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Standard

Guidelines for Writing IVHM Requirements for Aerospace Systems

2019-12-03
CURRENT
ARP6883
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance on developing requirements for systems that include Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) capability [REF1], [REF18]. IVHM is increasingly being implemented on military and commercial aircraft. Some examples include the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) [REF1] and the AH-64 Apache [REF3] in the military domain, and the B787 [REF4] and A350XWB [REF5] in the commercial domain. This document provides a systematic approach for developing requirements related to the IVHM capabilities of a vehicle system. This document is not intended to repeat general guidelines on good requirements writing [REF13], [REF20]. Instead, the focus is on the unique elements, which need to be considered for IVHM and the resulting specific guidelines that will help define better requirements and hence better systems. The multi-faceted nature of IVHM should include the process of requirements gathering.
Training / Education

Fundamentals of Fatigue Analysis

Fatigue is a structural failure mode that must be recognized and understood in order to develop products that meet life cycle durability requirements. Fatigue strength is an important design requirement in any new vehicle, particularly in the age of lightweighting as engineers struggle to meet stringent weight requirements without adversely impacting durability. This technical concept course provides an introduction to the fatigue failure mode and analysis methods. Attendees will learn about the physics of material fatigue, including damage accumulation which over time may progress to product failure.
Standard

Low-preload Deflection Measurement for Brake Pads, Noise Shims, and Brake Pad Assemblies

2019-11-22
WIP
J3079/2

This SAE Standard specifies a method for measuring the deflection of friction materials, noise insulators, and disc brake pad assemblies to be used in road vehicles with a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating below 4336 kg.

This part of the SAE J3079 includes the test for deflection and creep at various pressures under ambient temperature conditions.

This SAE test method differs from SAE J2468 and ISO 6310 in the preload and maximum load applied to the test sample when deflection is measured. It also introduces additional measurements such as for deflection offset, hysteresis, and creep.

Standard

Ambulance Equipment Mount Device or Systems

2019-11-22
WIP
J3043
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the dynamic and static testing procedures required to evaluate the integrity of an equipment mount device or system when exposed to a frontal or side impact (i.e. a crash impact). Its purpose is to provide equipment manufacturers, ambulance builders, and end-users with testing procedures and, where appropriate, acceptance criteria that, to a great extent, ensure equipment mount devices or systems meet the same performance criteria across the industry. Prospective equipment mount manufacturers or vendors have the option of performing either dynamic testing or static testing. Descriptions of the test set-up, test instrumentation, photographic/video coverage, test fixture, and performance metrics are included.
Technical Paper

Effect of Tyre Inflation Pressure on Rolling Resistance : Comparing the Values of Coefficient of Rolling Resistance and Rolling Resistance at Variable Tyre Inflation Pressure

2019-11-21
2019-28-2415
1 Rolling resistance, is nothing but the rolling drag, is the force resisting the motion when a body rolls on a surface. It is mainly caused by non-elastic effects; that is, not all the energy needed for deformation of the wheel, roadbed, etc. It is recovered when the pressure is removed, in the form of hysteresis losses and permanent deformation of the tyre surface. So, the rolling resistance contributes to the deformation of roadbed as well as tyre surface of the vehicle. Factors contributing in rolling resistance are tyre inflation pressure, wheel diameter, speed, load on wheel, surface adhesion, sliding and relative micro-sliding between the surfaces of contact. In this concerned paper we are significantly working on effect of tyre inflation pressure on rolling resistance and taking all other factors constraint.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study to Assess the Effect and Cause of Ride Quality and Comfort of Passenger Vehicle with Subjective Correlation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2410
Vehicle Dynamics testing has its importance in the fields of benchmarking and the validation of mathematical models built in order to predict the ride performance of the vehicle. The importance of enhancing the ride comfort is increasing day by day in present day scenario because of the long hours of driving experience. In presented work, the ride testing is done for two hatchback vehicles on highway conditions in order to compare the ride quality and ride comfort. The parameters like Vibration Dose Value, SEAT factor and Ride Diagram values are used to evaluate the ride comfort. After successful evaluation of the vibration levels affecting the ride comfort of the driver as well as the passenger the next major task is to identify and study the cause of the discomfort. The cause of the discomfort is studied and analyzed in terms of the complex motion of the vehicle. Vehicle motions like choppiness produces higher levels of discomfort as compared to the vertical movement of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Effect of Eccentric Imbalance of Various Crank Train Components on Vibrations in Single Cylinder Diesel Engines

2019-11-21
2019-28-2417
Diesel engine is the main source of power for many agricultural applications such as water pump sets, compressors and tractors. At the same time it is also the main source of vibrations. Mechanical vibrations have instantaneous and long term effects on human body. Kinds of effects depend upon duration of exposure and frequency of vibrations. The increasing demands of improved comfort levels of operators are putting pressures on tractor manufacturers on reducing the vibration levels which thereby resulting in improving diesel engine vibrations. Vibration is the movement or mechanical oscillations about an equilibrium position of a machine or component. A Vibration analysis is about the art of looking for changes in the vibration pattern and then relating those changes. Vibration always occurs when there is unbalanced body in reciprocating or rotary motion.
Technical Paper

Neural Network Based Hybridized Dynamic Models for Connected Vehicles - A Case Study on Turbocharger Position Prediction

2019-11-21
2019-28-2443
Combustion engine driven vehicles operating in a connected and autonomous vehicle (CAVs) environment, the engine drive cycles are run in a regulated manner. This is due to synchronized movement of vehicles operating in connected environment. Hence, developing intelligent and faster control of airpath variable with smooth transient tracking, helps to achieve a synchronized drive cycle. With regards to this author discuss modeling of turbocharger. This is critical for airpath system variable calculation. Due to the hybridized nature of turbocharger models, predicting accurately the position of VTG without introduction of any sensing devices is key, as sensing device induces delay in action. Authors propose a model which improve the performance and capability of VTG position prediction. A neural network based supervised learning model is developed. This model is coupled with engine models which are in series application for performance evaluation.
Technical Paper

Usage of Telematics Data in Advance Powertrain Development

2019-11-21
2019-28-2438
To achieve accuracy in model development with large-scale actual customer data in low cost and limited time usage of telematics system was adopted. Honda’s OBD II diagnostic connecting device Honda Connect was used as transceiver for this telematics system, which was used as an accessory in Honda vehicles. Data collected with this device with large sample size and regional diversity across India was used in product development for Honda System. Control system development for BSVI vehicles, Idle start stop hardware specification selection and Battery electric vehicle target range study was done with Honda Connect Data.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Compression Ratio for DI Diesel Engines for Better Fuel Economy

2019-11-21
2019-28-2431
Fuel economy is becoming one of the key parameter as it does not only account for the profitability of commercial vehicle owner but also has impact on environment. Fuel economy gets affected from several parameters of engine such as Peak firing pressure, reduction in parasitic losses, volumetric efficiency and thermal efficiency. Compression ratio is one of key design criteria which affects most of the above mentioned parameters, which not only improve fuel efficiency but also results in improvement of emission levels. This paper evaluates the optimization of Compression ratio and study its effect on Engine performance. The parameters investigated in this paper include combustion bowl volume in Piston and Cylinder head gasket thickness as these are major contributing factors affecting clearance volume and in turn the compression ratio of engine. Based on the calculation results, an optimum Compression Ratio for the engine is selected.
Technical Paper

Digital Twins for Prognostic Profiling

2019-11-21
2019-28-2456
Ability to have least failures in products on the field with minimum effort from the manufacturers is a major area of focus driven by Industry 4.0 initiatives. Amidst traditional methods of performing system/subsystem level tests often does not enable the complete coverage of a machine health performance predictions. This paper highlights a workable workflow that could be used as a template while considering system design especially employing Digital Twins that help in mimicking real-life scenarios early in the design cycle to increase product’s reliability as well as tend to near zero defects. With currently available disruptive technologies, systems integrated multi-domain 'mechatronics' systems operating in closed-loop/close-interaction. This poses great challenge to system health monitoring as failure of any component can trigger catastrophic system failures.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Pressure Variation in Wheel Using Statistical Methods

2019-11-21
2019-28-2450
Tire is one of the significant components of the vehicle, and so its characteristics for proper functioning of vehicle. Tire characteristics relies on number of factors including pressure in tire, construction of the tire and thread pattern. Of these, the factor of our interest is tire pressure. Maintaining proper tire pressure becomes necessity, as it causes several undesired effects which in turn affect the motorcycle performance. Hence, pressure variations should be detected as one of the safety measures. Wheel speed based detection of tire pressure is not observed before in motorcycles. In this approach only, software algorithm is needed to complete the system to measure pressure, no extra hardware is required. The paper presents a method to analyze variation in tire pressure by using the wheel speed sensor. The idea is to detect pressure variations in the wheel with respect to nominal pressure using data obtained from wheel speed sensor.
Technical Paper

Engine Fuel Economy Optimization for Different Hybrid Architectures Using 1-D Simulation Technique

2019-11-21
2019-28-2496
Hybridization of off road vehicles is in its early phase but it is likely to increase in coming years. In order to improve fuel economy and overall emission of the 3.3 litre tractor model, various kinds of engine hybridization is studied. This paper presents a methodology to predict vehicle fuel consumption and emission using 1-D software by coupling Ricardo Wave and Ricardo Ignite. Initially, An acceptable agreement within 5% deviation between simulation and experimental is established for engine steady state points, both for engine performance and NOx emission parameters. Engine fuel consumption and emission maps are predicted using Ricardo WAVE model. These maps are used as an input to IGNITE model for predicting cumulative fuel consumption. Same calibrated model is used further for studying idle start stop and fully hybrid P0 type hybrid architecture. The hybrid P0 type involves idle start stop, e-boost and regeneration.
Technical Paper

Estimating Drive Cycle for E-Rickshaws Using Real World Operating Scenarios for Overall Powertrain Improvements

2019-11-21
2019-28-2497
E-Rickshaws are popular and convenient mode of transportation for last mile connectivity and are typically used for short distance (<10 Km) commute. As per recent reports there are more than 1.5 million e-rickshaws plying on Indian roads and approx. 10,000 vehicles are adding every month. Owners of these vehicles are inclined towards the overall range these vehicles can give on a single charge. Range can be improved by using efficient powertrain. Range can also be improved by optimized Battery Management systems and Controllers. Though there are certain evaluation criteria (such as curtailed Indian Drive Cycles) which can be used for efficiency estimations, manufacturers are more interested in extending the range in real world scenarios. Hence, the availability of real-world drive cycle is imperative. Through this paper, we have attempted to derive a typical drive cycle by collecting road data of various types of e-Rickshaws under different environment conditions.
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