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Technical Paper

Brake-Drum Metallurgy

1932-01-01
320006
EITHER steel or cast iron will provide a good braking surface provided the grain structure is laminated pearlite, according to the author. Such a structure can be secured in pressed steel by alloying or by case-hardening, in high-carbon steel rings welded to a stamped back and in centrifugally cast iron by careful control without alloying. Uniformity of analysis is important and control of the rate of cooling is still more important in castings. The graphite content of iron is not considered important as a lubricant. Methods of centrifugal casting and of testing are illustrated; also the form and microstructure of representative brake-drums. Discussers agree as to the microstructure needed and present additional views as to ways of securing that structure and the desirability of capacity for absorbing and dissipating heat. They believe grain size and strength more important than hardness.
Technical Paper

Welding in All-Steel Body Production

1932-01-01
320041
ALL-STEEL welded bodies for passenger-cars have many advantages over composite bodies, among them being fewer parts, doors of only two pieces, no visible outside seams, lower tops for the same headroom, less roof weight, lower center of gravity, greater safety, increased visibility, permanent quiet, economical upkeep and perfect outside lines. Wood and steel react so differently to stress that neither adds much to the strength of the other in a composite structure. Steel alone, welded into a unit structure, is lighter and less bulky. The entire side of the body is stamped from a single sheet, with the openings die formed to reenforce it. Chassis frame and body follow the same lines, so that they reenforce each other and body sills can be omitted. This plan saves 2 in. in height, as compared with some other bodies.
Technical Paper

Production Standards Applied to Motor-Vehicle Maintenance

1930-01-01
300045
MAINTENANCE is a part of automotive production and as such is destined to adopt production standards. While passenger-car manufacturers have fostered the application of these standards to maintain a parity between factory production and maintenance, commercial-vehicle operators have established standards and methods in response to an economic demand to obtain low-cost maintenance. How this has been done in Philadelphia is the subject of the paper. Scheduling vehicles through the shop in accordance with the seasonal requirements of transportation enables a centralized shop having 120,000 sq. ft. of floor space to service a fleet of 450 motorcoaches, 1500 taxicabs and approximately 150 pieces of various utility equipment with practically no fluctuations in the working force and the minimum number of spare units. Major overhauling of motorcoaches is done in the winter months when the demand is relatively light, while the taxicabs receive attention in the summer.
Technical Paper

Casting Cylinders in Green Sand

1930-01-01
300039
CYLINDER-BLOCKS, with their hollow form and complicated arrangement of water-jackets, valve passages, pockets and bearings, are difficult to cast, and require a large quantity of cores. These have generally been baked or dry-sand cores, but the author's organization has met with success in making the more bulky cores, those for the cylinder-barrels and crankcase, in green sand. Descriptions and copious photographs and drawings are given of two methods of molding one six-cylinder block in green sand, and the possibilities of the system are indicated by illustrations of cylinders and details of cylinders that have been molded or that are suitable for molding in green sand. Cooperation between designer and foundryman is essential in realizing the economy possible with this method of molding, a large part of which results from the great saving in cost of sand.
Technical Paper

New Developments in Machining Aluminum and Its Alloys

1930-01-01
300040
COMPARATIVELY large rake and clear angles required for best results leave a relatively thin cutting-edge on a cutting tool for aluminum. One difficulty encountered is that tools of such form are not always available or suitable, for various reasons, for instance, small tools of various types are available only with cutting edges suitable for steel and bronze, and the desirable amount of top rake cannot well be provided on circular form-tools. Tool bits of various sorts can be reground to the desired angle. A simple round form of tip that is shown can be utilized in tools for various purposes, including use as inserted teeth in a face-milling cutter. High-speed-steel tools are suitable for most aluminum alloys, but alloys containing a high percentage of silicon can be machined to advantage only by using cemented tungsten-carbide. Machine-tools should be suitable for high speed.
Technical Paper

Recent Developments in Poppet Valves

1931-01-01
310007
AFTER stating that increased speed, mean effective pressure and piston displacement of engines have made valve conditions more difficult during the last few years, the author recalls the path which development has followed by a brief list of materials and methods of cooling. Where the stem joins the head is the hottest part of the valve. A shield for this point is shown, also a shroud to protect the end of the valve-stem guide. Cooling the valve increases its life. Salt and sodium cooling are compared, and methods of sealing the coolant in place are described. The construction and behavior of copper-cooled valves are illustrated and recounted, and a one-piece hollow-head valve is described. Reasons for valve-seat inserts are given.
Technical Paper

The Field for Synthetic Lubricating Oils

1931-01-01
310033
ONE method employed in a fundamental investigation of the composition of lubricating oils as it affects the viscosity characteristics has involved the synthesis of viscous oils by polymerizing a wide range of olefins with a condensing agent, such as aluminum chloride. Many thousand gallons of synthetic lubricating oils have been made within the last two or three years from olefins produced by cracking paraffin waxes. Details of the process have been published previously and hence are not included. The present paper deals with the characteristics of two such oils that have been synthesized in commercial quantities. The raw materials and the process of manufacture make these more expensive than ordinary motor oils, but their temperature-viscosity characteristics make them desirable for use in transmission and steering mechanisms and in hydraulic shock-absorbers, as they are less susceptible than the usual oil to viscosity changes with changes of temperature.
Technical Paper

Weight Saving by Structural Efficiency

1931-01-01
310034
METHODS employed by the author to reduce the weight of the structural frame without sacrificing strength are described in the paper. To obtain this result the best available cross-section must be selected and the members arranged to transmit the load directly to the final supports which should lie approximately in a plane that is parallel to the load vector; also where a bending moment is caused by the loading, the support attachment should produce a moment of the same amount and of opposite sign. Avoiding secondary bending and utilizing the advantages of full continuity over supports can be secured by a simple arrangement of the frame members. Substitution of power tools for hand tools will effect a reduction in assembly costs. Sections suitable for power assembly include closed hollow-sections, which have a high structural efficiency, as well as angles, channels, I-beams and similar shapes.
Technical Paper

PROGRESS MADE IN GARAGE EQUIPMENT

1922-01-01
220025
The Chicago Service Meeting paper relates specifically to the type of garage equipment that is used to handle the motor vehicle in preparation for its repair. The devices illustrated and described are those designed to bring in disabled cars, and include wrecking cranes and supplementary axle trucks; portable cranes and jacks on casters for handling cars in a garage; presses, tire-changing equipment and wheel alignment devices; engine and axle stands; and miscellaneous minor apparatus. The different factors mentioned emphasize the great need of standardization. The thought is not to do away with a car's individuality, but to construct all parts so that cars may have efficient service to the highest degree through the agency of every serviceman.
Technical Paper

COMMERCIAL-BODY SUPPLY AND SERVICE

1922-01-01
220026
Specifying the four general plans that have been followed by chassis builders in securing body equipment as being the building of bodies in their own shops; on contract by the body maker to plans and specifications of the chassis builder; by a local body maker to the order of the dealer or the owner; and the assembling from stock of standard sectional units recommended by the dealer or selected by the owner, the authors discuss each of these plans in detail. With regard to the plan of using standardized sectional bodies, the different sizes of chassis used for commercial purposes are separated into four specified groups and the production of a complete standard line including a number of styles of body for each chassis is commented upon and illustrated, inclusive of detailed considerations of the all-metal body.
Technical Paper

SPUR-GEAR GRINDING AND TESTING 1

1923-01-01
230050
A grinding-machine for finishing spur-gears is illustrated and described; claims are made that it will grind transmission gears on a production basis after they have been heat-treated and will produce correct tooth-contour, smooth finish and accurate tooth-spacing, these features being necessary in producing gears that are interchangeable and that run quietly. This machine is of the generating type, its action being that of rolling a gear along an imaginary rack and using the grinding wheel as one tooth of the rack. The dished grinding-wheel is reversible, 30 in. in diameter, mounted below the gear, and can be swiveled to the right or left of the center position up to an angle of 25 deg. The work-spindle carries the indexing and the generating mechanisms at the rear, where they are accessible and yet are protected.
Technical Paper

CONVEYOR EQUIPMENT IN A SMALL PRODUCTION PLANT1

1923-01-01
230052
To install conveyors in a going automobile manufacturing plant of moderate size, without interrupting production, and with a minimum amount of rearrangement of the plant and an investment commensurate with the saving to be effected, was the problem, the solution of which is herein described. The conditions that determined whether power-driven or gravity-actuated conveyors should be used are discussed and the various types required for handling raw stock, for machining operations, for sub-assemblies and for finished assemblies are indicated.
Technical Paper

PRACTICAL BALANCING OF A V-TYPE ENGINE CRANKSHAFT1

1924-01-01
240012
Supplementing a paper by another author that treats of the theoretical balancing of this engine, Mr. Anderson presents the practical methods that have been devised to accomplish the results desired. Since this crankshaft is not in running or in dynamic balance without its piston and its connecting-rod assemblies, it is necessary to apply equivalent weights on each of the crankpins when balancing it on a dynamic balancing-machine, and details are given of how these weights are determined. The selection of parts to obtain equal weights is also necessary; a description is given of how this is made. A combination static and dynamic balancing-machine that can be set for either operation is used for balancing the crankshaft. Details of its operation are presented. Service conditions to secure parts replacements within the weight limits specified are outlined, and flywheel, universal-joint assembly and other unit balancing is discussed. The method of testing the completed work is stated.
Technical Paper

AUTOMOBILE FINISHING-VARNISH

1923-01-01
230016
Annual Meeting and Detroit Section Paper - As the success or failure of the finish of an automobile depends largely on the finishing-varnish, a plea is made for more scientific analyses of the problems of automobile finishing and more care in selecting and applying a suitable varnish. The qualities to be desired in a finishing-varnish are divided into two classes: the shop qualities and the service qualities. The shop qualities include color, body or viscosity, working, flowing, setting, hardening, fullness and the safety of working. The service qualities, or those that enable the varnish to withstand the various conditions of use, include resistance to break-down under the chemical action of the actinic rays of sunlight, to the destructive action of moisture and the alkalis in mud and soap, to expansion and contraction, to vibration and to abrasion.
Technical Paper

TAXICAB-BODY CONSTRUCTION1

1923-01-01
230015
The author states briefly the phenomenal growth of taxicab usage and consequent demand for this type of motor vehicle, mentioned the differences in body requirements for taxicabs as compared with those of passenger cars, and describes the methods used to secure durability in taxicab-body construction to discount the severe service to which the body is subjected. Tabular data are presented and comments made regarding the woods that are suitable for body framework, and the methods of joining frame members and reinforcing frame joints are outlined. The desirable types of roof and the factors that influence design are discussed at some length, illustrations being presented also, and minor considerations, such as types of hardware, dash and instrument-boards, are included. A brief summary states present conditions, and a bibliographical list is appended of informative publications relating to the subject.
Technical Paper

MEASUREMENT OF ENGINE VIBRATION PHENOMENA

1925-01-01
250005
Smooth operation of motor cars becomes increasingly important as average driving-speeds become higher and as the public demands greater luxury and freedom from vibration. An analysis of vibration shows that it is caused by forces which can be calculated with considerable accuracy. Vibration itself is very complex, due to the inter-relation of forces, deflection and periodicity in the parts of the engine. In this paper a number of indicating and recording instruments devised for recording the actual resultant vibration and determining its exact character are described and their operation explained. Vibration due to unbalance of rotating parts, piston unbalance inherent in four-cylinder engines, bending of the crankshaft, centrifugal force, and torsional periods are discussed. Indicator-diagrams of the various kinds of vibration are shown. Unbalanced force and elastic reaction are the two general causes of vibration.
Technical Paper

EFFECTS OF BALLOON TIRES ON CAR DESIGN

1925-01-01
250018
Inasmuch as the use of low-pressure tires has become established, the conditions of car design affected by them are reviewed, particular reference being had to the members of the chassis included under the term unsprung weight, namely, the axles, the wheels and the tires. Referring to the principles that underlie basic design, the author first investigates the effect on the steering of such changes and compromises from the perfect structure as failure of the king-pin to coincide with the vertical load-plane, the inclination of the king-pin toward the wheel, or the wheel toward the king-pin, or both, and the giving of a toe-in to the front wheels. Further modifications have served to reduce the car shock, to add to the strength of all the parts by increasing the dimensions, to improve the spring-suspension, and to reduce the car weight per passenger.
Technical Paper

COINING-PRESS OPERATION

1924-01-01
240052
Coining-press development is outlined and the author tells how such machinery was adapted to speed-up the production of automobile parts, such as forged arms and levers, by a squeezing process that superseded milling or spot-facing methods. The presses used are very rugged in construction and have the appearance of a plain-type punch-press, except for the knuckle that operates the ram. This knuckle is coupled to a crank by a connecting-rod or link. As the crank revolves, it straightens the knuckle. The pressure transmitted to the ram is many times greater than that which could be produced through a single-acting direct-connected crank-operated type of machine. An additional advantage of the knuckle movement is in the application of pressure at the end of the downward stroke. The position of the ram at the end of the stroke is controlled by a screw-actuated wedge.
Technical Paper

CAUSES OF SURFACE CHECKS IN WOOD IN VARNISH-DRYING ROOMS

1924-01-01
240054
Peculiarly complex in its cellular structure, wood is subject to a deformation that accompanies changes in its moisture content that is neither uniform nor isometric. Deformation is generally about 50 times as great in the radial direction of the log as longitudinally and about twice as great circumferentially as radially; so, when moisture changes occur due to changes in the degree of humidity of the surrounding air, the behavior of wood is very uncertain. Conditions are complicated further by the manner in which drying takes place. A description is given of how water is contained in wood, including details of wood structure, and the action of moisture in causing swelling and subsequent shrinking is discussed. The fiber-saturation point marks the limit of the amount of moisture that can enter between the fibrils, at which limit swelling ceases. It is determined by making endwise compression tests on a series of small blocks of the wood, as its drying proceeds.
Technical Paper

SOME NOTES ON AUTOMOBILE STAGES IN CALIFORNIA

1924-01-01
240056
Transportation by motorbus, although of recent origin, has advanced rapidly in its development but is still undergoing a process of evolution. Less than 10 years ago, motor carriers were mostly “jitneys” and were heartily disliked by electric-railway officials. Now, motorbuses are developing a field of their own and are rendering a service not supplied by any other transportation agency, two of their most valuable functions being the building up of new territory and acting as feeders to established lines in the more thickly settled areas. The first steps in their development took place while engaged in local service, but the trend toward interurban business soon became manifest. In California, within the last 10 years, the interurban business has increased from that of a few isolated individuals to the operating of approximately 1000 vehicles, which cover the entire State and, in 1923, carried about 25,000,000 passengers.
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