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Technical Paper

FACTORS GOVERNING “OUT-OF-ROUNDNESS” MEASUREMENT1

1923-01-01
230051
It is stated that an out-of-round surface having an even number of high-spots requires a checking instrument that has opposed measuring points; and that, if the number of high-spots on the surface is uneven, an instrument having three-point contact, and one of the points of contact located on the center line between the other two, is necessary. Concerning the use of the three-point method, for close work, the angle between the three points of contact must be selected according to the number of high-spots. Divisions of the subject include types of out-of-roundness and those peculiar to certain machines, the three-point measurnig system, errors of the V-block method, use of the V-block for elliptical objects, other methods of checking elliptical forms and indicator-reading correction. Three items for instrument improvement are suggested to manufacturers.
Technical Paper

ONE HUNDRED TON-MILES PER GALLON1

1923-01-01
230034
The two-fold purpose of the tests described was to acquire as many data as possible regarding the peculiar requirements of motorbuses, as viewed from the standpoint of power requirements and fuel economy, and to analyze the discrepancy found so often between the performance of an engine on the test block and the fuel economy obtained from the same engine under actual service conditions. Following a general statement of conditions to be met, and an examination of the problems of the manufacturer as to why his choice of the various units and accessories is such a vital factor in fuel economy, the improvements accomplished are enumerated, together with the reasons and inclusive of the desirable and undesirable features of carbureter specification and miscellaneous factors. The test equipment and methods are specified and discussed, the results obtained when using a steam cooling-system are presented and the general results are stated and commented upon.
Technical Paper

THE PRESENT STATUS OF THE AIR-MAIL SERVICE1

1922-01-01
220066
The author outlines the history of the Air-Mail Service and states that the recent policy has been to carry out the intent of the Congress, to align the service with the desire of the administration for economy and to discontinue too rapid expansion. After a description of the routes and divisions and a listing of the present landing-fields and radio stations, the present equipment is outlined and commented upon, tabular and statistical data being presented. The discussion covers the organization and performance of the service, the casualties, the cost of operation and the policy governing future plans.
Technical Paper

MALLEABLE-IRON DRILLING DATA

1922-01-01
220060
Cleveland Section paper - After commenting upon the two contradictory attitudes toward malleable iron in the automotive industry and outlining its history briefly, the authors discuss the differences between malleable and ordinary gray-iron and supplement this with a description of the heat-treating of malleable castings. Five factors that influence the machining properties of malleable-iron are stated. These were investigated in tests made with drills having variable characteristics that were governed by six specified general factors. Charts of the results are presented and commented upon in some detail, inclusive of empirical formulas and constants and deductions made therefrom.
Technical Paper

NEW AUTOMOTIVE-VEHICLE SPRING-SUSPENSION

1922-01-01
220047
The author indicates what the history of spring-suspension has been but discusses only the conventional type of four-wheeled design in which the front wheels are used for steering and the rear wheels for driving and braking. The problem of front-axle spring-suspension is mentioned, but that of proper rear-axle spring-suspension, especially for passenger cars, is discussed in detail because it is a much more difficult one. The advantages of the Hotchkiss drive for shaft-driven cars and some of its distinct disadvantages are stated, shaft-driven, rear-axle mountings being commented upon in explaining the factors that influenced the design of the spring-suspension device developed by the author. The advantageous features of this device are enumerated, inclusive of the effects of tire reactions.
Technical Paper

PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORDING OF ENGINE DATA

1922-01-01
220007
Believing that it is one of the functions of the purely scientific man to direct engineering attention to practical possibilities that will be of use in solving important problems, the author outlines the history of the photographic recording apparatus he describes later in detail and comments upon its general features that are of advantage in engineering practice, with illustrations, inclusive of the use that is made of the string galvanometer. The subject of indicators for high-speed engines is discussed in general terms introductory to a full and detailed description of how this automatic photographic recording apparatus can be used to overcome difficulties that pertain to ordinary indicator-diagrams taken on the internal-combustion engine by former methods. A further use of this apparatus is in anti-knock research and its recent usage for this purpose is described and illustrated.
Technical Paper

RECENT AIRCRAFT ENGINE DEVELOPMENTS

1922-01-01
220030
After indicating the line of development since November, 1918, toward making the internal-combustion engine better adapted to aircraft service, the successful application of the supercharger to improve engine performance at great altitude is described and the over-dimensioned and over-compressioned engine also is discussed as a means toward that end. The use of anti-knock compounds to permit the use of high compression-ratios at small altitudes without knocking is commented upon and engine size is considered for both airplane and dirigible service. Further review includes air-cooling experiments in reference to the air-cooled radial engine, refinement of aviation-engine details, and improvements in aircraft powerplant parts and fuel-supply systems. For commercial aviation, powerplant reliability and low cost are stated as essentials. Illustrations are presented of the supercharger and of the engines and sylphon fuel-pump mentioned.
Technical Paper

MANUFACTURE AND APPLICATION OF AUTOMOBILE VARNISHES

1922-01-01
220023
Dividing the ability of an automobile finish to remain new into the elements of proper quality of the materials, engineering of application systems, methods of application and care of the finish, the author states that the responsibility for them rests jointly upon the manufacturer of the varnishes and paints, the builder of the automobile and the owner of the finished product. Five basic materials that are necessary in automobile painting are specified and discussed. Engineering systems of application and the actual methods of application are treated in some detail, inclusive of drying, and of surfacing or rubbing. The care of the finish is important and the precautions necessary in this regard are outlined. The paper deals with the application and not the manufacture of the different varnishes and paints that are mentioned.
Technical Paper

PERTINENT FACTS CONCERNING MALLEABLE-IRON CASTINGS

1922-01-01
220020
Annual Meeting Paper - Addressing the structural engineer and the purchasing agent particularly, the author discusses the relationship between them and the foundryman with regard to malleable-iron castings and enumerates foundry difficulties. The characteristics necessitating adequate gating for such castings are described and illustrated, inclusive of considerations regarding pattern design, followed by a statement of the considerations that should influence the purchasing agent when dealing with foundrymen. Possible casting defects are described, illustrated and discussed, comment being made upon casting shrinkage and machinability. Improvements in annealing-oven construction and operation are reviewed and the records of 100 consecutive heats in different plants are tabulated. The materials for casting that compete with malleable iron are mentioned and its physical characteristics are considered in some detail.
Technical Paper

METHODS OF MEASURING DETONATION IN ENGINES

1922-01-01
220004
The various methods employed to measure detonation or fuel knock in an internal-combustion engine, such as the listening indicator, temperature and bouncing-pin, are discussed and the reasons all but the last cannot be employed to give satisfactory indications of the detonation tendencies of fuels are given. The bouncing-pin method, which is a combination of the indicator developed by the author and the apparatus designed by Dr. H. C. Dickinson at the Bureau of Standards, is illustrated and described. In this method the evolution of gas from an electrolytic cell containing sulphuric acid and distilled water measures the bouncing-pin fluctuations in a given period of time. The accuracy of this method of comparison is brought out in a table. The qualities that a standard fuel must possess are explained and the objections to a special gasoline are pointed out.
Technical Paper

PROGRESS OF THE RESEARCH DEPARTMENT

1922-01-01
220032
Dr. Dickinson outlines the history of the Research Department since its organization, indicates why the universities are the principal bases of operation for pure research, describes how the department functions as a clearing-house with regard to research data and comments upon the bright prospects for the future. He enumerates also the facilities the Research Department has for the coordination of research problems. The practical achievements of the Department have resulted from its recent concentration upon the three major projects of study with regard to the tractive resistance of roads, with reference to fuel and to testing programs, and of an effort to render financial assistance to the Bureau of Standards and the Bureau of Mines that would enable these Bureaus to continue their elaborate research programs, details of all of this work being included.
Technical Paper

PROGRESS MADE IN GARAGE EQUIPMENT

1922-01-01
220025
The Chicago Service Meeting paper relates specifically to the type of garage equipment that is used to handle the motor vehicle in preparation for its repair. The devices illustrated and described are those designed to bring in disabled cars, and include wrecking cranes and supplementary axle trucks; portable cranes and jacks on casters for handling cars in a garage; presses, tire-changing equipment and wheel alignment devices; engine and axle stands; and miscellaneous minor apparatus. The different factors mentioned emphasize the great need of standardization. The thought is not to do away with a car's individuality, but to construct all parts so that cars may have efficient service to the highest degree through the agency of every serviceman.
Technical Paper

DURALUMIN1

1922-01-01
220061
The author gives a short history and general description of duralumin and quotes the Navy specification of its physical properties as drawn by the Naval Aircraft Factory. The manufacture of duralumin is described and commented upon, inclusive of an enumeration of the improvement in physical properties produced at each stage. The physical properties are stated for annealed, heat-treated and hard-rolled duralumin, and some of the possible automotive applications are suggested, inclusive of wormwheels, hearings, gears, connecting-rods, rims and wheel parts and chassis and body trimming. A report by the research department of the Fifth Avenue Coach Co. on the results of a test it made on duralumin wormwheels is included and the author details the advantages he claims as being attendant upon the use of duralumin.
Technical Paper

CONTINUOUS DIE-ROLLING

1922-01-01
220021
The process of continuous die-rolling and the products possible with this method of manufacture are described and illustrated. The improvements that have been made were the result of efforts to produce more complicated sections by this process, with greater accuracy, and these are discussed at some length. The physical characteristics of steel that must be considered are commented upon and forming that is effected in one pass is described, consideration being given the requirements of rolled forging blanks. The cost of operation is treated and the equipment used is discussed, showing how this process differs from other methods of making the same things, as to both the operations necessary and the character of the product.
Technical Paper

TRACTOR SERVICE REQUIREMENTS

1921-01-01
210031
The paper treats of the service, commercial and technical aspects of the subject in turn. The author calls attention to the fact that there can be no such thing as free service, because the customer pays in the end, and gives a specific definition of service. He argues that the engineering departments should urge upon merchandising departments intelligent distribution through dealers, the stocking of an adequate supply of parts and the maintaining of a well qualified mechanical force for the purpose of making engineering development work in the form of farm power automotive apparatus effective. There is a great need for a suitable system of training mechanics for tractor service work, and there should be a definite plan to assure that men making repairs and adjustments in the field are well qualified.
Technical Paper

COMMERCIAL AVIATION IN THE EASTERN HEMISPHERE

1921-01-01
210024
This paper is illuminative and affords an opportunity for better comprehension of the remarkable progress and accomplishment made in Europe along the lines of commercial aviation. Reviewing the present European routes now in regular or partial operation, the author stresses the essentialness of the attitude of the press in general being favorable if commercial aviation is to become wholly successful. The airship appears most practical for long-distance service, to the author, and he mentions the possibility of towns and cities growing up around “air ports.” The cost of airship travel is specified, although it is difficult to figure costs and necessary charges because so few data on the depreciation of equipment are available. Regarding successful operation, much depends upon the efficiency of the ground personnel and organization.
Technical Paper

HIGHWAY-ROAD CONSTRUCTION

1921-01-01
210025
Stating that asphalt, brick and concrete-slab road-surfaces are the only pavements that have given satisfaction for automobile traffic, the author believes further that thus far the concrete-slab surface is the only one worthy of consideration for such traffic. He discusses the merits and demerits of these surfaces and includes an enumeration of the factors that combine to produce a thoroughly satisfactory road surface. Passing to a detailed review of the bearing value of soils and the correction of road failures, the author presents data and illustrations in substantiation of his statements and follows this with a consideration of the reinforcing of a concrete road-slab with steel.
Technical Paper

FUEL PROBLEM IN RELATION TO ENGINEERING VIEWPOINT

1921-01-01
210016
The author states preliminarily that it is believed that never before in the history of the Society of Automotive Engineers has a single problem been so universally studied as the fuel problem that is confronting the industry today. It is also believed that never before has the industry had a problem which includes such a wide scope of work. The solution calls for the service of every class of engineer, inventor and scientist. The paper does not attempt to give highly scientific information; its real purpose is to appeal for a broader viewpoint and to give illustrations and tests which show that the solution of a problem may lie in an entirely different method than that which often becomes stereotyped by sheer usage, rather than by its specific merit. In the solution of the fuel problem we undoubtedly will have to change some of our old habits, replacing them by studiously worked out viewpoints.
Technical Paper

THE BODY ENGINEER AND THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

1921-01-01
210007
The field of body engineering is broader than it is ordinarily considered to be; the author's intention is to bring to the attention of the automotive industry the breadth and scope of body engineering and outline the way this side of the industry can be considered and developed. After describing the body engineer's position, the author then discusses at some length the conflict between art and economy in this connection. He classifies a body-engineering department under the six main divisions of body construction, open and closed; sheet metal, body metal, fenders, hood, radiators and the like; trimming; top building; general hardware; painting and enameling, and comments upon each. Following this he elaborates the reasons for need of attention to details in body designing and mentions the opportunity there is at present for bringing the materials used in body construction to definite standards.
Technical Paper

CAN AUTOMOBILE BODY WEIGHT BE REDUCED?

1921-01-01
210010
Automobile body building derives its origin from carriage body building, which was highly developed before automobiles were thought of. The introduction of automobile bodies fitted to a metal frame changed body builders' rules and calculations. The influence of the metal frame is discussed briefly and the limiting sizes of body members are considered also. According to the ideas expressed, the weight of bodies can be reduced if the metal frame is designed so as to support the weight of the passengers and the body. The dead-weight also can be reduced if the frame is built in proportion to the amount of weight carried, the number of passengers and the style of bodies being considered. But in the construction of enclosed bodies, as in sedans, coaches and broughams, very little weight can be saved if stability, durability and lasting quality are to be retained.
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