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Technical Paper

2,000,000 Miles of Fluid Evaluation in City Bus Automatic Transmissions

1967-02-01
670185
In certain types of city bus service some automatic transmission fluids can fail in less than 10,000 miles. In order to provide satisfactory transmission performance for longer mileage, improved fluids are required. An investigation was undertaken to obtain improved fluids. Fifteen different fluid formulations were evaluated in 30 city buses operated in normal service for more than 2,000,000 miles. It was determined that fluids fail because of frictional deterioration and oxidation. Based on these evaluations, only two fluids were found to be satisfactory for more than 40,000 miles; one additional fluid was satisfactory for more than 30,000 miles. The remaining 12 fluids failed in less than 20,000 miles.
Technical Paper

2-Cycle Engine Exhaust Control Device

1991-11-01
911228
Motorcycles, as an international market product, must satisfy increasingly diverse user needs. These demands lead to various improvements being added and new systems and mechanisms being developed in an effort to arrive at an ideal product concept. Since the two-cycle engine offers particular advantages in combining light weight and compact size with a high output level, attention is focused on this type of engine for use in motorcross bikes and compact sports models. One drawback of the two-cycle engine, however, is that the output characteristic is sharply divided into low-speed and high-speed types. In order to overcome this disadvantage, motorcycle manufacturers are developing exhaust devices which will boost low-speed torque without sacrificing high-speed output. This presentation will describe some of the development and applications concerning exhaust devices already underway at Suzuki.
Journal Article

2-Drive Motor Control Unit for Electric Power Steering

2017-03-28
2017-01-1485
The electric power steering (EPS) is increasing its number since there are many advantages compared to hydraulic power steering. The EPS saves fuel and eliminates hydraulic fluid. Also, it is more suitable to the cooperation control with the other vehicle components. The EPS is now expanding to the heavier vehicle with the advance in the power electronics. In order to meet customer's needs, such as down-sizing, lower failure rate and lower price, we have developed the new motor control unit (MCU) for the EPS. The motor and the electric control unit (ECU) were integrated for the better installation. We adopted new technologies of redundant 2-drive design for more safe EPS. “2-drive Motor Control technology” which consists of dual winding, two torque sensors and two inverter drive units. In our developed MCU, even if there is a failure in one of the drive unit, the assistance of the EPS can be maintained with the other drive unit.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke Diesel Engine for Light Aircraft: IDI vs. DI Combustion Systems

2010-10-25
2010-01-2147
The paper presents a numerical study aimed at converting a commercial lightweight 2-Stroke Indirect Injection (IDI) Diesel aircraft engine to Direct Injection(DI). First, a CFD-1D model of the IDI engine was built and calibrated against experiments at the dynamometer bench. This model is the baseline for the comparison between the IDI and the DI combustion systems. The DI chamber design was supported by extensive 3D-CFD simulations, using a customized version of the KIVA-3V code. Once a satisfactory combustion system was identified, its heat release and wall transfer patterns were entered in the CFD-1D model, and a comparison between the IDI and the DI engine was performed, considering the same Air-Fuel Ratio limit. It was found that the DI combustion system yields several advantages: better take-off performance (higher power output), lower fuel consumption at cruise conditions, improved altitude performance, reduced cooling requirements.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke Engine Options for Automotive Use: A Fundamental Comparison of Different Potential Scavenging Arrangements for Medium-Duty Truck Applications

2019-01-15
2019-01-0071
The work presented here seeks to compare different means of providing scavenging systems for an automotive 2-stroke engine. It follows on from previous work solely investigating uniflow scavenging systems, and aims to provide context for the results discovered there as well as to assess the benefits of a new scavenging system: the reverse-uniflow sleeve-valve. For the study the general performance of the engine was taken to be suitable to power a medium-duty truck, and all of the concepts discussed here were compared in terms of indicated fuel consumption for the same cylinder swept volume using a one-dimensional engine simulation package. In order to investigate the sleeve-valve designs layout drawings and analysis of the Rolls-Royce Crecy-type sleeve had to be undertaken.
Journal Article

2-Stroke High Speed Diesel Engines for Light Aircraft

2011-09-11
2011-24-0089
The paper describes a numerical study, supported by experiments, on light aircraft 2-Stroke Direct Injected Diesel engines, typically rated up to 110 kW (corresponding to about 150 imperial HP). The engines must be as light as possible and they are to be directly coupled to the propeller, without reduction drive. The ensuing main design constraints are: i) in-cylinder peak pressure as low as possible (typically, no more than 120 bar); ii) maximum rotational speed limited to 2600 rpm. As far as exhaust emissions are concerned, piston aircraft engines remain unregulated but lack of visible smoke is a customer requirement, so that a value of 1 is assumed as maximum Smoke number. For the reasons clarified in the paper, only three cylinder in line engines are investigated. Reference is made to two types of scavenging and combustion systems, designed by the authors with the assistance of state-of-the-art CFD tools and described in detail in a parallel paper.
Technical Paper

2-Way Driven Compressor for Hybrid Vehicle Climate Control System

2004-03-08
2004-01-0906
The environment is one of the most important issues currently facing the world and the automobile industry is required to respond with eco-cars. To meet this requirement, the hybrid vehicle is one of the most optimal solutions. The hybrid system automatically stops engine idling (idling stop), or stops the engine during deceleration to recover energy. The engine stop however creates a problem concerning the vehicle's climate control system. Because the conventional climate control system incorporates a compressor driven by engine belt, there is almost no cooling performance while the engine is stopped. Until now, when a driver needed more cooling comfort the engine has been switched back on as a compromise measure. To realize cabin comfort that is consistent with fuel saving, a 2-way driven compressor has been developed that can be driven both by engine belt while the engine is running and by electric motor when the engine is stopped.
Technical Paper

20 A Combined Experimental and Numerical Approach for Motorcycle Crank Noise: Experimental Validation

2002-10-29
2002-32-1789
The demands for comfort and a cleaner environment have been increasing for the past years for motorcycle as well as car manufacturers. With the need to decrease the time-to-market, there is a clear drive to apply CAE-based methods in order to evaluate new designs and to propose design changes that solve any identified problems. More specifically, the demands on the comfort of the rider are not only related to ride & handling and vibration levels(1), but also to the noise levels generated by the motorcycle. This paper presents the virtual modeling of one-cylinder engine of a motorcycle that identifies the mechanism behind the generation of an annoying noise. Furthermore, different possible design changes were evaluated in order to solve the problem. A combined experimental and numerical approach was followed to achieve this. Experiments were used to identify important parameters that determine the engine behavior and thus are critical for the modeling of such an engine.
Technical Paper

20 Years of UNSW Australia's Sunswift Solar Car Team: A New Moment in the Sun, but Where to Next?

2015-03-10
2015-01-0073
The Sunswift Solar Car project has been running at UNSW Australia in Sydney for 20 years as of 2015. It is an entirely student-run endeavour which revolves around the design and development of a solar/electric vehicle nominally designed to compete in the World Solar Challenge rally from Darwin to Adelaide every 2 years. The student cohort is drawn from a range of schools, disciplines and backgrounds, and the team has been increasingly successful and high-profile particularly in its second decade. The excellent level of hands-on training that the project provides to students is not rewarded with academic credit yet many of the alumni credit the project with launching their careers and ambitions. The team's world record-breaking latest vehicle, eVe, is the fifth constructed and presents a radical departure from previous cars in that it carries a passenger in a conventional layout and is based around a road-going sports car.
Technical Paper

2003 Chevrolet Kodiak and GMC TopKick Airbag Sensing System Development

2002-11-18
2002-01-3101
Airbag systems have been part of passenger car and truck programs since the mid-1980's. However, systems designed for medium and heavy duty truck applications are relatively new. The release of airbag systems for medium duty truck has provided some unique challenges, especially for the airbag sensing systems. Because of the many commercial applications within the medium duty market, the diversity of the sensing environments must be considered when designing and calibrating the airbag sensing system. The 2003 Chevrolet Kodiak and GMC TopKick airbag sensing development included significant work, not only on the development of airbag deployment events but also non-deployment events – events which do not require the airbag to deploy. This paper describes the process used to develop the airbag sensing system deployment events and non-deployment event used in the airbag sensing system calibration.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT - Melding the Past and the Future

2004-03-08
2004-01-1251
The 2005 Ford GT high performance sports car was designed and built in keeping with the heritage of the 1960's LeMans winning GT40 while maintaining the image of the 2002 GT40 concept vehicle. This paper reviews the technical challenges in designing and building a super car in 12 months while meeting customer expectations in performance, styling, quality and regulatory requirements. A team of dedicated and performance inspired engineers and technical specialists from Ford Motor Company Special Vehicle Teams, Research and Advanced Engineering, Mayflower Vehicle Systems, Roush Industries, Lear, and Saleen Special Vehicles was assembled and tasked with designing the production 2005 vehicle in record time.
Technical Paper

2005 Fuel Cell Vehicle and its Magnesium Power Distribution Unit

2005-04-11
2005-01-0339
The High Voltage Power Distribution Unit (PDU) is constructed of magnesium in support of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) weight reduction efforts. The PDU distributes and controls a nominal 75 kilowatts of power generated by the Fuel Cell, the primary source of High Voltage power, to all the vehicle loads and accessories. The constraints imposed on the design of the PDU resulted in a component highly susceptible to general and galvanic corrosion. Corrosion abatement was the focus of the PDU redesign. This paper describes the redesign efforts undertaken by Ford personnel to improve the part robustness and corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

200hp Class Tractor from Concept to Contractor

1974-02-01
740664
This paper describes the design concept and characteristics created to develop a new 200 hp class crawler tractor and the subsequent test to assume the achievement of objectives. The new tractor provides a stable platform for good control of the dozer blade and ripper, a main frame for independent mounting of the hydraulically controlled power train and superstructure components, easy servicing of power train components, integration of the ROPS with the chassis, and a 210 hp engine at 2100 rpm.
Book

2013 Passenger Car Yearbook and Concept Car Year in Review: 2013

2013-12-18
This set consists of two books, 2013 Passenger Car Yearbook, and Concept Car Year in Review: 2013. Both include articles that were written by the award-winning editors of Automotive Engineering International. The 2013 Passenger Car Yearbook details the key engineering developments in the passenger vehicle industry of the year. Each new car model is profiled in its own chapter with one or more articles. Concept Car Year in Review: 2013 provides insight to the key engineering ideas that were introduced in concept and prototype cars during that year.
Book

2014 Passenger Car Yearbook

2013-12-10
Each year car manufacturers release new production models that are unique and innovative. These cars begin as concepts then go through the process of prototyping. The process of creating a new model can take years, involving extensive testing and refining of aerodynamics, safety, engine components, and vehicle styling. The production model is the result of this lengthy process, and its new technologies reflect the latest engineering standards as well as market trends. The 2014 Passenger Car Yearbook details the key engineering developments in the passenger vehicle industry of the year. Each new car model is profiled in its own chapter with one or more articles that were previously published and written by the award-winning editors of Automotive Engineering International. The novel engineering aspects of each new model are explored in depth.
Book

2014 Passenger Car Yearbook and Concept Car Year in Review: 2013

2013-12-18
This set consists of two books, 2014 Passenger Car Yearbook, and Concept Car Year in Review: 2013. Both include articles that were written by the award-winning editors of Automotive Engineering International. The 2014 Passenger Car Yearbook details the key engineering developments in the passenger vehicle industry of the year. Each new car model is profiled in its own chapter with one or more articles. Concept Car Year in Review: 2013 provides insight to the key engineering ideas that were introduced in concept and prototype cars during that year.
Book

2015 Passenger Car and 2014 Concept Car Yearbook

2014-11-21
Every year global automakers introduce new or significantly re-engineered passenger vehicles with increasingly advanced technology intended to exceed consumer expectations and satisfy increasingly stringent government regulations. Some of these technologies are firsts-of-their-kind and start trends that other automakers soon follow—with the innovations becoming adopted across the board. The supply community is also increasingly playing a more significant role in helping the original equipment manufacturers research, develop, and introduce the latest engineering innovations that help bring competitive advantage for their automaker partners. Each year, the editors of SAE’s Automotive Engineering magazine publish many articles focused on the technology and engineering innovations of new passenger and concept vehicles, and these articles have been collected into this volume.
Book

2016 Mobility Engineering Professionals Salary Survey

2016-07-14
EXCLUSIVE MEMBER BENEFIT: 2016 MOBILITY ENGINEERING PROFESSIONAL SALARY SURVEY AND CALCULATOR Gain better insight into compensation practices: this salary survey is the only study its kind to explore levels and changes in compensation and employment for engineers and technical employees in the automotive, aerospace, and commercial vehicle industries. It benchmarks compensation levels based by geography, education, industry sector, experience, and managerial and budgetary responsibility. The full report is available to SAE International members by signing into your My SAE account and downloading it into your My Library area. Members also have full access to the updated online interactive salary calculator by visiting SAE’s website. Become a member of SAE International to access this exclusive benefit for free, or purchase it today. YOU BELONG HERE. Membership helps you succeed both personally and professionally. Join us today.
Book

2016 Passenger Car and 2015 Concept Car Yearbook

2015-12-15
Carmakers release new models every year with advanced technology to attract consumer interest and to satisfy increasingly stringent government regulations. Some of these technologies are firsts or leading-edge, and they start trends that more companies will soon follow. Snapshots of the direction of the automotive industry, along with OEM and supplier perspectives, are presented in these articles that have been collected by the Editors of Automotive Engineering whose aim is to provide the reader with a complete overview of the key advances that took place over the course of one model year. • Provides a single source for information on the key engineering trends of one year. • Allows the reader to skip to chapters that cover specific car models that interest them, or read about all models from beginning to end. • Includes plenty of big, full-color images and the facts about the most recent technology and engineering innovations.
Article

2050 aircraft engine designs go radical, part 1

2018-10-23
The search for ever-lower emission technology for future generations of aircraft engines is actively progressing on both sides of the Atlantic. Tucked away on a modest-size stand at this year’s Farnborough International Airshow was a highly varied collection of unconventional engine technology displays – a clear indication of radical innovation already being investigated as a part of Ultimate, the European Horizon 2020 research and innovation project.
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