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Technical Paper

9000 SERIES COMBINE ELECTRONICS

1989-06-01
891413
Customers are demanding more productive and reliable machines that are easier to operate and service. The machines must also be cost effective. These criteria also apply to electrical and electronic systems. The development of systems to meet these demands on the new 9000 Series combines is described.
Technical Paper

A 360×226 Pixel CMOS Imager Chip Optimized for Automotive Vision Applications

2001-03-05
2001-01-0317
Multiple automotive systems are now being developed which require an imager or vision chip to provide information regarding vehicle surroundings, vehicle performance, and vehicle passenger compartment status. Applications include lane departure, lane tracking, collision avoidance, as well as occupant position, impaired driver, and occupant identification. These applications share many requirements, including robust design, tolerance for the automotive environment, built in self-test, wide dynamic range, and low cost. In addition, each application has unique requirements for resolution, sensitivity, imager aspect ratio, and output format. In many cases, output will go directly to vehicle systems for processing, without ever being displayed to the driver. Commercial imager chips do not address this wide spectrum of requirements. A CMOS imager chip has been designed to address these unique automotive requirements.
Technical Paper

A 3D-Web Collaborative Concurrent Automotive Engineering Method Based on our ‘Distributed Digital Factory’ and ‘Digital Car’ Models

2003-03-03
2003-01-0668
Getting information about new products and/ or services across the design and manufacturing/ quality assurance community of automotive engineers is one of the greatest challenges of mankind. Since information is the key to progress, an organization's success often depends on its ability to communicate. National and international competition forces designers and manufacturers to continuously innovate and make their product design and manufacturing / assembly processes lean and market driven. Simultaneously the time to market is rapidly shrinking. This means that marketing and sales departments have to explain and sell their increasingly more complex products to an increasingly more educated and globally distributed customer base at a competitive price, and in a short time.
Technical Paper

A 6 Sigma Framework for the Design of Flatfish Type Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV)

2009-04-20
2009-01-1190
Hydrodynamic parameters play a major role in the dynamics and control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV). The performance of an AUV is dependent on the parameter variations and a proper understanding of these parametric influences is essential for the design, modelling and control of high performance AUVs. In this paper, a six sigma framework for the sensitivity analysis of a flatfish type AUV is presented. Robust design techniques such as Taguchi’s design method and statistical analysis tools such as Pareto-ANOVA, and ANOVA are used to identify the hydrodynamic parameters influencing the dynamic performance of an AUV. In the initial study, it is found that when the vehicle commanded in forward direction, it is in bow down configuration which is unacceptable for AUV motion. This is because of the vehicle buoyancy and shape of the vehicle. So the sensitivity analysis of pitch angle variation is studied by using robust design techniques.
Technical Paper

A 9 yd3 Hydraulic Excavator

1973-02-01
730754
In 1970, O&K Orenstein & Koppel AG, Germany, introduced one of the largest hydraulic excavators in the world, the RH 60, an hydraulic excavator with a 9 yd3 face shovel, or a 6 yd3 backhoe attachment. The machine proved to be a productive and reliable tool even on field applications unknown for hydraulic excavators before its introduction. Major features of the machine, its basic design, and examples of field applications are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Bayesian Approach for Aggregating Test Data Across Sub-Populations

2005-04-11
2005-01-1775
In the process of conducting a reliability analysis of a system, quite often the population of interest is not homogenous; consisting of sub-populations which arise as production operations are adjusted, component suppliers are changed, etc. While these sub-populations are each unique in many ways, they also have much in common. It is also common for data to be available from a variety of different test regimes, e.g. environmental testing and fleet maintenance observations. Hierarchical Bayesian methods provide an organized, objective means of estimating the reliability of the individual systems, the sub-population reliability as well as the reliability of the entire population. This paper provides an introduction to a Bayesian approach that can be extended for more complicated situations.
Technical Paper

A Blockchain-Backed Database for Qualified Parts

2019-03-19
2019-01-1343
Certain standard parts in the aerospace industry require qualification as a prerequisite to manufacturing, signifying that the manufacturer’s capacity to produce parts consistent with the performance specifications has been audited by a neutral third-party auditor, key customer, and/or group of customers. In at least some cases, a certifying authority provides manufacturers with certificates of qualification which they can then present to prospective customers, and/or lists qualified suppliers in a Qualified Parts List or Qualified Supplier List available from that qualification authority. If this list is in an infrequently updated and/or inconsistently styled format as might be found in a print or PDF document, potential customers wishing to integrate qualification information into their supplier tracking systems must use a potentially error-prone manual process that could lead to later reliance on out-of-date or even forged data.
Technical Paper

A Brief Look at Engine Installations for Future Naval Aircraft

1974-02-01
740881
This paper discusses various engine installations in Naval aircraft, looking especially at their costs of maintenance. Fuel systems, fuel control systems, and several engine accessories are discussed for present and future engines. It is concluded that simple, reliable equipment is necessary to keep aircraft in the air instead of in maintenance areas on the ground.
Technical Paper

A CAR MANUFACTURER'S EXPERIENCES WITH BALLOON TIRES1

1925-01-01
250020
In the summer of 1922 the Buick Company began experimenting with balloon tires. The first tires tested, being four-ply and 32 x 6.20 in. in size, produced a galloping action that was sufficient to prejudice the company's engineers against them, and the tests were discontinued. In addition to the galloping effect, other difficulties encountered included those usually present in steering, the development of wheel shimmying to a serious degree, the lack of proper clearance for external brakes because of the small 20-in. wheels, the excessively rapid wear of the tire tread, and the greater susceptibility to puncture. Leaks because of the pinching of the inner tubes also occurred. When, later, a set of 5.25-in. tires was tried on a smaller car, the galloping was noticeably less; but punctures were more numerous than was the case with high-pressure tires.
Technical Paper

A CNG Specific Fuel Injector Using Latching Solenoid Technology

1995-08-01
951914
An advanced fuel injector designed specifically for low energy density gaseous fuels has been developed which demonstrates compelling performance advantages over fuel injectors utilizing conventional solenoid technology. The injector incorporates design features that are necessary to optimize the performance for fuels such as CNG, LNG, and propane. This paper provides a background of magnetic latching technology and addresses the application of the technology to an advanced, pressure balanced, gaseous fuel injector. Performance of the injector will be discussed in detail as will features of the injector specifically adapted for gaseous applications. The ability of the injector to solve fuel metering problems facing the industry, such as turn down ratio limitations, accuracy, durability, and compatibility with existing engine electronics, are addressed.
Technical Paper

A Candidate Electrical Power System for Next Generation Military Aircraft

1995-05-01
951425
An electrical system composed of an integral main engine electrical starter/generator and a power management and distribution system for a high performance more electric airplane is presented. The paper emphasizes the fault tolerance and high reliability requirements and discusses the necessary architecture to satisfy them. A number of critical technical issues associated with the more electric airplane, such as severe EMI environment, regenerative power, and system integration and stability are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Capacity Oriented Quality Assurance Method by Using Modular Containerized Test Cells

2002-11-19
2002-01-3456
The requirements for diesel and gasoline engines are continuously increasing with respect to emissions, fuel consumption and durability. Besides the engine development process the quality of the production engine itself has to be ensured. This paper discusses alternative philosophies and approaches in terms of the quality management process. Based on a detailed analysis of the required equipment advanced solutions are presented. Modular containerized test cells are described being equipped exactly to the current testing task ready to use in low infrastructure. The testing capacity of the facility can be adjusted to the actual production volume by simply removing or adding modular test cells. Thus, at every facility the testing tasks can be executed successfully and the investment can be kept low.
Technical Paper

A Case Study in Structural Optimization of an Automotive Body-In-White Design

2008-04-14
2008-01-0880
A process for simultaneously optimizing the mechanical performance and minimizing the weight of an automotive body-in-white will be developed herein. The process begins with appropriate load path definition though calculation of an optimized topology. Load paths are then converted to sheet metal, and initial critical cross sections are sized and shaped based on packaging, engineering judgment, and stress and stiffness approximations. As a general direction of design, section requirements are based on an overall vehicle “design for stiffness first” philosophy. Design for impact and durability requirements, which generally call for strength rather than stiffness, are then addressed by judicious application of the most recently developed automotive grade advanced high strength steels. Sheet metal gages, including tailored blanks design, are selected via experience and topometry optimization studies.
Technical Paper

A Case Study: Improvements in Automotive Motion Simulators Using Six Sigma Methodologies

2007-04-16
2007-01-0533
Newer automobiles have complex dynamic and stability controls due to regulations, competition, and safety concerns. More systems require testing at the subcomponent level to ensure proper operation in the final vehicle assembly. Many of the stability and navigation features originally designed for aircraft components are now being incorporated into automobiles. Certain types of motion test simulators were originally designed for testing aircraft sensors as: gyroscopes, inertial navigation systems (INS), inertial measurement units (IMU), and attitude heading and reference systems (AHARS) This same type of equipment is now used for automotive testing as: airbag fuse sensors, anti-skid sensors, rollover sensors, vehicle stabilization systems, active suspension sensors, and navigation systems.
Technical Paper

A Collaborative Navigation Approach in Intelligent Vehicles

2008-04-14
2008-01-1249
Proliferation of real time inter-vehicular communications provides new sources for exploitable positioning data. Vehicles can, under numerous situations, have GPS satellite shortages but there will always be vehicles in their vicinity, with a different set of satellites, to provide them with useful navigation information. In this paper, we propose a cooperative positioning technique making use of reliable positions of some vehicles to enhance positioning estimates of some others. We will exploit the useful inter-vehicle data flow to extract good position measurements from vehicles with good GPS satellite LOS (line of sight), in order to enhance low positioning accuracy of other vehicles, in the neighborhood. The integration of such information will be done using geometric data fusion approach.
Technical Paper

A Compact and Robust Corona Discharge Device (CDD™) for Generating Non-Thermal Plasma in Automotive Exhaust

2000-06-19
2000-01-1845
We describe the details of a particular compact and robust Corona Discharge Device (CDD™) that generates non-thermal plasma in the harsh environment of a stoichiometric exhaust. This particular CDD™ can generate plasma power of up to 15W at exhaust gas temperatures to 850C. Optimizations of geometry, material selection, and thermal design were performed by a combination of simulation and experiment. This particular design considered tradeoffs of several factors, including plasma power, EMI shielding, thermal durability, high voltage interconnection, packaging size, and exhaust emissions reduction. This particular CDD™ was designed to meet most of the same durability and survivability specifications as an O2 sensor, since both are exposed to similar exhaust environments.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) and Microalloyed Steel

1991-02-01
910141
Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) samples were heat treated to produce materials with tensile strengths in the range of 100 ksi to 170 ksi. Microalloyed steels were also produced with equivalent tensile and yield strength levels. These steels were evaluated for mechanical properties in terms of tensile and yield strength, ductility, impact toughness, fracture toughness and fatigue strength. Machinability was extensively evaluated through tests of drilling, turning and plunge machining. This paper reports on this comprehensive comparative evaluation of these two important classes of materials for use in the automotive industry.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Automotive System Fatigue Models Processed in the Time and Frequency Domain

2016-04-05
2016-01-0377
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that frequency domain methods for calculating structural response and fatigue damage can be more widely applicable than previously thought. This will be demonstrated by comparing results of time domain vs. frequency domain approaches for a series of fatigue/durability problems with increasing complexity. These problems involve both static and dynamic behavior. Also, both single input and multiple correlated inputs are considered. And most important of all, a variety of non-stationary loading types have been used. All of the example problems investigated are typically found in the automotive industry, with measured loads from the field or from the proving ground.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Bayesian-Based Reliability Prediction Methodologies

2005-04-11
2005-01-1777
As new technology is introduced into automotive engineering, the level of uncertainty regarding system robustness increases. With it reliability assessment tools that account for such uncertainty is expected to gain increased attention. This can naturally lead to Bayesian-based tools. This paper examines three reliability assessment methodologies that operate in the Bayesian framework. Two of them are geared towards electronic parts and assemblies, with the remaining one being geared towards systems in general. In doing so, they were critiqued in terms of four dimensions: (1) basic architecture, (2) input factors, (3) handling of qualitative data, and (4) failure rate updating mechanisms.
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