Nondestructive tests are those tests which detect factors related to the serviceability or quality of a part or material without limiting its usefulness. Material defects such as surface cracks, laps, pits, internal inclusions, bursts, shrink, seam, hot tears, and composition analysis can be detected. Sometimes their dimensions and exact location can be determined. Such tests can usually be made rapidly. Processing results such as hardness, case depth, wall thickness, ductility, decarburization, cracks, apparent tensile strength, grain size, and lack of weld penetration or fusion may be detectable and measurable. Service results such as corrosion and fatigue cracking may be detected and measured by nondestructive test methods. In many cases, imperfections can be automatically detected so that parts or materials can be classified.
Electronic Control Systems describes the evolution of electronic control systems and examines growth experienced in the four main system categories - safety and convenience, powertrain, body controls, and entertainment and communications. The system trends and technologies are covered in detail. The report concludes with a summary of the challenges, changes on the horizon, and a discussion of how sustainable competitive advantage can perhaps be achieved.
The presentation describes technology developments and the integration of these technologies into new emission control systems. As in other years, the reader will find a wide range of topics from various parts of the world. This is reflective of the worldwide scope and effort to reduce diesel exhaust emissions. Topics include the integration of various diesel particulate matter (PM) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) technologies as well as sensors and other emissions related developments. Presenter Atsuo Kondo, NGK Insulators, Ltd.
Simulation-based tolerance analysis is the accepted standard for dimensional engineering in aerospace today. Sophisticated 3D model-based tolerance analysis processes enable engineers to measure variation in complex, often large, assembled products quickly and accurately. Best-in-class manufacturers have adopted Quality Intelligence Management tools for collecting and consolidating this measurement data. Their goal is to completely understand dimensional fit characteristics and quality status before commencing the build process. This results in shorter launch cycles, improved process capabilities, reduced scrap and less production downtime. This paper describes how to use simulation-based approaches to correlate the theoretical tolerance analysis results produced during engineering simulations to actual as-built results. This allows engineers to validate or adjust as-designed simulation parameters to more closely align to production process capabilities.
Four-way, integrated, diesel emission control systems that combine selective catalytic reduction for NOx control with a continuously regenerating trap to remove diesel particulate matter were evaluated under real-world, on-road conditions. Tests were conducted using a semi-tractor with an emissions year 2000, 6-cylinder, 12 L, Volvo engine rated at 287 kW at 1800 rpm and 1964 N-m. The emission control system was certified for retrofit application on-highway trucks, model years 1994 through 2002, with 4-stroke, 186-373 kW (250-500 hp) heavy-duty diesel engines without exhaust gas recirculation. The evaluations were unique because the mobile laboratory platform enabled evaluation under real-world exhaust plume dilution conditions as opposed to laboratory dilution conditions. Real-time plume measurements for NOx, particle number concentration and size distribution were made and emission control performance was evaluated on-road.
Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have a large battery which can be used for electric only powertrain operation. The control system in a PHEV must decide how to spend the energy stored in the battery. In this paper, we will present a prototype implementation of a PHEV control system which saves energy for electric operation in pre-defined geographic areas, so called Green Zones. The approach determines where the driver will be going and then compares the route to a database of predefined Green Zones. The control system then reserves enough energy to be able to drive the Green Zone sections in electric only mode. Finally, the powertrain operation is modified once the vehicle enters the Green Zone to ensure engine operation is limited. Data will be presented from a prototype implementation in a Ford Escape PHEV Presenter Johannes Kristinsson
In the future, the requirements of acoustic behavior in air intake systems will continue to increase. Active systems will be necessary to reach the higher legislative standards and customer expectations regarding noise levels. The optimization of the Active Noise Control System regarding the sound design in the interior is based on the transfer function between the engine and the passenger compartment as well as the design of the air intake system. This paper shows the development process, with a focus on the investigation of transfer functions in passenger cars and the computational calculation for the system configuration.
Engine noise emanating from the air intake of automotive induction systems can be effectively suppressed through active noise control. Source coupling is used as the active noise control strategy. A small woofer, co-axially mounted inside the fresh air duct, is located in the plane of the fresh air intake and acts as the secondary noise source. An error microphone is located near the air intake and a synchronous reference signal is provided by an engine tachometer signal. This active noise control system has been tested on several engines. The radiated engine noise from the induction system has been effectively eliminated over the control bandwidth. The power draw of the speaker is minimal and the flow restriction of the actively controlled inlet has been significantly reduced compared to the production air induction system.
Many engineering systems create unwanted noise that can be reduced by the careful application of engineering noise controls. When this noise travels down tubes and pipes, a tuned resonator can be used to muffle noise escaping from the tube. The classical examples are automobile exhaust and ventilation system noise. In these cases where a narrow frequency band of noise exists, a traditional engineering control consists of adding a tuned Helmholtz resonator to reduce unwanted tonal noise by reflecting it back to the source (Temkin, 1981). As long as the frequency of the unwanted noise falls within the tuned resonator frequency range, the device is effective. However, if the frequency of the unwanted sound changes to a frequency that does not match the tuned resonator frequency, the device is no longer effective. Conventional resonators have fixed tuning and cannot effectively muffle tonal noise with time-varying frequency.
This paper describes a general noise control system design process. The methodology is applied to heavy duty trucks. The paper describes the benefits, for optimization purposes, of a systems approach versus a component approach. The role of both experimental and predictive approaches on the design process is outlined. Available noise control materials are briefly described, and lastly, an example of the results of the development of a noise control system by the experimental systems approach is provided.
Contradictory requirements like a quick heat up of the compartment vs. a quick heat up of the engine (especially in cars with fuel efficient engines) show that there is a need for a highly sophisticated climate control system to optimize the operation points. This could be done by a suitable system and a close interaction between the control systems for climate, engine and coolant management. Additionally we can improve the climate control system to a comfort management system by using sensors for air velocity and humidity. With today's technology we can build up a calculation model to determine a comfort-factor for the occupants and use this factor for the climate control instead of only using the compartment temperature as controlled variable.
A prototype emissions control system consisting of a close-coupled lightoff catalyst, catalyzed diesel particle filter (CDPF), and a NOX adsorber was evaluated on a Mercedes A170 CDI. This laboratory experiment aimed to determine whether the benefits of these technologies could be utilized simultaneously to allow a light-duty diesel vehicle to achieve levels called out by U.S. Tier 2 emissions legislation. This research was carried out by driving the A170 through the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP), US06, and highway fuel economy test (HFET) dynamometer driving schedules. The vehicle was fueled with a 3-ppm ultra-low sulfur fuel. Regeneration of the NOX adsorber/CDPF system was accomplished by using a laboratory in-pipe synthesis gas injection system to simulate the capabilities of advanced engine controls to produce suitable exhaust conditions. The results show that these technologies can be combined to provide high pollutant reduction efficiencies in excess of 90% for NOX and PM.
The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the most efficient technologies to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions arising from technical combustion processes [1,2]. For compliance with future emission limits for heavy-duty Diesel engines the SCR technology might play an important role . In two long-term field demonstrations heavy duty (HD) trucks were equipped with SCR emission control systems (SINOx™-System) and were operated under daily working conditions. A number of measurements of both the performance and the activity of the catalyst during the entire operation time were performed. On the engine test bench the NOx reduction at the beginning of the road test was compared to the NOx-reduction at the end of the program. The initial NOx remained unchanged within the measurement accuracy of the analyzing equipment. On-road measurements of the emissions were done using an analyzer test cell installed on the loading area of the truck.
The new drive-train system Automatic Drive-Train Management (ADM) controls all traction systems present in a vehicle. Applications include the all wheel drive feature in transfer cases and differential locks in axles. Compared to manually operated or automated traction control systems ADM has the advantage of transferring 100 percent of the torque automatically. The range of application for the ADM system would be a 4×2 truck tractor to a 6×6 off-road vehicle. A key feature of the ADM system is the synchronized engagement of gears in a two-speed transfer case while the vehicle is moving.
This paper will address the basic requirements for realizing a stop and go cruise control system. Issues discussed comprise: functional, sensor and basic HMI requirements, primary characterization of naturalistic stop and go driving, and the basic approach of the transformation of situational knowledge in an elementary controller.
This paper presents an architecture for distributed control systems and its underlying methodological framework. Ideas and concepts of distributed systems, artificial intelligence, and soft computing are merged into a unique architecture to provide cooperation, flexibility, and adaptability required by knowledge processing in intelligent control systems. The distinguished features of the architecture include a local problem solving capability to handle the specific requirements of each part of the system, an evolutionary case-based mechanism to improve performance and optimize controls, the use of linguistic variables as means for information aggregation, and fuzzy set theory to provide local control. A distributed traffic control system application is discussed to provide the details of the architecture, and to emphasize its usefulness. The performance of the distributed control system is compared with conventional control approaches under a variety of traffic situations.
Concern about axle noise/vibration/harshness (NVH) has been increasing with the growing popularity of sport utility vehicles, pick-up trucks, hybrid-vehicles and vans. Consumers want these vehicles to be quieter, with performance more like passenger cars. Traditional controls such as absorber-dampers and isolated/reduced vibration sources can solve some of the noise and vibration problems. An additional approach to enhancing NVH performance, is an active vibration control technique, which deals with the energy at the source. This paper describes an approach which combines an active vibration control technique with signature analysis, operational modal analysis and transfer path analysis to improve NVH performance. A flow chart of this is shown in Figure 1. Using this approach, we can identify and verify noise and/or vibration issues, find the root causes, and determine main contribution paths throughout driveline systems.
A conventional automotive emission control system depends on the measurements provided by various sensors to control the air-fuel (A/F) ratio. Maintaining the A/F ratio close to stoichiometry permits catalytic converter to operate in an optimized efficiency, which reduces the exhaust emission. Malfunction resulted from engine misfire makes catalyst''s converting efficiency drop. Such a condition results in increased emissions as well as in damage to catalytic converters. So current researches are proceeded in response to the California OBD II (On-Board Diagnostics) and EOBD that will be adopted in Europe requirements for engine misfire detection in passenger vehicles. In this study, two methods to diagnose the misfire an approached: catalytic converter''s temperature measurement over the threshold exposure temperature to examine the catalyst''s damage, and the vehicle emission test over FTP-75 cycle by varying misfire rates.