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Engine Fuel System and Component Icing Test

This ARP provides recommended practice on the considerations and methodology to demonstrate acceptable performance of the Engine components / fuel system, and APU, whilst operating throughout the flight cycle / engine duty for continuous operation with iced fuel and short duration operation with a snowshower resulting from release of accreted ice from fuel washed surfaces, where no anti-icing additives are present (e.g. Fuel System Icing Inhibitor FSII or alternative). Two scenarios must be considered when demonstrating the capability of Engine components / fuel system, and APU to operate with fuel borne ice to satisfy certification regulations applications in support of FAA Part 23 and Part 25, CFR Part 33, and corresponding EASA CS-E regulations, and equivalent Military application requirements.

Performance Evaluation of Fuel Filter Elements Utilized in Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine/APU Main Fuel Systems

This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) reviews performance testing of fuel filter elements utilized in aircraft gas turbine engine/APU fuel systems and discusses a sequence of standard tests used to qualify fuel filter element performance. This allows both manufacturer and customer a common means to specify, control, and evaluate filter elements. The methodology discussed should be incorporated in fuel filter element specifications.

Fuel Tank Inerting System Ground and Flight Test Methodology Recommended Practice

This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance for the verification and certification of a “commercial” fixed wing aircraft fuel tank inerting system (FTIS) and will provide technical references and data regarding ground and flight testing of an FTIS. The intent of this ARP is to address issues associated with the verification requirements based on current regulatory guidance per AC25.981-2C
Technical Paper

Problems in Transport-Airplane Design

MAJOR problems that have been encountered in the operation under contract of that portion of the Transcontinental Air Mail line between Chicago and San Francisco are outlined and discussed briefly. The more serious difficulties cited are: first, the operation of a single type of airplane from points at altitudes as great as 6400 ft. as well as at sea level, together with the fact that, in the case of this particular line, the heaviest loads are carried between the points of greatest altitude; second, the proper design of cowling and manifolding for the operation of the air-cooled radial engine at the extremes of temperature that are encountered throughout the year; and, third, the need for an engine that is geared down to the propeller or an engine delivering its normal power at a lower engine-speed.

Oil Filter Test Procedure

To update and document the oil filter test methods currently captured in SAE HS 806. This will allow for the evaluation of performance characteristics of full-flow oil filters using updated methods.
Technical Paper

Vapor-Handling Capacity of Automobile Fuel Systems

THIS report covers information obtained on vapor lock, fuel-line temperatures and vapor-handling capacity as the result of road tests with 46 cars. The investigation was conducted under the auspices of the Cooperative Fuel Research Steering Committee in cooperation with the Natural Gasoline Association of America. The general procedure consisted in operating the car with samples of gasoline of increasing vapor pressure until vapor lock occurred. The development of a method for the evaluation of the vapor-handling capacity of fuel systems under various operating conditions has been of material assistance in analyzing the vapor-lock problem. The present work indicates that changes both in fuel-line temperatures and in vapor-handling capacity affect the permissible vapor pressures. It is still believed that lowering of fuel-line temperatures by changes in design of the fuel system is the most effective method of insuring freedom from vapor lock.
Technical Paper

Air-Transport Maintenance Problems from the Service Viewpoint

VIEWS of the maintenance chiefs of all major air-transport lines, based upon their experiences in this field and as transmitted by them through the Maintenance Committee of the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of America, Inc., are embodied in the paper. Representing as it does the collective experience of the best minds in the field, the paper is particularly significant and worthy of the consideration of manufacturers, engineers and others directly concerned with the problems presented. As to fuselage and wing coverings, it is stated that fabric has a definite advantage when considering weight and emergency repairs. Airplanes covered with fabric can be restored to service quickly in cases where, with the same damage, replacement of other forms of covering would cause the plane to be laid up in the shop at a time when it is most needed. With the new improved finishes, fabric is said to be as satisfactory as any covering available.
Technical Paper

Further Investigation of Fuel Injection in an Engine Having Spark Ignition

THIS INVESTIGATION of fuel injection with spark ignition is a continuation of work previously reported,3 which was carried on in the aeronautic-engine laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Although a four-cycle engine was used, the fuel was injected during the compression stroke so that the results might be applicable to the two-stroke cycle without possibility of loss of fuel through the exhaust. Among the effects studied were those of stratification and of late injection or late ignition as a means of controlling detonation with high compression. Fuels used were aviation gasoline, ordinary Diesel fuel and hydrogenated fuel oil, the last seeming to offer interesting possibilities. Directed turbulence was found to be essential for good distribution of the fuel in the cylinder and satisfactory operation of the engine.
Technical Paper

The Gum Stability of Gasolines

AN investigation of the accelerated oxidation method for predicting the gum stability of gasolines was made to determine the effects of oxygen pressure and of temperature on the observed induction periods. The data obtained on the effect of pressure indicated that there was a definite relation between the induction period at any pressure and the induction period at an air pressure of 1 atmosphere. The data obtained on the effect of temperature showed that the induction periods of different gasolines changed to a different extent with temperature, so that gasolines with the same induction period at any one temperature might have very different periods of stability at storage temperatures. Since temperature has a marked effect on the observed induction period and since the gasoline is at a lower temperature than that of the bath for a considerable period of time at the beginning of the experiment, a correction factor was applied to obtain true induction periods at the bath temperature.
Technical Paper

Automobile Fuel-System Design and Vapor Lock

TEMPERATURE rise in the gasoline as it passes through the fuel system is the important factor in vapor lock that is within the control of the car designer. Gravity and vacuum-tank feed systems are considered briefly, including tests showing that weathering of the gasoline in the vacuum tank consists largely in removal of propane. Vapor lock in a pump system is most liable to occur on the suction side, because of the difference in pressure. Increasing the capacity of the pump for handling vapor offers little relief. Evidence is presented to show the gain made by locating the fuel line where it is protected from the heat. One example is cited to show the advantages of keeping a large flow of hot engine oil away from the pump. It is advantageous also to locate the pump where it will be cooled by the air entering the engine compartment of the car.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection with Spark Ignition in an Otto-Cycle Engine

THIS investigation was carried out in the aeronautical-engine laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to determine the practical value of the use of a fuel-injection system in place of a carbureter on an Otto-cycle engine using spark ignition. Gasoline was used for most of the investigation, but comparative tests were also made using fuel oil. The equipment used was a single-cylinder laboratory-test engine and such other apparatus as was necessary for a complete performance test. A Diesel-engine injection-pump was used. A Diesel-type injection valve was used for injection into the inlet manifold, and a valve of special design, giving fine spray and little penetration, was used for the tests in which the injection was into the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Line Temperatures in Cars of 19311

THE PRESENT PAPER covers the results obtained in a second survey of fuel-line temperatures. Road tests were made on a large number of 1931 cars operated under various specified conditions, and fuel temperatures were measured in each case at several points in the fuel-feed system. On the average, no material improvement over the 1930 models was found. Individual models had been improved considerably, while others had become worse. This unchanged situation may be due, in part, to the fact that the results of the 1930 survey were not available in time so that full advantage could be taken of the conclusions in designing the 1931 models. Reasonable protection for most of the 1931 cars as regards fuel cannot be obtained in hot weather if they are run on gasolines having a Reid vapor pressure higher than 7 lb. per sq. in.
Technical Paper

A Survey of Current Automobile and Bus Fuel-Line Temperatures1

PREVIOUS work on vapor lock at the Bureau of Standards under the auspices of the Cooperative Fuel Research Steering Committee has resulted in considerable information regarding the relation between the properties of gasolines and vapor lock and between fuel-line design and vapor lock. Satisfactory means have been developed for predicting the conditions under which vapor lock would occur with a given fuel, but no extensive information has been available on the gasoline temperatures existing in the fuel feed lines of automotive equipment. This has made it very difficult for the refiner to supply satisfactory fuels for current automotive equipment. The present report includes temperature data obtained at several points in the fuel feed systems of 27 automobiles and 8 buses under various operating conditions.
Technical Paper


What the Diesel engine has done, its possibilities of development and future application to automotive service are major topics of the paper. When modified for automotive use, the author asserts that the Diesel engine would not only allow the burning of cheaper fuel and provide greater fuel economy, but give immediate opportunity to use the two-stroke cycle; that is, it would generate about twice the power for an equal weight of mechanism, compared with present power attainment. In addition, the two-stroke cycle makes possible partial or entire elimination of exhaust-valves, exhaust through ports being better in every respect, and the Diesel-engine principle affords the possibility of a two-stroke-cycle double-acting engine in which, theoretically, four times the power of the present gasoline engine would be available.
Technical Paper


The author states that the objects of the paper are to define and trace the development of the various processes of carburetion, and to offer such suggestions along these lines as may assist the investigator in developing motorboats, automobiles and self-contained unit motor cars for railway purposes. The surface carburetor is mentioned chiefly as of historic interest. In considering the jet carbureter the author discusses the proportion of gas desired, the effect of the varying inertia of the air and the liquid gasoline and the breaking up of the combustible needed. Following sections review the devices for using kerosene, such as gasoline jet carbureters to which heat is applied, devices of the fixed gas type, the introduction of combustible directly into the cylinder, forcing combustible directly upon a hot surface in the cylinder and devices which raise the combustible to the boiling point.
Technical Paper


The undisputed economy of the Diesel-type engine using heavy fuel oil is recognized, as no other power-generating unit of today shows better thermal efficiency. It is the result of the direct application of fuel in working cylinders. Transmission processes, such as the burning of fuel under a boiler to produce a working agent which must be carried to the prime mover, are less economical. The various factors which enter into a comparison between steam and heavy-oil installations are illustrated. The subject is treated in a more or less elementary manner. The diagrams and sketches are intended to explain the working principles of such examples of two and four-cycle engines as are now in actual operation in cargo ships, these being of the single-acting type. Double-acting and opposed-piston-type engines have been built and are being tried out. The working processes of two-cycle and four-cycle engines are illustrated and described in some detail, inclusive of critical comment.
Technical Paper


THE author divides this discussion of the problems likely to be encountered in the installation of the turbo-jet engine to very high-speed aircraft as follows: 1. Coordination of the design of the engine air inlet duct so as to bring the air to the engine inlet with minimum loss in total pressure and maintain even distribution across the face of the engine inlet. 2. Engine suspension. 3. Engine fuel system. 4. Engine lubrication system. 5. Instrumentation necessary to check proper engine operation. 6. Cooling of engine accessories. 7. Turbo-jet engine control system. He also mentions briefly the problems involved in turbine-propeller engine installations.