavior respectively. Microscopic examination also done using scanning electron microscope to compare the effect of shallow cryogenic treatment on its microstructure. The results exposed that there is a reduction in the tensile strength and fatigue life of shallow cryogenically treated samples over base metal and improved wear resistance.
Technical Paper

Critical wear assessment of AA8011/Hybrid metal matrix composites with surface amendment using Friction Stir process

2019-10-11
2019-28-0096
Friction Stir Process (FSP) was used for surface modification of steel, titanium, aluminum and magnesium based alloy has been considerably reviewed during the last decade. FSP can improve surface properties such as abrasion resistance, hardness, strength, ductility, corrosion resistance, fatigue life and formability without affecting the bulk properties of the material. The aluminum alloy having low ductility and softness characteristics are restricted because of their poor tribological properties. Preliminary studies reveal that, an ideal circumstance is to improve the aluminum alloy material life cycles by the way of strengthening the surface layer which can be modified through reinforcing nano particles through FSP. By the way, this experiment was carried out to obtain three set of samples like virgin AA8011, AA8011 with shape memory alloy and AA8011 along with shape memory alloy and silicon nitride during FSP under optimal process parametric condition.
Technical Paper

Assessment of tribo meter study of 20MnCr5 alloy steel under case hardened and shot peened condition

2019-10-11
2019-28-0098
This research is constrained to study the strength and wear resistance of 20MnCr5 (SAE 5120) alloy steel under monolithic, case hardened and case hardened with shot peening processing condition. Improve the hardness of the material by enhancing the core and surface strength of case hardened with shot peened sample. The principle goal of this proposed work is to conduct the tribo meter test for the three test samples by differing the load of 5, 10, 15 and 20N and sliding speed of 290,580,870 rpm respectively. The impact on tribo meter process parameters on wear rate and co-efficient of friction be calculated and recorded for this study. Less wear rate and nominal co-efficient of friction was observed for case hardened with shot peened sample. Load and sliding distance increases wear rate decreases and co-efficient of friction increases for all the tested samples due to oxide layer formation.
Technical Paper

Multi response optimization on machining Titanium alloy using Taguchi-DEAR analysis in abrasive water jet cutting

2019-10-11
2019-28-0070
It is very important to derive the optimal process parameters combination in EDM process to enhance its efficacy. In the present study an attempt has been made to perform multiple criteria decision making using Taguchi-Methodology in EDM process. Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy has been machined as workpiece specimen with tungsten carbide tool electrode. Material removal rate, surface roughness and tool wear rate has been used as performance measures. From the experimental results, the optimal process parameters has been found. It has been observed Peak current has more influential nature on determining the performance measures in EDM process.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Study on Electrothermally Actuated Novel Compliant Micro-gripper

2019-10-11
2019-28-0032
At Micron-levels, Thermal Actuation provides higher forces compared to the largely-used electrostatic mode of actuation. To achieve larger displacements at lesser voltages, the principle of Electro thermal actuation is used. It works on the principle of selective non-uniform Joule heating; which results in thermal expansion of the specimen due to constraints. The gripper proposed in this work is analyzed using FEA and is fabricated using Aluminum and stainless steel to achieve quicker response. The in-plane displacement, strain, stress, current density and temperature have been predicted for different magnitudes of current-voltage combination that the gripper sustains. It was found that, micro gripper performs well under 1v giving 60µm displacement. Parametric sweep was carried out using commercially available FEA software package; COMSOL Multiphysics, to study and analyse the effect of different parameters on the performance of the gripper.
Technical Paper

Advances in Laser Welding of Stainless Steel Alloys

2019-10-11
2019-28-0056
As a fusion welding process, Laser welding has proven to be the most promising method for joining of different materials it can be either a similar or dissimilar material category.
Technical Paper

Development and Influence of Setting Process Variables in Single Point Incremental Sheet Metal Forming of AA 8011 Using Complex Proportional Assessment and ANOVA.

2019-10-11
2019-28-0064
Single point Incremental shaping (SPIF) is a metal forming process which rose to unmistakable quality toward the start of the 1990s. ISF is an exceedingly limited twisting procedure in which a device, modified to take after a specific direction, moves over a sheet metal and structures the coveted shape. During the SPIF, process parameters such as the Axial Feed (mm), Feed (mm/min), tool Diameter (mm) and Depth (mm) at the specimen interface greatly influence in the Cone shaped Mechanical quality such as Maximum Thinning (mm), Cone Height (mm), Wall Angle (mm) & Forming Time (min) of Forming. The aim of the present work is to study these parameters while build up a cone quality, were formed by VMC. To carry out a detailed study of these parameters, experiments were conducted by using the L9 orthogonal array. The output parameters such as affecting mechanical quality were analysed by COPRAS (Complex Proportional Assessment of alternatives) technique and ANNOVA.
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