Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Airplane Lighting Requirements

1929-01-01
290067
INCREASE in the amount of night flying with the advent of airplanes into the commercial field makes more acute the need for proper lighting facilities, not only of airports and airways, but of the airplanes themselves. As only about one-half of the regularly used airways in this Country are lighted for night flying, and few airports are equipped with lighting facilities for night landings, it is necessary for airplanes to be provided with lighting equipment for flying and for emergency landing at night. Besides the high-intensity lighting needed for following unlighted airways and for landing, airplanes need navigation lights and illumination for the instruments and the cabin. Immediate study and direction should be given to the problems of meeting each of these requirements most effectively and economically before it becomes too difficult to standardize methods and equipment.
Technical Paper

Accounting for Depreciation as a Production Cost

1929-01-01
290070
IF the costs of almost any group of manufacturers who market the same product are analyzed, two kinds of differences will be detected, according to the author. The real differences in costs arise from superior management, higher productivity, and better disposition and utilization of capital. The accidental differences result from the failure of manufacturers to include in cost records all of the proper legitimate items of expense. Confining his treatment of the subject to an analysis of the depreciation of plant and equipment, the author states that depreciation is a decline in the value which is certain to occur as a result of wear and tear and gradual obsolescence. It is caused by the possession and use of an asset, and is therefore a part of the cost of production. The accountant attempts to recover depreciation loss in the value of the capital assets by charging it into the cost of production.
Technical Paper

Structure of Six-Wheel Vehicles

1929-01-01
290073
RIGID six-wheel vehicles and semi-trailer combinations are classified and described as to load distribution, application of power, arrangement of spring suspension and of tires. Consideration is given to the desirability of a conventional differential between the two driving axles, and the advantages to be gained by substituting a differential in which the action is limited. The semi-trailer is said to be useful for specialized services and to compete rarely with the rigid six-wheeler. The automotive industry is said to be following in the steps of railway engineers in providing more wheels for greater loads. At the close of the paper is given a bibliography of S.A.E papers and general periodical literature referring to six-wheel vehicles.
Technical Paper

Applying the Motor-Vehicle to Business

1929-01-01
290081
MANY FACTORS gradually forced a recognition of motor-vehicles as necessary adjuncts to business, and now the motor-vehicle is being called upon more than ever before to serve also as a labor-saving device. The author believes that present-day business will demand further development of this nature. The groups interested in establishing and developing the motor-vehicle in business are the manufacturers thereof, the commercial organizations operating vehicles for their individual needs, the commercial operators supplying service for a variety of customers, and the railroads. The author pays tribute to the manufacturers for the present dependability of motor-vehicles and comments upon the extension of motor-vehicle service in the respective fields of the three other groups. Present competition in all forms of business makes the problem of cost accounting equally serious for all users of commercial vehicles, in the author's opinion.
Technical Paper

Motor-Vehicle-Fleet Economics

1929-01-01
290082
THE TECHNICAL requirements of motor-vehicle-fleet operation are receiving increasing attention, according to the author, who analyzes two distinctly different plans for fleet organization; one, that of providing for sufficient man-power to care for all repairs, and the other, of later origin and requiring a much smaller organization, the delegation of all repairs to the specialists of the commercial repair-shops. In analyzing these plans he considers a fleet of 500 vehicles. His analysis of the latter plan has to do with a fleet organization having no shop personnel and a total of 10 or more vehicles per employe, the fundamental requirements in this case being the provision of qualified inspector-repairmen and efficient manufacturers' and commercial service-stations.
Technical Paper

Long-Distance Passenger Services

1929-01-01
290083
EXTENSION of motorcoach services over routes of 100 miles or more in length in all parts of the Country is shown by a map, and figures are given of the number of routes, the miles of highway over which the services are operated, running time, rates of fare charged and like data. Facilities and operating methods differentiating long-distance from suburban services are mentioned and the similarity to railroad practice pointed out. A characteristic of routes ranging from several hundred to nearly 1500 miles is that service is afforded continuously for 24 hr. per day seven days per week and many passengers ride day and night. Such long runs are broken into stages so that a driver does not work more than 8 to 10 hr. as a rule and vehicles are changed at the end of a run of a certain distance, which may vary from about 200 to nearly 750 miles.
Technical Paper

Mixture Distribution

1930-01-01
300007
HOPING that discussion and dissemination of information on the fundamentals of distribution routine will continue, the author reiterates known facts, which include (a) the method of charting distribution progress, (b) a suggestion for locating the error in distribution and (c) a series of thoughts on construction. The paper is divided into two parts, the first being a study of distribution routine and the other a discussion of a few of the problems that are met every day in the search for perfect distribution. Complete satisfactory distribution and the quantitative measurement of its quality are the two major problems of distribution. The interrelation of these problems is mentioned and the complexity of the subject of distribution is emphasized by listing nine detailed factors, the point being made that if the information that engineers have on these items could be collected and codified considerable progress would be made.
Technical Paper

Bearing Bronzes with Additions of Zinc, Phosphorus, Nickel and Antimony

1930-01-01
300012
SEVEN basic copper-tin-lead bearing-bronzes having high copper contents were studied by the application of various mechanical tests, such as Brinell hardness, resistance to impact, resistance to repeated pounding and resistance to wear. The effects of various additions were investigated by preparing test bearings of the same base alloys with additions of zinc, phosphorus, nickel and antimony, taken singly, and applying the same tests to these. The preparation of the test castings and the methods of testing are described in detail. The chemical analyses are given for the 40 different alloys tested; and the results of the various tests on each group of alloys are reported and discussed in detail, with the observations charted and tabulated for convenient reference. A tabulation of the specifications of 54 different bearing bronzes now in use is included in the paper. Dr. Dowdell presented and discussed∗ the paper for the authors.
Technical Paper

Future Clutch Progress Charted from Design A-B-C's

1933-01-01
330011
FIRST consideration is given by the author to basic improvements in clutches of the lever-release single-plate and to those of the two-plate types. He emphasizes that the severity of clutch service has increased very materially in the last few years and that the increased clutch duty of today is further augmented by the car manufacturer in providing cars having greater acceleration and higher torque, particularly at the higher speeds and usually without a proportionate increase in clutch size. Developments along logical lines which have resulted in improvements in design are cited as being (a) the design of the driven disc and the selection of facings, to produce improved engagement and greater life; (b) design of the cover-plate assembly to permit higher spring pressure with less retracting movement of the pressure plate; and better selection of facing and pressure-plate materials to reduce facing wear and pressure-plate distortion or scoring.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Propeller and Engine Power with Supercharging

1933-01-01
330005
THE primary purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the most pressing problems involved in choosing the propeller that is most suitable for use on a particular airplane. Propeller design is not dealt with, the discussion being limited to the selection of metal propellers of established design. Questions of noise, efficiency and diameter limitation are merely mentioned, and the emphasis is placed upon the choosing of propellers which will transmit the most engine power for the most needed condition of airplane performance; maximum and cruising speeds at altitude, or take-off and climb. Airplane performance enters only inasmuch as it is used to illustrate a case of power absorption. The proper choice of a propeller is becoming increasingly difficult to determine because of the current design trends of both airplanes and engines. Especially important is the fact that many of the supercharged engines now in use cannot be operated at full throttle below their critical altitudes.
Technical Paper

The Application of Photoelasticity to the Study of Indeterminate Truss-Stresses

1932-01-01
320068
THIS paper contains a brief description of the history, theory and application of photoelasticity, which is a new and useful optical method of stress analysis. A simple, cheap and compact photoelastic polariscope developed for the purpose is described. The application of photoelasticity to indeterminate truss-stress analysis produces quantitative stress measurements within a maximum experimental error of 6 per cent. The tests yield with considerable speed and convenience information concerning stress concentrations at corners and fillets that cannot be obtained by other methods. The author describes a photoelastic test of an airplane-wing-rib model whereby the axial and bending stresses in the members are determined and severe stress concentrations at the spar corners are noted.
Technical Paper

Air-Transport Maintenance Problems from the Service Viewpoint

1932-01-01
320062
VIEWS of the maintenance chiefs of all major air-transport lines, based upon their experiences in this field and as transmitted by them through the Maintenance Committee of the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of America, Inc., are embodied in the paper. Representing as it does the collective experience of the best minds in the field, the paper is particularly significant and worthy of the consideration of manufacturers, engineers and others directly concerned with the problems presented. As to fuselage and wing coverings, it is stated that fabric has a definite advantage when considering weight and emergency repairs. Airplanes covered with fabric can be restored to service quickly in cases where, with the same damage, replacement of other forms of covering would cause the plane to be laid up in the shop at a time when it is most needed. With the new improved finishes, fabric is said to be as satisfactory as any covering available.
Technical Paper

Cageless Roller Bearings Develop High Carrying Capacities

1933-01-01
330047
A ROLLER having the same diameter as a corresponding ball and a length equal to the ball diameter has approximately four times the carrying capacity of a ball, according to Mr. Hermann. The data presented on cageless roller bearings are based upon knowledge of the carrying capacity and life of the ball bearing. The reason for the increased carrying capacity of a roller over that of a ball is due to the distribution of the load over a line of contact rather than at a point of contact. The roller bearing increases the number of such line contacts and therefore further distributes the load to the raceways. By increasing the number of line contacts, the cageless rollers reduce the stress per roller and failure due to fatigue. The fatigue factor is reduced 40 per cent, comparing a cageless with a caged roller.
Technical Paper

Inventory Control

1932-01-01
320028
PROVIDING ample stock to guard against the possibility of the interruption of production for lack of material was the chief aim of inventory control in 1920. Recognition of the importance of turnover is one of several factors that have led to a study of minimum stocks. Inventories received first consideration in the now well-established financial-control policies of the General Motors Corp. Formerly, placing orders for materials far in advance of needs had been thought necessary to assure the supply, but restricting orders to suppliers to three months in advance has been satisfactory for 10 years. Each car division of the Corporation now submits a definite monthly forecast, based on 10-day reports from dealers of stocks and actual and estimated sales, which estimates the number of cars to be sold by the dealers, delivered to the dealers and manufactured during the current and three forward months.
Technical Paper

The Automobile-Type Engine for Marine Service

1931-01-01
310049
THE SUCCESS attained by marine engines as built by the manufacturer of motor-vehicle engines clearly proves that such engines are entirely suitable for marine service provided rugged automobile, truck or motorcoach engines are used as a basis. However, this involves the necessity of applying the principles of marine design and practices. The author describes and illustrates such an engine developed and built by a leading motor-car-engine manufacturing company. This makes possible the use of cylinder blocks, crankshafts, pistons, valves, tappets and many other minor parts used in the motor-vehicle engines. The outstanding advantage is the use of modern methods of production, equipment, quantity purchasing and the financial resources of the automobile industry.
Technical Paper

Motor Transport in Military Operations1 - Transportation Meeting Paper

1931-01-01
310048
CONSIDERATION of motor-transport maintenance in military operations requires a general conception of the national military organization for war. This the author outlines, describing the theater of war, its subdivisions, the zone of the interior, communications and combat zones, and the general character-commercial or military-of motor transportation in each zone. The Quartermaster General's responsibility, and the need for centralizing control of motor transport under his direction as provided in the National Defense Act, is indicated. Maintenance personnel, tool and shop equipment, supplies and various functions are divided into five groups called “echelons,” a military term used to designate the groupings of troops, supplies, functions and military command from front to rear of an army.
Technical Paper

Free-Wheeling Devices and Their Control

1932-01-01
320005
DEVOTED to the mechanism of free-wheeling devices, this paper contains detailed descriptions of the devices now in use on American cars and a résumé of the experiences of the Studebaker Corp., which pioneered the device in this Country, and other prominent manufacturers, showing how present designs of roller clutch have evolved from those first developed, in which several rollers of graduated sizes were used in each pocket. Lubrication of free-wheeling transmissions is discussed. Coil-spring clutches and one English design in which frictional contact is obtained through wedge-shaped shoes are also described. The author concludes with the suggestion of a combination unit to include free-wheeling, service brake and sprag.
Technical Paper

The Relationship between Automobile Construction and Accidents

1932-01-01
320056
DISPARITY between the factors of automobile and highway design that are far advanced and the factors that lag far behind constitutes the cause of many of our transportation difficulties, according to the author. The paper therefore aims to show the demand for safety and its economic advantage to the automotive industry and to indicate some of the principles necessary for its accomplishment. After stating that the automobile manufacturers should take a far-sighted view of the situation, take positive steps toward safety and cash in on the demand that is growing and that cannot be stopped by denying its existence, the author considers and comments upon some of the characteristics of automobiles that undoubtedly are partly responsible for accident potentialities. Visibility from the driver's seat is considered in detail, together with devices that assist visibility. The other driver's viewpoint also is considered.
Technical Paper

Aircraft-Engine Installation

1930-01-01
300037
THE PAPER urges united cooperation instead of the present division of responsibility between the engine designer and the airplane designer in the installation of aircraft engines. The tubular rings upon which engines are commonly mounted are usually supported by structural members that are welded to the ring and attached to the fuselage at the four longitudinals. Inaccuracy is common in these structures, and many of them lack sufficient stiffness. Gravity gasoline-feed is recommended for its simplicity, provided the pressure head required by the carbureter can be secured, but the author reports having seen an installation in which the engine would operate so long as the airplane had its tail on the ground, yet the engine would die as soon as the tail was raised during a take-off. The use of gasoline-resisting rubber-hose with metal liners and the avoidance of sharp bends are recommended for the gasoline connections.
Technical Paper

The Operator's Airplane and Engine Requirements

1930-01-01
300032
CAUSES of troubles and expense to air-transport companies in their airplanes are dealt with comprehensively by the operations manager and a division superintendent of the National Air Transport. Commercial operation is asserted to be the proving ground for the products of both airplane and airplane-engine manufacturers, and four reasons given for this are (a) lack of understanding between the manufacturer and the purchaser as to precisely what is required of the airplane purchased, (b) inability of the manufacturer to deliver a product equal to his anticipation, (c) inability of the operator properly to use and care for the equipment furnished, and (d) the varied and opposed uses to which different operators must put their equipment. Detailed and valuable information is given regarding the parts that give trouble and what should be done to avoid it.
X