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Video

A350XWB Fiber Placement Spars; From R&D Conception Phase to Serial Production

2012-03-23
At the end of 2006, two MTorres engineers visited the plant of Airbus UK in Filton receiving a new challenge: Find a more efficient way to manufacture Carbon Fiber Spars for the new A350 program. The range of possibilities were wide: manual infusion methods (RTM, RIM, RFI...), Automatic Taping & hot forming, or the new technology proposed, Fiberplacement or AFP. Two (2) options were considered: hot forming+ATL and AFP (both using prepeg technology.) The usage of a flat lay-up + hot forming technology was used in the only Airbus program that used carbon fiber for the wing manufacturing so far, the A400M. The expected greater complexity of A350 spar created doubts on the feasibility of using the above process, while the AFP technology, consisting of laying up directly on the final shape of the spar, also raised questions of technical feasibility, apart from the economic ?business case?, in case the productivity of the cell was not big enough. A ?Spar team?
Video

Career Counselor Series: The Power of Mentoring

2017-06-28
Alyson Lyon, executive leadership coach, discusses the value of being a mentor and/or a mentee. SAE Members can view the full version by logging into the Member Connection. Not a Member? Join us today at sae.org/join.
Video

Three Generations, One Workplace

2015-10-07
Watch for tips from experts in the mobility industry on how to live in harmony. Members can view the full panel session by logging into the Member Connection here Not a Member? Join us today at sae.org/join.
Technical Paper

Micro-Macro Acoustic Modeling of Heterogeneous Foams with Nucleation Perturbation

2020-09-30
2020-01-1526
The properties of a polyurethane foam are greatly influenced by the addition of graphite particles during the manufacturing process, initially used as a fire retardant. These thin solid particles perturbate the nucleation process by generating bubbles in its immediate vicinity. The preponderance of work so far has focused on foams that are locally relatively homogeneous. We propose a model for locally inhomogeneous foams (including membrane effects) consisting of a random stack of spheres that permits one to represent certain pore size distribution functions. The cellular structure of the foam is obtained through a Laguerre tessellation and the solid skeleton determined from the minimization of surface energy (Surface Evolver). The structure of real foam samples is analyzed using X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy followed by image processing to create computerized three-dimensional models of the samples.
Book

Manual on Design and Manufacture of Coned Disk Springs (Belleville Springs) and Spring Washers

1988-12-01
This manual is the latest edition in the group of spring manuals currently under the review of the SAE Spring Committee. The preceding SAE manuals on coned disk springs were published in 1950 (First edition), and 1955 (Second Edition). Developments during the past 30 years necessitated a complete revision. In addition to updating the treatment of coned Disk springs, material on other spring washers, not directly related to the coned Disk Spring, has been added. In accordance with current sAE practice, customary units have been replaced by metric SI units throughout this manual; for a conversion table see the Appendix.
Book

SAE International Journals Complete Set

2010-04-30
This set includes: SAE International Journal of Aerospace March 2010 - Volume 2 Issue 1 SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles October 2009 - Volume 2, Issue 1 March 2010 - Volume 2, Issue 2 SAE International Journal of Engines October 2009 - Volume 2, Issue 1 March 2010 - Volume 2, Issue 2 SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants October 2009 - Volume 2, Issue 1 March 2010 - Volume 2, Issue 2 SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing October 2009 - Volume 2, Issue 1 March 2010 - Volume 2, Issue 2 SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems October 2009 - Volume 2, Issue 1 SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems October 2009 - Volume 2, Issue 1 March 2010 - Volume 2, Issue 2
Technical Paper

Duralumin All-Metal Airplane Construction

1928-01-01
280030
PSYCHOLOGY of the public, as well as engineering structure and aerodynamics, is involved in commercial aviation. The public has confidence in metal. With quantity production in view, the author and his associates considered costs of production as related to quantity and also costs of maintenance at airports and in the field, and chose metal as the material of construction. Structural members are fashioned from sheet duralumin rather than from tubes and a type of construction was evolved that can be made with the minimum investment in tools, that is cheap to put together and that can be repaired with the smallest amount of equipment and labor. For compression loads, duralumin has a great deal more strength for a given weight than has steel. It cannot be used, however, for compression members in combination with steel in tension members because of the difference in coefficient of expansion.
Technical Paper

Methods of Building Metal Airplane Structures

1928-01-01
280029
USEFUL load-carrying capacity is a measure of the comparative value of two airplanes of the same size, having identical powerplants, speed, rate of climb and other flying characteristics. It seems to be feasible to combine in the same airplane both the greatest ability to carry useful load and the least cost of construction. Blanked and pressed metal work offers substantial advantage to the extent that parts, particularly sub-assemblies, can be made directly by machine in complete units ready to set in the final assembly. The author shows and describes the methods followed by his organization in forming the members, building the frames and assembling the units of metal aircraft. Trusses are blanked and the web members pressed to ¾-circle form. Dies for long members are variable in length by being made in pieces that can be removed or inserted as desired. Flanged-tube sections are employed for truss chords.
Technical Paper

The Automatic Fabrication of Automobile Frames

1928-01-01
280021
NEARLY all steel used in this process of manufacturing frames comes to the plant in the form of strips, which are rolled to remove curvature and inspected automatically for dimensions. All operations and handling are automatic, except pickling, cleaning and oiling the stock and inspecting the assembled frame, until the enameled frame is ready to be shipped. Economical use of the strip steel is dependent upon an offsetting operation that makes the strip conform to the vertical curves desired in the finished frame. With the aid of illustrations, the author follows the fabricating process through the various lines and other units, until a frame is ready for shipment or storage, within less than 2 hr. after it enters the manufacturing line as strip steel.
Technical Paper

Progress in Honing-Machines and the Honing Process

1928-01-01
280060
CYLINDER finishing by rough and finish-boring with wide tools, which was thought good enough during the first dozen years of the automobile-production period, was supplanted by reaming and grinding. Later, cast-iron and copper laps were used, but all these methods were slow and did not produce the fine finish for which a demand developed. Experiments were begun about 1920 with the process known as honing. Five years later the company with which the author is connected converted one of its drilling-machines into a single-spindle honing-machine. Other companies made similar conversions. The first honing-head was introduced in 1923. Not until three years ago, however, did honing begin to be regarded as a real production-method possibility. Since then, very rapid progress has been made and numerous improved machines, honing-heads and honing-stones have been produced.
Technical Paper

Material Handling in the Pontiac Assembly Plant

1929-01-01
290072
CONVEYORS and handling systems often are planned and installed after a building is erected. The Pontiac plant, described in this paper, is an exception because it was designed without limitations as to space and for a definite production program. With the aid of photographs and floor plans on which the positions from which the photographs were taken are indicated, the complete production line of the plant is shown in detail. The order of assembly and the points at which various units are applied to the chassis are shown; also the locations of the storage spaces for many of the parts and the provisions for transporting them to the assembly line. Among the striking features of the chassis-assembly line is a hump, midway of the length of the building, which raises the chassis to the mezzanine level to allow passage underneath.
Technical Paper

Integrated Production

1927-01-01
270053
WE are in a new era of production that has been made possible by the broader vision of the production engineer, who is now an established factor in industry because of the demand for reduced production costs. The two factors over which he has control are labor and machinery. Labor cost is of diminishing significance as machinery takes over an increasing proportion of the responsibility for performance. To the two production principles of the division of labor and the transfer of skill to machinery is added a third principle deduced from facts observed in modern production practice. This principle is integrated production, the combining of work units, which are the smallest possible divisions into which operations are broken down by the time-study man, so that a number of identical or similar operations are performed simultaneously by multiple tools, with the maximum efficiency and economy for each tool or each work unit.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Taper Fittings

1927-01-01
270056
ONE of the standards adopted earliest by the Society is the list of taper fittings. This standard was adopted in 1914, and has been in use ever since with little revision. Saying that the indicated method of dimensioning and stating limits for taper fittings is not practical, at least in some cases, the author suggests various methods for expressing the tolerance in terms of the longitudinal position of a basic diameter. Another point brought out is that the sides of the keyway are not parallel to the taper. In the 2-in. size, for instance, if the bottom of the keyway is made parallel to the extreme element of the taper as it existed before cutting the keyway, the depth at the side is computed to be 0.0318 in. at the large end of the taper and 0.0392 in. at the small end, a variation of 0.0074 in. between the two ends.
Technical Paper

Quieter Gears Are Being Demanded! How Shall We Make Them?

1933-01-01
330019
LIMITATIONS of present processes for cutting and finishing transmission gears are covered in a general way by Mr. Cederleaf. He shows also that future demands for more quiet transmissions can be met only by an equal improvement in gear-cutting-and-finishing equipment; or by the development of new processes; or by the realization, on the part of engineers, that the most economical method of obtaining better results is, by redesign, to eliminate from the transmission the necessity for greater dimensional accuracy.
Technical Paper

SOME PRINCIPLES OF LOW-COST TOOLING

1933-01-01
330013
After predicting that the demand for changes in automotive products and the substitution of new devices will increase in the next few years and stating major factors with which managements are concerned at present, the author mentions that, after direct-labor costs, the next largest items of expense in a machine shop are generally depreciation and obsolescence of machines, fixtures and tools, especially when a plant is tooled for high production. He believes that the machine-tool industry might aid by reducing its prices and that this can be done, but that in such case the industry must eliminate its present cast-iron type of designing and many of its present manufacturing methods. General machine-shop practice is analyzed and the illustrations show three classes of fixtures: (a) holding, (b) self-contained tools with holding means and (c) complete mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Future Clutch Progress Charted from Design A-B-C's

1933-01-01
330011
FIRST consideration is given by the author to basic improvements in clutches of the lever-release single-plate and to those of the two-plate types. He emphasizes that the severity of clutch service has increased very materially in the last few years and that the increased clutch duty of today is further augmented by the car manufacturer in providing cars having greater acceleration and higher torque, particularly at the higher speeds and usually without a proportionate increase in clutch size. Developments along logical lines which have resulted in improvements in design are cited as being (a) the design of the driven disc and the selection of facings, to produce improved engagement and greater life; (b) design of the cover-plate assembly to permit higher spring pressure with less retracting movement of the pressure plate; and better selection of facing and pressure-plate materials to reduce facing wear and pressure-plate distortion or scoring.
Technical Paper

Cageless Roller Bearings Develop High Carrying Capacities

1933-01-01
330047
A ROLLER having the same diameter as a corresponding ball and a length equal to the ball diameter has approximately four times the carrying capacity of a ball, according to Mr. Hermann. The data presented on cageless roller bearings are based upon knowledge of the carrying capacity and life of the ball bearing. The reason for the increased carrying capacity of a roller over that of a ball is due to the distribution of the load over a line of contact rather than at a point of contact. The roller bearing increases the number of such line contacts and therefore further distributes the load to the raceways. By increasing the number of line contacts, the cageless rollers reduce the stress per roller and failure due to fatigue. The fatigue factor is reduced 40 per cent, comparing a cageless with a caged roller.
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