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Standard

Measuring Properties of Li-Battery Electrolyte

2018-03-15
WIP
J3042
This SAE RP provides a set of test methods and practices for the characterization of the properties of Li-battery electrolyte. It is not within the scope of this document to establish criteria for the test results, as this is usually established between the vendor and customer.
Standard

Electric Vehicle (E-Vehicle) Crash Test Lab Safety Guidelines

2015-12-17
CURRENT
J3040_201512
The special risks associated with conducting crash tests on E-Vehicles can be divided into two main categories; 1) thermal activity inside the battery (resulting from electrical or mechanical abuse) may lead to energetic emission of harmful and/or flammable gases, thermal runaway, and potentially fire, and 2) the risk of electrocution. Procedures to ensure protection from all types of risk must be integrated into the entire crash test process. This informational report is intended to provide guidance in this endeavor using current best practices at the time of this publication. As both battery technology and battery management system technology is in a phase of expansion, the contents of this report must then be gaged against current technology of the time, and updated periodically to retain its applicability and usefulness.
Standard

Self Propelled Sweepers and Scrubbers Battery Run-Time

2006-10-23
HISTORICAL
J2474_200610
This SAE standard applies to all electric battery-powered machines that fall within the scope of SAE J2130. Purpose To define a uniform method of determining the time a battery-powered machine will continue operating normally with a given set of batteries.
Standard

Self Propelled Sweepers and Scrubbers Battery Run-Tim

2000-08-01
HISTORICAL
J2474_200008
This SAE standard applies to all electric battery-powered machines that fall within the scope of SAE J2130. Purpose To define a uniform method of determining the time a battery-powered machine will continue operating normally with a given set of batteries.
Standard

Vehicle System Voltage—Initial Recommendations

1999-06-04
CURRENT
J2232_199906
This SAE Information Report is a summary of the initial recommendations of the SAE committee on Dual/Higher Voltage Vehicle Electrical Systems regarding the application of higher voltages in vehicle systems. This document does not attempt to address the technical merits of specific voltages or electrical system architectures.
Book

Future Technology for Hybrid and Pure Electric Cars 2015-2025

2014-11-01
E-cars are oversupplied and changing in all respects but in this frenzy of birth and death the future is being created with hybrid cars rapidly gaining market share. The sales of pure electric cars are likely to take off in the second half of the coming decade as certain technical and cost challenges are resolved. Toyota and Tesla have hugely benefitted from correct market positioning. Yet, Toyota is now betting strongly on fuel- cell hybrids, and Tesla on mainstream pure electric cars. A vicious shakeout of car and battery manufacturers has commenced with the winners expecting a handsome pay-off. IDTechEx finds that the global sales of hybrid and pure electric cars will triple to $178.9 billion in 2024 as they are transformed. For example, components are becoming integrated; the range extender, as an optional extra, breaks down the difference between pure electric and hybrid. Car manufacturers vertically integrate and collaborate, competing with their suppliers.
Book

Two-Wheelers, Micro-EVs (Quadricycles), Mobility for Disabled 2013-2023

2014-11-01
This report looks closely at global trends in light electric vehicles’ (LEVs) technology, manufacture and market drivers such as legislation and the fact that several Chinese cities are banning or severely restricting LEVs. In the last few years, nearly every nation has bought ebikes from China, and in some cases, the volumes are now significant. Sales will reach 130 million yearly before 2025, making it one of the world's largest industries. The report encompasses over 70 brands, and gives forecasts of sales numbers, unit prices and total market value for 2013-2023. A significant percentage of ebikes sold are scooters in that they have the driver's feet rest on a platform - they are not straddled by the driver. Today, the LEV industry is dominated by large bicycle companies, due to their access to distribution. In the future, these companies will face major competition, and may be pushed aside by car, motorcycle, and car parts companies.
Book

Energy Harvesting/Regeneration for Electric Vehicles Land, Water & Air 2015-2025

2014-12-01
The electric vehicle industry - land, water and air - is rapidly rising to become a market of over $533 billion by 2025. Some run entirely on harvested energy as with solar lake boats. Others recycle energy as with regenerative braking of cars, buses and military vehicles harvesting kinetic energy. Others use different forms of harvesting either to charge the traction batteries, or to drive autonomous device. In some cases, harvesting is making completely new forms of electric vehicle possible such as "glider" Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) that can stay at sea for years, gaining electricity from both wave power and sunshine. Multiple forms of energy harvesting on one vehicle are becoming more common from cars to superyachts.
Book

Electric Vehicle Forecasts, Trends and Opportunities 2015-2025

2014-10-01
This master report summarizing and forecasting every sector of the EV industry remains unique. It adds new sectors as they become substantial, the latest being car-like micro-EVs homologated as quadricycles in Europe. Many profitable niches are emerging just as the largest major sectors are changing in importance; the industrial and commercial sector is now bigger and much more profitable than e-cars, and is set to remain so for at least eight more years. All components are changing with supercapacitors sometimes replacing or partly replacing batteries and also new types of battery, energy harvesting, power electronics and structure powering growth. Disruptive change is now the norm and the fruits of all this are truly spectacular; including such things as the Marian fast- surface boat that acts as a submarine when necessary, the fixed-wing plane that will stay aloft for five years on sunshine and the flying jet ski.
Book

EV/Hybrid Batteries & Battery Material Suppliers: An Automotive Market Review

2012-01-01
Based on extensive research conducted throughout 2011 by ABOUT Automotive, including many senior-level interviews at the major sector companies, this first edition study provides fresh, unbiased insight in a number of areas, including: • The market for EV/hybrid batteries and battery material suppliers, determining the trends and topical issues, as well as providing valuable market sector data; • The main manufacturers in both the battery and battery material supplier sectors; • Vehicle manufacturer strategy analysis of the major players involved with EV/hybrid batteries; and • A statistical appendix including model-level sales data for EV/hybrid vehicles. The report also includes an authoritative analysis of the following leading vehicle manufacturer strategies: • Toyota • Honda • Mitsubishi • Nissan • Suzuki, Mazda and other Japanese manufacturers • Japanese bus and truck manufacturers • North American OEMs • European OEMs • Asia OEMs
Book

Electric and Hybrid-Electric Vehicles - Batteries

2010-11-29
With production and planning for new electric vehicles gaining momentum worldwide, this book – the second in a series of five volumes on this subject – provides engineers and researchers with perspectives on the most current and innovative developments regarding electric and hybrid-electric vehicle technology, design considerations, and components. This book features 15 SAE technical papers, published from 2008 through 2010, that provide an overview of research on electric vehicle batteries. Topics include: Charging strategy studies for PHEV batteries Electric vehicle and hybrid-electric vehicle rechargeable energy storage systems Strategies for reducing plug-in battery costs Cold temperature performance Lithium-ion battery power capability testing, crash safety, and modeling
Book

42 Volt Systems

2000-09-29
This report addresses the technical challenges engineers must face, including the issues of storage devices, generation of the 42 volts, and distribution of power. It contains information on all of the critical aspects related to the adoption of this technology.
Standard

Adhesives, Sealants, and Heat Transfer Materials in Battery Systems: A Primer on Applications, Manufacturing and End-Use Performance Requirements

2018-07-30
WIP
J3178
This document provides an overview of adhesives, sealants, and heat transfer materials commonly used in battery packs. Specific attention is given to the location where such materials are used within in a representative (automobile) battery pack, their basic chemical makeup, and general performance requirements during manufacturing and in end-use.
Standard

Battery Electronic Fuel Gauging Recommended Practices

2010-05-26
WIP
J2946
This document covers the recommended practices associated with reporting the vehicle’s (hybrid and pure electric) battery pack performance details to the automobile user. Specifically, performance details refer to the amount of stored energy available for use by the vehicle’s hybrid or pure electric drive system. These practices detail the accuracies, error conditions and other reporting and diagnostic requirements responsible for delivering an accurate assessment of the amount of available electrochemical fuel.
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