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Technical Paper

A Method for Identifying Most Significant Vehicle Parameters for Controller Performance of Autonomous Driving Functions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0446
In this paper a method for the identification of most significant vehicle parameters influencing the behavior of a lateral control system of autonomous car is presented. Requirements for the design stage of the controller need to consider many uncertainties in the plant. While most vehicle properties can be compensated by an appropriate tuning of the control parameters, other vehicle properties can change significantly during usage. The control system is evaluated based on performance measures. Analyzed parameters comprise functional tire characteristics, mass of the vehicle and position of its center of gravity. Since the parameters are correlated, but Sobol’ sensitivity analysis assumes decorrelated inputs, random variation yields no reasonable results. Furthermore, the variation of each parameter or set of parameters is not applicable since the numbers of required simulations is increased significantly according to input dimension.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Pitch Control for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0451
On the dual-motor electric vehicle, which is driven by two electric motors mounted on the front and rear axles respectively, longitudinal dynamic control and electro-dynamic braking can be achieved by controlling the torque of front and rear axle motors respectively. Suspension displacement is related to the wheel torque, thus the pitch of vehicle body can be influenced by changing the torque distribution ratio. The pitch of the body has a great influence on the vehicle comfort, which occurs mainly during acceleration and braking progress. Traditionally active suspension is adopted to control the pitch of body. Instead, in this paper an ideal torque distribution strategy is developed to limit the pitch during acceleration and braking progress. This paper first explores the relationship between the torque distribution and the body pitch through the real vehicle test, which reveals the feasibility of the vehicle comfort promotion by optimizing the torque distribution coefficient.
Technical Paper

Drive Control Development of Switched Reluctance Motor for Compact Electric Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0460
This paper presents innovative methods to resolve the two challenges that occur when using a switched reluctance motor (SRM) as a traction motor for a compact electric vehicle (EV). Electric vehicles (EVs) are seeing a rise in popularity today and the demand for further advancement of EV technologies will continue to grow. Induction motors and interior permanent magnet motors (IPMs) are most commonly used traction motors for EVs. In this project, we focused on the development of a switched reluctance motor (SRM) as an alternative motor for compact EVs, leveraging the following benefits of SRMs: 1) SRMs, which require no permanent magnets, have no drag torque, enabling clutchless motor applications, and 2) SRMs demonstrate high efficiency in the high-speed rotation range. In applications of SRMs as EV drivers, however, there are two challenges to be resolved. The first challenge is that SRMs have significant torque ripples due to the principle of torque generation.
Technical Paper

Optimized Driving Cycle Oriented Control for a Highly Turbocharged Gas Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0193
The article is focused on a 1-D drive dynamic simulation of a highly turbocharged gas engine. A mono fuel CNG engine has been developed as a downsized replacement of the diesel engine for a medium size van. The basic engine parameters optimization is provided in a steady state operation and a control adjustment is applied to a dynamic vehicle model for a transient response improvement in highly dynamic operation modes of the WLTC (world light duty test cycle), selected for investigation. Vehicle simulation model with optimized control system is used for driving cycle fuel consumption and CO2 emissions predictions compared with the basic engine settings.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis and Control Methodology for Linear Engine Alternator

2019-04-02
2019-01-0230
Linear engine alternator (LEA) design optimization traditionally has been difficult because each independent variable alters the motion with respect to time, and therefore alters the engine and alternator response to other governing variables. An analogy is drawn to a conventional engine with a very light flywheel, where the rotational speed effectively is not constant. However, when springs are used in conjunction with an LEA, the motion becomes more consistent and more sinusoidal with increasing spring stiffness. This avoids some attractive features, such as variable compression ratio HCCI operation, but aids in reducing cycle-to-cycle variation for conventional combustion modes. To understand the cycle-to-cycle variations, we have developed a comprehensive model of an LEA with a 1kW target power in MATLAB®/Simulink, and an LEA corresponding to that model has been operated in the laboratory.
Technical Paper

Determining the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Benefit of an Adaptive Cruise Control System Using Real-World Driving Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0310
Adaptive cruise control is an advanced vehicle technology that is unique in its ability to govern vehicle behavior for extended periods of distance and time. As opposed to standard cruise control, adaptive cruise control can remain active through moderate to heavy traffic congestion, and can more effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Its ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is derived primarily from two physical phenomena: platooning and controlled acceleration. Platooning refers to reductions in aerodynamic drag resulting from opportunistic following distances from the vehicle ahead, and controlled acceleration refers to the ability of adaptive cruise control to accelerate the vehicle in an energy efficient manner. This research calculates the measured greenhouse gas emissions benefit of adaptive cruise control on a fleet of 51 vehicles over 62 days and 199,300 miles.
Technical Paper

A System Safety Perspective into Chevy Bolt’s One Pedal Driving

2019-04-02
2019-01-0133
The Chevy Bolt’s One Pedal Driving feature is a new electrification propulsion enhancement that allows the driver to accelerate, decelerate and hold their vehicle stationary by just using the accelerator pedal. With this new feature, the driver is relieved of having to switch between pressing the accelerator pedal and brake pedal to slow, stop and hold the vehicle stationary. While this feature provides a convenience to the driver, it also presents a paradigm shift in driver engagement and control system responsibility for executing certain functions that the driver was traditionally responsible to perform. Various system safety techniques were involved in the development of such a feature both from a traditional functional safety perspective as well as a Safety of the Intended Functionality (SOTIF) perspective.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Suspension Kinematics and Compliance Characteristics of Sensitivities and Combined Load Cases with the Suspension Motion Simulator

2019-04-02
2019-01-0852
The vehicle handling dynamics stands in the central place of the automotive developing processes. The accurately parameterized vehicle handling models play an important and useful role at different vehicle developing phases. At the early phase of vehicle development, they can be used to set the desired target by comparing the handling characteristics of competitors' vehicles. For the further developments of active systems, the right parameterized models are the basis to design the control systems in a virtual simulative environment. Therefore, there are the strong needs to develop a systematic methodology to parametrize the vehicle handling models, whose qualities should also be assured by the validation of field tests. The kinematics and compliance (KnC) behavior of the suspension is in the focus of this study. Compared with parameterization methods of other chassis subsystems, sensitivity analyses of suspension KnC testing conditions were very few in literatures published.
Technical Paper

Development of a Control Strategy for Accurate Path Tracking of Intelligent Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0677
This paper reports on development of a sub-optimal control strategy for path tracking control of automated guided vehicles (AGV’s) and wheeled mobile robots. A two degree of freedom (DOF) nonlinear dynamic model is developed to represent their plane motion. Path tracking of the AGV is attained by controlling the position and orientation errors about the trajectory, which is accomplished by controlling the steering input signal on the basis of error feedbacks to the controller. Experimental results demonstrating the performance of the controlled system are reported.
Technical Paper

Discrete-time Robust PD Controlled System with DOB/CDOB Compensation for High Speed Autonomous Vehicle Path Following

2019-04-02
2019-01-0674
In recent years, there has been increasing research on automated driving technology. Autonomous vehicle path following performance is one of significant consideration. This paper presents discrete time design of robust PD controlled system with disturbance observer (DOB) and communication disturbance observer (CDOB) compensation to enhance autonomous vehicle path following performance. Although always implemented on digital devices, DOB and CDOB structure are usually designed in continuous time in the literature and also in our previous work. However, it requires high sampling rate for continuous-time design block diagram to automatically convert to corresponding discrete-time controller using rapid controller prototyping systems. In this paper, direct discrete time design is carried out. Digital PD feedback controller is designed based on the nominal plant using the proposed parameter space approach.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Process of Acceleration of a Vehicle Taking into Account the Regimes of Operation of Its Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0776
Currently, in order to effectively use the engine's energy resources and implement the required indicators of the traction, speed and fuel-economic properties of a vehicle, designers and manufacturers are trying to realize some certain properties to the transmission design that will ensure the most complete coordination of their joint work. However, even the optimal constructive solution cannot be universal, i.e. what is good for some operating conditions is not effective for other conditions. Therefore, today it is economically expedient to create vehicles intended for a certain, relatively narrow range of operating conditions. A wide range of modern continuously variable transmissions (CVT), as well as automatic control systems make it possible to radically change the approach to the design of vehicle transmissions. It remains only to determine the algorithms for changing the gear ratio of the CVT.
Technical Paper

Design and Implementation of a Distributed Thermal Control System for Power Electronics Components in Hybrid Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0501
Hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles (BEV) use power electronics (PE) devices to convert between high voltage DC power of the battery and other formats of power. These PE components requires operation within certain temperature range, otherwise, overheating causes component as well as vehicle performance degradation. Therefore, a thermal management system is required for PE components. This paper focuses on the design and development of such a PE components thermal control system. The proposed control system is a distributed thermal control system in which all the PE components are placed in series within one cooling loop. The advantage of the proposed control system is its reduced system complexity, energy efficiency and flexibility to add future PE components. In addition, electric control unit (ECU) are utilized so that complex control algorithms can be implemented.
Technical Paper

A Fault Tolerant Time Interval Process for Functional Safety Development

2019-04-02
2019-01-0110
During development of complex automotive technologies, a significant engineering effort is often dedicated to ensuring the safe performance of these systems. An important aspect to consider when assessing the viability of different safety designs or strategies is the time period from the occurrence of a fault to the violation of a Safety Goal (SG). This time period is commonly referred to as the Fault Tolerant Time Interval (FTTI). In Automotive Safety, ISO 26262 [1] calls for the identification and appropriate partitioning of the FTTI, however very little guidance is provided on how to do this. This paper presents a process, covering the entire safety development lifecycle, for the identification of timing constraints and the development of associated requirements necessary to prevent Safety Goal violations.
Technical Paper

Efficient Power Electronic Inverter Control Developed in an Automotive Hardware-in-the-Loop Setup

2019-04-02
2019-01-0601
Hardware-in-the-Loop is a common and established testing method for automotive developments in order to study interactions between different vehicle components during early development phases. Hardware-in-the-Loop setups have successfully been utilized within several development programs for conventional and electrified powertrains already. However, there is a particular shortage of studies focusing on the development of inverter controls utilizing Hardware-in-the-Loop tests. This contribution shall provide a first step toward closing this gap. In this article, inverter controls with different pulse width modulations for varying modulation index are studied at a Hardware-in-the-Loop setup. Thereto, the inverter control for an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine is developed utilizing space vector pulse width modulation with overmodulation.
Technical Paper

Development of an Advanced Motor Control System for Electric Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0597
Electric vehicles are considered as one of the most popular way to decrease the consumption of petroleum resources and reduce environmental pollutions. Motor control system is one of the most important part of electric vehicles. It includes power supply module, IGBT driver, digital signal processing (DSP) controller, protection adjustment module, and resolver to digital convertor. To implement the control strategies on motor control system, a lot of practical aspects need to be taken into accounts. It includes setup of the initial excitation current, consistency of current between motor and program code, over-modulation, field weakening control, current protection, and so on. In this paper, an induction motor control system for electric vehicles is developed based on DSP. The control strategy is based on the field-oriented control (FOC) and space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM).
Technical Paper

Modeling, Control, and Adaptation for Shift Quality Control of Automatic Transmissions

2019-04-02
2019-01-1129
The parameters determining shift quality control in automatic transmissions are determined as part of the calibration of the transmission control. The resulting control system typically has three components: feedforward control, where the control output is determined before a gearshift; feedback control, where the control output is determined during the gearshift based on sensed feedback; and learning control (adaptation), where the feedforward or feedback controller parameters are modified after the current gearshift has ended and before the next similar gearshift begins. Gearshifts involving the same ratio change are referred to here as similar gearshifts, though such gearshifts may involve differences in other variables such as vehicle speed or engine torque.
Technical Paper

Accelerating Accurate Urea/SCR Film Temperature Simulations to Time-Scales Needed for Urea Deposit Predictions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0982
Urea water solution-based Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx emissions from vehicular diesel engines is now widely used world-wide to meet strict health and environmental protection regulations. While urea-based SCR is proven effective, urea-derived deposits often form near injectors, on mixers and pipes, and on the SCR catalyst face. Further understanding of these deposit-formation processes is needed to design aftertreatment system hardware and control systems capable of avoiding severe urea-derived deposits. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widely used in SCR aftertreatment design. Film formation, movement, solid wall cooling and deposit initiation/growth time-scales are in the range of minutes to hours, but traditional CFD simulations take too long to reach these time-scales. Here, we propose and demonstrate the frozen flow approach for pulsed sprays and conjugate heat transfer to reduce computation time while maintaining accuracy of key physics.
Technical Paper

Full Battery Pack Modelling: An Electrical Sub-Model Using an EECM for HEV Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-1203
With a transition towards electric vehicles for the transport sector, there will be greater reliance put upon battery packs; therefore, battery pack modelling becomes crucial during the design of the vehicle. Accurate battery pack modelling allows for: the simulation of the pack and vehicle, more informed decisions made during the design process, reduced testing costs, and implementation of superior control systems. To create the battery cell model using MATLAB/Simulink, an electrical equivalent circuit model was selected due to its balance between accuracy and complexity. The model can predict the state of charge and terminal voltage from a current input. A battery string model was then developed that considered the cell-to-cell variability due to manufacturing defects. Finally, a full battery pack model was created, capable of modelling the different currents that each string experiences due to the varied internal resistance.
Technical Paper

Control of the Effective Pressure in the Cylinder of a Spark-Ignition Engine by Electromagnetic Valve Actuator

2019-04-02
2019-01-1201
Internal combustion engines of vehicles which are equipped with classic drivetrains are mostly operating in variable load conditions. This fact especially refers to city driving, where the vehicle speeds are lower than in highway driving, but the accelerations are more frequent and intensive. The efficiency of the engine’s work is among others a load- and crankshaft rotation speed dependent parameter. Generally in low load conditions the efficiency of the engine is low, and in high load the efficiency is high. The authors conducted a series of road tests, searching for ranges of engine power most commonly used in urban traffic, adopting economical, dynamic and balanced driving strategies. In all strategies the passenger vehicle engine was most frequently operating in low power (and low efficiency) conditions. One of the ways to improve the efficiency of an IC engine is to raise its compression ratio (CR).
Technical Paper

Use of Machine Learning for Real-Time Non-Linear Model Predictive Engine Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-1289
Non-linear model predictive engine control (nMPC) systems have the ability to reduce calibration effort while improving transient engine response. The main drawback of nMPC for engine control is the computational power required to realize real-time operation. Most of this computational power is spent linearizing the non-linear plant model at each time step. Additionally, the effectiveness of the nMPC system relies heavily on the accuracy of the model(s) used to predict the future system behavior, which can be difficult to model physically. This paper introduces a hybrid modeling approach for internal combustion engines that combines physics-based and machine learning techniques to generate accurate models that can be linearized with low computational power. This approach preserves the generalization and robustness of physics-based models, while maintaining high accuracy of data-driven models. Advantages of applying the proposed model with nMPC are discussed.
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