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Technical Paper

TRACTOR AND PLOW REACTIONS TO VARIOUS HITCHES

1922-01-01
220017
The authors enumerate some of the questions that are involved and, after outlining a previous paper on the subject of plows, analyze these questions in part by the aid of diagrams and applied mathematics. Comparative draft data are presented in tabular form and commented upon, as well as comparative hitch-length data. Tractor reactions are explained and discussed in some detail in a similar manner, special attention being given to the reactions on a slope and up-hill. The reactions on cross-furrow slopes are considered, comparisons being made between two tractors that were reported upon in the University of Nebraska tests. The factors involving tractor stability and resistance against overturn are analyzed. The authors state that the analysis presents a definite method of attack for the more correct solution of the proper hitching-point, as well as being a study relating to lug design.
Technical Paper

RECENT RESEARCH WORK ON THE INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE

1922-01-01
220001
The author describes the research work on the internal-combustion engine done recently in his laboratory in England, and presents his deductions therefrom, based upon an analysis of the evidence he has obtained to date. Fuels are discussed at length under three specific headings, many tabular data being included and commented upon, and the calculation of thermal efficiency described. Mean volatility and detonation are discussed and the author's present views regarding turbulence are stated, this being followed by a brief summary of the conclusions reached by Mr. Tizard, a colleague of the author, following recent investigations. The influence of the nature of the fuel upon detonation is presented, a lengthy discussion of the subject of stratification being given under three specific divisions, inclusive of comment upon the benefits derived from using weak fuel-mixtures.
Technical Paper

FARM-POWER MEETING PAPERS - THE CARBURETION OF ALCOHOL

1921-01-01
210032
The author describes the development of an alcohol-burning tractor engine, after having stated a few of the fundamental requirements for burning alcohol economically and the results that can be attained by following them. The first trials were with 127-lb. gage compression at a normal operating speed. The problems attacked were those of what amount of heat applied to the mixture is desirable and its general effect on economy, output and operation; power output; general operation of the engine; and fuel consumption. The experimental work was done on a 4¼ x 6-in. four-cylinder 16-valve engine; this is described in detail and the results are presented in chart form. The conditions necessary for the proper use of alcohol as a fuel are discussed.
Technical Paper

NEBRASKA TRACTOR TESTS

1921-01-01
210033
Before taking up the results of the tests, the author states briefly the provisions of the Nebraska tractor law, the kind of tests conducted and the equipment used. Applications covering 103 different tractors were received during the season; of the 68 that appeared for test, 39 went through without making any changes and 29 made changes. The results of the tests are described and illustrated by charts. The fuel consumption was studied from the three different angles of volumetric displacement, engine speed and the diameter of the cylinders, the tractors being classified accordingly and the results presented in charts which are analyzed. The weaknesses of the tractor as shown by the tests are commented upon at some length with a view to improvement of the product.
Technical Paper

INTAKE FLOW IN MANIFOLDS AND CYLINDERS

1921-01-01
210021
The paper describes the results obtained from making visual observations of the paths followed by the several portions of the air-stream. One of the passages being considered was half-sectioned in a plane about which the passage was symmetrical; that is, a plane containing the axes of the several parts of the passage. A flat glass plate was then cemented on to complete the half-passage. With the outlet end of such a passage connected to an engine intake, any sort of flow encountered in engine practice can be reproduced. By introducing gasoline with the entering air, a tracery of fine sharply defined lines on the glass is produced and this was photographed, as is described in detail. Varied shapes of passages were studied in this manner. These are illustrated and the variations in the results under differing conditions are discussed.
Technical Paper

ECONOMY AND PERFORMANCE DEMANDS

1921-01-01
210023
Stating that economy and performance are diametrically opposed in that the greater the performance demanded the less the economy is likely to be, the author mentions that the gasoline bill of the average user is not the major portion of his expense and asserts that economy is determined very largely by the engine design, the chassis design and the tires. The subject of engine design is outlined and consideration is given to acceleration during periods of coasting. Discussing briefly the chassis and the tires, attention is given to oil and tire economy, followed by statements regarding design from the viewpoint of service and performance as influenced by gear-ratios and gearshifting.
Technical Paper

THE NATURE OF FLAME MOVEMENT IN A CLOSED CYLINDER

1921-01-01
210026
The nature of flame propagation in an automobile engine cylinder has, for some time, been the subject of much discussion and speculation. However, very little experimental work has been done on flame movement in closed cylinders with a view to applying the knowledge directly to the internal-combustion engine. It has become recognized that knocking is one great difficulty which attends the use of the higher-boiling paraffin hydrocarbons, such as kerosene, and that knocking is one of the major difficulties to be overcome in designing higher-compression and hence more efficient engines. It was desirable, therefore, to determine, if possible, the nature and cause of the so-called fuel knock in an internal-combustion engine. The work described in this paper was undertaken to determine the characteristic flame movement of these various fuels and the physical and chemical properties which influence this flame propagation.
Technical Paper

VOLATILITY OF INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE GASOLINE

1921-01-01
210011
After stating that the meaning of the term “gasoline” seems to be generally misunderstood for the reason that it has been assumed that gasoline is, or ought to be, the name of a specific product, the author states that it is not and never has been a specific product and that although gasoline has a definite and generic meaning in the oil trade it has no specific meaning whatever. It means merely a light distillate from crude petroleum. Its degree of lightness, from what petroleum it is distilled and how it is distilled or refined are unspecified. Specifically, “gasoline” is the particular grade of gasoline which at a given moment is distributed in bulk at retail. It can be defined with reasonable precision as being the cheapest petroleum product acceptable for universal use as a fuel in the prevailing type of internal-combustion engine.
Technical Paper

FUEL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENTS

1921-01-01
210012
Two distinct problems are involved in fuel research work, multi-cylinder distribution and the chemical constitution of the fuel mixture after it enters an engine cylinder. In discussing elementary combustion, the author refers to the components of the energy of combustion as gravitational, kinetic and barometric, and elaborates his theme with the aid of diagrams and charts showing normal and abnormal combustion. After emphasizing the necessity of theorizing at some length, anti-knock substances are discussed, inclusive of substances apparently dissimilar that have the same chemical constituents. The ignition point and fuel utilization are treated, followed by comments upon fuel studies that have been made, with accompanying indicator-cards. The future objectives of fuel research are outlined as being along lines of physical and of thermo-chemistry, the simple laws of elementary physics, and cooperation with the producers and refiners of the fuel.
Technical Paper

AERIAL TRANSPORTATION AS A BUSINESS PROPOSITION

1921-01-01
210014
Aviation has no perfect analogy, for it has no precedent. Two classifications are made. Scheduled service includes the carrying of mail, express or passengers on a definite and regularly maintained schedule, independent of, or supplementary to, other forms of transportation. Special service includes pleasure flights, oil-field survey, selecting industrial land-sites, planning cities, aerial photography, forest-fire patrol, visiting remote points, exploration, aerial advertising, delivery of perishable products, real-estate survey and industrial purposes. Each of these classifications requires different equipment, organization and operating personnel. The equipment requirements and the reliability of aerial transportation are discussed, the necessity for suitable terminals and federal flying regulations are emphasized, the subject of insurance is commented upon and the development of aerial commercial transportation is outlined.
Technical Paper

RESUME OF BUREAU OF STANDARDS FUEL STUDY

1921-01-01
210004
The author states that considerable thought has been devoted recently to the relation of fuel end-point to fuel economy. It has been shown that, provided an intimate mixture of fuel-vapor and air is secured, such a mixture will not condense at the ordinary temperatures of the intake. However, on the contrary, crankcase dilution, an excess of deposited carbon, low mileage per gallon of fuel and ignition trouble are being experienced. There appears to be a discrepancy between the efficiency that should be attained and what is actually attained. To investigate this the Bureau of Standards undertook a brief series of experiments to rough out a line of procedure. Regarding compression of a dry mixture, curves are shown to illustrate that gasoline vapor compresses when “dry.” Detonation was evident when using one spark-plug and there was no detonation when using two spark-plugs.
Technical Paper

AIR-TEMPERATURE REGULATION EFFECTS ON FUEL ECONOMY

1921-01-01
210005
Two serious problems confront the automotive industry in connection with the present fuel shortage, the securing of a much higher degree of fuel economy with existing equipment and the matter of future designs. These problems are of nearly equal importance. Because its fuel bill constitutes the second greatest item of expense for the Fifth Avenue Coach Co., operating in New York City, it is constantly experimenting with devices of various kinds to improve fuel economy. Of the different devices that it has tested, the thermostatic temperature-control for the carbureter appears to afford greatest possibilities of saving, and the author presents the results of tests of this device in actual service on motor vehicles.
Technical Paper

THE BODY ENGINEER AND THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

1921-01-01
210007
The field of body engineering is broader than it is ordinarily considered to be; the author's intention is to bring to the attention of the automotive industry the breadth and scope of body engineering and outline the way this side of the industry can be considered and developed. After describing the body engineer's position, the author then discusses at some length the conflict between art and economy in this connection. He classifies a body-engineering department under the six main divisions of body construction, open and closed; sheet metal, body metal, fenders, hood, radiators and the like; trimming; top building; general hardware; painting and enameling, and comments upon each. Following this he elaborates the reasons for need of attention to details in body designing and mentions the opportunity there is at present for bringing the materials used in body construction to definite standards.
Technical Paper

UNDERLYING PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL IGNITION

1921-01-01
210038
The author uses some analogies of mechanical things to illustrate the underlying facts that must be considered in connection with electrical ingition, the first being that of an automobile starting under the influence of a constant force, which is analogous mechanically to the old touch-spark ignition circuit in that the velocity of the automobile corresponds with the velocity or speed at which the electricity is moving through the circuit. In similar manner the analogy is extended to include car acceleration and its acquirement of a certain store of energy as an illustration of electrical-energy storage as the current through an induction-coil is increased; and further analogies are made, numerous diagrams being presented. Battery and magneto-ignition similarities are treated in a similar way, short and long sparks are discussed pro and con and spark lag is considered in general terms.
Technical Paper

THE PACKARD FUELIZER

1921-01-01
210037
The general requirements for ideal carburetion are considered first, as an introduction to what the Packard fuelizer is and how it functions. Since it is difficult to secure uniform distribution with what is termed a wet mixture, this problem is discussed in general terms and it is stated that the fuelizer was evolved only after several different types of exhaust-heated manifold had been tested and found wanting. Detonation is treated at some length, four specific rules being stated that apply to the most desirable mixture temperatures to be maintained, and the source of the ignition spark for the fuelizer is discussed as an important element in the device. Further consideration includes comments upon the comparative merits of the hot-spot and the fuelizer, “hot-spot” being intended to mean any of the exhaust-heated manifold-designs in which the heat is more or less localized.
Technical Paper

THE STATUS OF THE ISOLATED GAS-ELECTRIC GENERATING PLANT

1921-01-01
210040
Statistics taken from a report made by the Department of Agriculture regarding the number and size of farms in the United States indicate that approximately 2,580,000 farms are available as a market for the isolated gas-electric lighting plant. The common types of lighting plant are classified in three groups, each of which is subdivided into three classes, and these are illustrated, described and discussed. The characteristics of the ideal farm lighting-plant are enumerated and discussed as a preface to a somewhat lengthy consideration of the factors that influence the design of the component parts, which are grouped as pertaining to the engine, the generator, the switchboard and the battery. Storage batteries are still considered the weakest part of the isolated plant and they are specially commented upon. The author emphasizes that much still remains to be accomplished as regards the stability of design, reliability and economy of the isolated plant.
Technical Paper

CYLINDER ACTIONS IN GAS AND GASOLINE ENGINES

1921-01-01
210043
The distinguished author begins with a short account of the principal actions common to all internal-combustion engines and then proceeds to a more detailed account of the experiments that have been made to develop the theory and establish the properties of the flame working fluid of those engines. The divisions of the paper are headed (a) short statement of cylinder actions, (b) the air standard, (c) flame, the actual working fluid, (d) knocking, pinking and detonating, (e) air and exhaust supercompression, (f) residual turbulence, (g) gaseous explosions, (h) flame propagation and recompression, (i) the specific heat of flame, and (j) conclusions. After treating (a) in considerable detail, the author discusses present efficiencies and knowledge in regard to the limits of the thermal efficiency possible in internal-combustion engines under (b), (c), (d) and (e), going into considerable detail and presenting and analyzing numerous diagrams and charts.
Technical Paper

FLAME

1921-01-01
210045
Stating that the knowledge now available does not permit an exact scientific definition of flame and giving the reasons, in this paper the author regards flames as gases rendered temporarily visible by reason of chemical action, discusses their physical rather than their chemical aspects and, unless otherwise indicated, refers to the flames of common gasoline and kerosene only. To gain a reasonably clear understanding of the requirements and characteristics of the different kinds of flame, it is necessary to begin with a study of atoms and molecules. The author therefore discusses the present atomic theory, the shape of the atom and molecular structure, and follows this with a lengthy detailed description of the beginning of combustion. The requirements and characteristics of the inoffensive variety of combustion are considered next and nine specific remedies are given for use in accomplishing the burning of heavy fuels with a blue flame in present engines.
Technical Paper

MANIFOLD DEVELOPMENT ELIMINATES CRANKCASE DILUTION

1921-01-01
210046
About 1917 the heavy ends of the fuel sold as gasoline required such an amount of heat to vaporize them that the expression “crankcase dilution” appeared; now they have increased to a maximum boiling-point of 446 deg. fahr., which has made it necessary to go still farther in the direction of heat application. After a brief consideration of the relative heat-absorption of air and fuel and the time factor in its relation to vaporizing, the author describes experiments with a specially designed manifold for increased vaporization efficiency and presents photographs of the device. With this type of manifold it has been possible to eliminate crankcase oil dilution completely and effect a reduction in carbonization. The lubrication efficiency has been improved, as well as other features that are enumerated.
Technical Paper

ELEMENTS OF AUTOMOBILE FUEL ECONOMY

1921-01-01
210048
The paper analyzes and states the factors affecting the power requirements of cars as rubber-tired vehicles of transportation over roads and the factors affecting the amount of power supplied the car as fuel to produce at the road the power required for transportation. Quantitative values are given wherever possible to indicate the present knowledge of the relation between the factors involved, and the text is interspersed with numerous references, tables, charts and diagrams. Among other important factors specifically discussed are mixing and vaporization, charge quantity control, the heat of combustion, gas-pressure, transformation loss and power transmission efficiency. Six appendices contributed by other associates of the Bureau of Standards are included.
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