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Technical Paper

4994 Tractor Hydraulic System

J I Case Company has produced four-wheel-drive agricultural tractors since 1964. In 1984 however, the flagship of the Case fleet changed hands. Rising labor costs and larger farming operations spearheaded the need for a more efficient larger tractor. January 1984 marked the introduction of the largest four-wheel-drive tractor in the history of Case, the 4994, a 400-gross engine horsepower tractor, Figure 1. Sheer horsepower alone however, would not meet the requirements of today's farming operations. Case Engineering realized that tomorrows tractors must have sufficient power to handle the wide variety of attachments available. They also realized that along with the unmatched power must come precise control of the attachment. These advancements in farming have required improvements to the tractor hydraulic system. This paper describes the hydraulic system of the 4994, Case's new flagship.
Journal Article

4H-SiC VJFET Based Normally-off Cascode Switches for 300°C Electronic Applications

Vertical-Junction-Field-Effect-Transistors (VJFETs) are currently the most mature SiC devices for high power/temperature switching. High-voltage VJFETs are typically designed normally-on to ensure voltage control operation at high current-gain. However, to exploit the high voltage/temperature capabilities of VJFETs in a normally-off high-current voltage-controlled switch, high-voltage normally-on and low-voltage normally-off VJFETs were connected in the cascode configuration. In this paper, we review the high temperature DC characteristics of VJFETs and 1200 V normally-off cascode switches. The measured parameter shifts in the 25°C to 300°C temperature range are in excellent agreement with theory, confirming fabrication of robust SiC VJFETs and cascode switches.
Technical Paper

4WS Technology and the Prospects for Improvement of Vehicle Dynamics

FOUR-WHEEL STEERING (4WS) is beginning to find widespread use as a new approach to improving vehicle dynamics, especially in the medium and high speed ranges. Steering the rear wheels in the same phase as the front wheels enhances vehicle stability. Four-wheel steering systems have an even greater potential to improve stability and steering response through suitable control over the transient characteristics of the rear wheel steer angle. This paper traces the course of Nissan research and development work on four-wheel steering and the evolution of Nissan's HICAS (4WS) technology. It also describes research activities under way on vehicle dynamics using a newly developed Simulator Vehicle, equipped with a front and rear angle transient control system which makes it possible to vary the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle instantaneously and at will while driving.
Technical Paper

5-years status report of the advanced offset frontal crash protection

This paper will provide an overview of the work progress of the advanced offset frontal crash protection group of IHRA. It resumes, including tables, the strategy of the group to cope with the assigned task. This is the commitment to achieve an harmonized frontal crash protection procedure taking into account the different world wide views in this field.
Journal Article

5.9 GHz DSRC Standards Overview and Status

Over the past several years the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Standards Association has developed standards for the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications protocols, also known as Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments. These standards consist of IEEE 1609 as well as an amendment to the IEEE 802.11 standard or 802.11p. The 1609 standards were published for Trial Use and these as well as the 802.11p draft have been implemented in a variety of test beds to provide lessons learned and feedback into the standards working groups. Based on ongoing testing, the protocols display a strong capability to address the requirements of crash avoidance and transportation mobility applications. The corresponding test results provide information necessary to update the standards after the first trial phase as industry moves toward commercial implementations.
Technical Paper


A colorful series of 150 slides was presented tracing 5 HP to 1200 HP marine gear design evolution beginning in 1906, followed by pre-WWI developments, Liberty Aircraft engine usage and a 1924 to 1972 series of pleasure boat and work boat marine gear photographs. The entire slide presentation is available in 35 m.m. film strip and may be ordered (at cost) from the author, R. C. McRoberts, Twin Disc, Incorporated, Racine, Wisconsin, 53403, U.S.A. For short time usage, a loan film is available. This history of U. S. marine gear development includes information contributed by the Snow-Nabstedt Gear Corp., Capitol Gears, Inc., Paragon Gears, Inc., The Walter Machine Co., Inc., Detroit Diesel Allison Div. of General Motors Corp., Caterpillar Tractor Co., Warner Gear Div. Borg-Warner Corp. and Twin Disc, Incorporated.
Technical Paper

50 Years of Agricultural Tractor Development

The story of Power Farming is the great saga of our times. It is a story of free enterprise, perseverance and endurance of the individual, of vision, idealism and cooperation among men, of the lightening of human toil and the release of millions of workers from farms to feed the ever hungry industrial revolution. By no means least, it is the story of producing food necessary to win two global wars, keep our allies alive and millions of the defeated enemy from starvation. FOREWARD By 1915, the Steam Traction Engine had attained its highest development. It was the forerunner, rather than the predecessor, of the farm tractor. The former was the instrument of expansion; the latter, the instrument of progress. The invention of the tractor, following by only sixteen years Otto's practical embodiment application of the Beau de Rochas power cycle to a heat engine, marked the advent of a new order - - the age of Power Farming.
Technical Paper

62 “Classic” or “Scooter” Mopeds, Comparison of Dynamic Capacities

In France, the current evolution in the number of road accident victims is less favourable for the moped rider category than for the majority of others. In addition, the proportion of scooters in the moped park is currently considerably increasing. The aim of the research work presented is to consider if an explanation for the bad results for this category of users, in terms of road safety, can be found through the study of the dynamic performances of this type of vehicle. We thus carried out an experiment aimed at comparing the dynamic capacities of a “Classic” moped with those of a “Scooter” model. Two mopeds, one of each type, were fitted with an embedded measurement system. They were driven for several tests on a track by a professional test pilot. The results of this study are more in favour of the “Scooter” moped, which seems to offer equivalent, or even better, dynamic capacities than the “Classic” one.
Technical Paper

757/767 Flight Management System

The 757/767 Flight Management System provides the initial operational implementation of an integrated guidance, control and display equipments based upon digital technology for commercial transport airplanes. The applied equipments are based upon the new ARINC 700 series characteristics developed by the Industry over the past five years. These characteristics were developed on the basis of limited operational experience with selected elements of the system and upon R&D efforts within the Industry. The System features automatic/manual flight profiles for optimum economics, all weather landing including rollout guidance, electronic primary flight instruments based on color (shadow mask) CRTs, inertial attitude/velocity reference based upon laser gyros, improved caution/warning and other improved performance/functional features. The system also provides significant improvements in line and shop maintenance features.
Technical Paper

A -183°C Cryogenic Freezer for the International Space Station

In the course of CRYOSYSTEM phase B (development phase) financed by the European Space Agency, AIR LIQUIDE (France) and Astrium Space Infrastructure (Germany) have developed an optimized design of a −183°C freezer to be used on board the International Space Station for the freezing and storage of biological samples. The CRYOSYSTEM facility consists of the following main elements: - the CRYORACK, an outfitted standard payload rack (ISPR) accommodating up to three identical Vial Freezers - the Vial Freezer, a dewar vessel capable of fast and ultra-rapid freezing, and storing up to approximately 900 vials below −183°C; the dewar is cooled by a Stirling machine producing > 6 W at 90 K. The Vial Freezer is operational while accommodated in the CRYORACK or attached to the Life Science Glovebox (LSG). One CRYORACK will remain permanently on-orbit for several years while four Vial Freezers and two additional CRYORACKs support the cyclic upload/download of samples.
Technical Paper

A 100 G Frontal Crash Sled Test System

This paper describes the development of a new sled system that can address many safety-related issues pertaining to the racing industry. The system was designed to re-create acceleration and velocity levels similar to levels evident in race car crashes. The sled utilizes equipment typically used in passenger car crash research with the primary change to a specially designed lightweight carriage. This paper will overview the system and the types of crash events that can be simulated. Readers of this paper will gain a much broader understanding of accelerator sled testing and the issues related to the simulation of high speed crashes using physical testing.
Technical Paper

A 3WCC Global Kinetic Model: A Calibration Method Using Laboratory Scale and Engine Test Bench Experiments

A 3 way catalytic converter (3WCC) model based on a global kinetic model was developed and validated against laboratory scale and engine test bench experiments. Various equivalence ratios and temperatures were tested. A methodology was finalized and applied to calibrate the kinetic constants. Laboratory scale experiments were first used to characterize the reaction mechanism during light-off, including the way reduction and oxidation reactions begin and compete with each other when temperature increases. The numerical results are in good agreement with the laboratory scale light-off results. Also, when adapted to simulate the engine test bench experiments, the model is able to correctly reproduce both the light-off tests and the 3WCC conversion efficiency evolution versus equivalence ratio. A calibration method in two steps was thus established and successfully used. The combination of modeling with experimental work appeared to be a powerful tool to determine the reaction mechanism.
Technical Paper

A 5-Zone Model to Improve the Diagnosis Capabilities of a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine (RCEM) in Autoignition Studies

In this work, a 5-zone model has been applied to replicate the in-cylinder conditions evolution of a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine (RCEM) in order to improve the chemical kinetic analyses by obtaining more accurate simulation results. To do so, CFD simulations under motoring conditions have been performed in order to identify the proper number of zones and their relative volume, walls surface and temperature. Furthermore, experiments have been carried out in an RCEM with different Primary Reference Fuels (PRF) blends under homogeneous conditions to obtain a database of ignition delays and in-cylinder pressure and temperature evolution profiles. Such experiments have been replicated in CHEMKIN by imposing the heat losses and volume profiles of the experimental facility using a 0-D 1-zone model. Then, the 5-zone model has been analogously solved and both results have been compared to the experimental ones.
Technical Paper

A Basic Approach to Gearbox Noise Prediction

This paper provides an overview of a strategy for the prediction of noise from industrial gearboxes. A review of the history of predictive noise control in gearboxes is given. The historical lead is followed in developing the strategy, but significant changes in the approach to predictive noise control have been made. The heart of the approach is the dynamic modeling of the gearbox from inside out. Thus one must start this process with the prediction of the internal dynamic response of the gear train system. This paper then details the computational strategy for the determination of the dynamic response of the internal gearbox components. The approaches presented here are significant departures from those carried out in the past.
Technical Paper

A Before and After Study of the Change to Unleaded Gasoline-Test Results from EPA and Other Cycles

A fleet of 50, 1986-1987 model year cars designed for unleaded gasoline has been tested on the road and on a chassis dynamometer over 5 driving cycles and a wide range of other manoeuvres including steady speeds. It was found that the fuel consumption of this fleet was 17 to 23% (depending on test cycle) less than that of a corresponding fleet to leaded fuelled cars of 1980 model year average. Exhaust emissions were significantly lowered in the range of 45 to 93%. However trend line analysis of the several data sets indicates that the ULG fleet has about 6% higher fuel consumption than would have been expected if there had been a continuing evolution of leaded vehicle technology. The data base produced has applicability to a wide range of planning and design tasks, and those illustrated indicate the effects of speed limit changes and advisory speed signs on fuel consumption and emissions.
Journal Article

A Bibliographical Review of Electrical Vehicles (xEVs) Standards

Abstract This work puts presents an all-inclusive state of the art bibliographical review of all categories of electrified transportation (xEVs) standards, issued by the most important standardization organizations. Firstly, the current status for the standards by major organizations is presented followed by the graphical representation of the number of standards issued. The review then takes into consideration the interpretation of the xEVs standards developed by all the major standardization organizations across the globe. The standards are differentiated categorically to deliver a coherent view of the current status followed by the explanation of the core of these standards. The ISO, IEC, SAE, IEEE, UL, ESO, NTCAS, JARI, JIS and ARAI electrified transportation vehicles xEV Standards from USA, Europe, Japan, China and India were evaluated. A total approximated of 283 standards in the area have been issued.
Technical Paper

A Brief History of Auto Radio Styling

“There's nothing new under the sun,” the old proverb says. But you only have to read a magazine, scan a periodical, listen to the radio, watch television, or glance at the multitude of ads that promise that such and such product is the latest trend or has up-to-date, state-of-the-art technology, to seemingly prove the old proverb wrong. However, old proverbs become old because they withstand the test of time. In this case, a hasty judgement should be withheld. Currently, as in the past, the above holds true for car radios as well. Whether in the United States, Europe, Canada or Latin America, the public has always been susceptible to last minute technological advances. It is curious then, that as far as car radio styling is concerned, their appearance has been typically rather conservative, and that it is only recently that styling has begun to change to be more in tune with the times.
Technical Paper

A Brief Survey of the Experimental Methods Used for Wake Vortex Investigations

Some of the methods used for experimental detection and examination of wake vortices are presented. The aim of the article is to provide the reader a brief overview of the available methods. The material is divided into two major sections, one dealing with methods used primarily in the laboratory, and the second part devoted to those used in field operations. Over one hundred articles are cited and briefly discussed.