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Technical Paper

Work Hardening and Bake Hardening in Five Body Components - Volvo's New Standard for High-Strength Sheet Steel

1984-02-01
840006
The following investigation was carried out to evaluate work hardening and bake hardening in actual body components. Five pressings were made from mild steel and three different grades of high-strength steel with ultimate tensile strengths ranging from 380 to 470 N/mm2. The latter were a batch annealed Rephos steel and two other grades of continuously annealed dual-phase (DP) steel. Tensile test specimens were taken from these components to evaluate the work hardening and bake hardening. The results are contained in the report. A new Volvo standard for high-strength cold-rolled sheet steel has been introduced. To some extent, the formulation of the standard was based on the results of the investigation of work hardening and bake hardening. The form and application of the standard are described in the report.
Technical Paper

Work Hardening and Strength Analysis of Steel Structure with Special Cross Section

2002-07-09
2002-01-2114
This paper presents the results of a strength analysis of a newly developed steel structure featuring a special cross section achieved with the hydroforming process that minimizes the influence of springback. This structure has been developed in pursuit of further weight reductions for the steel body in white. A steel tube with tensile strength of 590 MPa was fabricated in a low-pressure hydroforming operation, resulting in thicker side walls. The results of a three-point bending test showed that the bending strength of the new steel structure with thicker side walls was substantially increased. A finite element crush analysis based on the results of a forming analysis was shown to be effective in predicting the strength of the structure, including the effect of work hardening.
Technical Paper

WorldSID 5th Percentile Prototype Dummy Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-0701
The WorldSID 5th percentile dummy, representing an average female, was developed in less than three years after the WorldSID 50th percentile dummy production release. This 5th percentile dummy was developed in the Integrated Project Aprosys (Advanced Protection Systems) under the European Commission Framework Program 6. This paper discusses the rationale for the WorldSID 5th percentile dummy design and development, and biofidelity evaluation results of head drop test, neck pendulum test and pendulum impact tests of the shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis according to ISO TR9790 (ISO 1997) and Irwin (2002). The dummy was designed to host four units of 32 channel in-dummy Data Acquisition System with total 128 channel capacity. The head is constructed with PVC skin and plastic skull to simulate human head structure. The neck consists of a rubber design with metal discs, which can be tuned with rubber buffers.
Technical Paper

Worldwide Supply Of Zinc Coated Sheet Steel For Automotive Applications

1984-02-01
840283
The current worldwide availability of zinc coated sheet steel is presented along with applications in the automotive industry. Available grades of zinc coated steels and their manufacturing processes are also described. Long term needs of these products by the automotive industry are discussed. Types of zinc coated steels and their future availability are forecasted.
Standard

Wrench, Spanner

2013-05-28
CURRENT
AS6018
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers adjustable and non-adjustable spanner wrenches generally used for aerospace machinery maintenance and for tightening and loosening hose couplings and hydrant caps. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply all of the products described therein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.
Standard

Wrenches, Hand, Twelve Point, High Strength, Thin Wall

2011-12-09
CURRENT
AS954G
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers high strength thin wall (commercial) sockets, universal sockets, box wrenches and torque adaptors which possess the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design so configured that, when mated with 12-point fasteners conforming to the requirement of AS870, they shall transmit torque to the fastener without bearing on the outer 5% of the fastener's wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes. The dimensional limits of box and combination wrench lengths have been established to provide configuration control for tool storage applications.
Standard

Wrenches, Twelve Spline, Metric

1989-11-01
CURRENT
MA1547A
This standard covers the design, performance, and test requirements for high strength, thin wall, commercial sockets, universal sockets, and box wrenches used for the attachment and detachment of metric spline drive, high strength, and high temperature aircraft fasteners. Inclusion of dimensional data in this standard is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes. This standard is based on, but not limited to, the following external spline wrenching system:
Standard

Wrenches; Flare Nut, Crowfoot, 12 Point Non-Distorting

2018-07-20
WIP
AS4167D
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers 12 point flare nut crowfoot, flare nut wrenches, double end flare nut wrenches, combination box and flare nut wrenches, and ratcheting flare nut wrenches that are designed with the following requirements: (a) Non-distorting usage; (b) Possessing the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design to be used on hydraulic tube fittings that conform to the requirements of SAE J514; (c) Transmitting torque to tube fittings without bearing on the apex of fitting wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.
Standard

Wrenches; Flare Nut, Crowfoot, 12 Point Non-Distorting

2016-07-06
CURRENT
AS4167C
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers 12 point flare nut crowfoot, flare nut wrenches, double end flare nut wrenches, combination box and flare nut wrenches, and ratcheting flare nut wrenches that are designed with the following requirements: (a) Non-distorting usage; (b) Possessing the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design to be used on hydraulic tube fittings that conform to the requirements of SAE J514; (c) Transmitting torque to tube fittings without bearing on the apex of fitting wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.
Standard

Wrenches; Flare Nut, Crowfoot, 12 Point Non-distorting

2011-04-26
HISTORICAL
AS4167B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers 12 point flare nut crowfoot, flare nut wrenches, double end flare nut wrenches, combination box and flare nut wrenches, and ratcheting flare nut wrenches that are designed with the following requirements: a. Non-distorting usage b. Possessing the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design to be used on hydraulic tube fittings that conform to the requirements of SAE J514. c. Transmitting torque to tube fittings without bearing on the apex of fitting wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.
Standard

Wrenches; Flare Nut, Crowfoot, 12-Point Nondistorting

1993-03-01
HISTORICAL
AS4167A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers 12-point open box end crowfoot, flare nut, double open box end, combination box and open box end, and ratcheting open box end wrenches that are designed with the following requirements: a Nondistorting usage b Possessing the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design to be used on hydraulic tube fittings that conform to the requirements of SAE J514. c Transmitting torque to tube fittings without bearing on the apex of fitting wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.
Standard

Wrought Aluminum Applications Guidelines

2018-01-10
CURRENT
J1434_201801
This report approaches the material selection process from the designer's viewpoint. Information is presented in a format designed to guide the user through a series of decision-making steps. "Applications criteria" along with engineering and manufacturing data are emphasized to enable the merits of aluminum for specific applications to be evaluated and the appropriate alloys and tempers to be chosen.
Training / Education

Wrought Aluminum Metallurgy

Anytime
There are a wide variety of wrought aluminum alloys, each developed to provide specific properties. Getting the strength you need in an aluminum alloy requires knowledge of the effects of alloy composition, cold-working, and heat treating on aluminum metallurgy and properties. A good understanding of how aluminum alloys behave and what can be done to modify their properties is critical for being more productive and profitable. The course takes about one hour to complete and consists of one module and a final exam. Also, quizzes and problems give you opportunities to apply the concepts taught.
Standard

Wrought Copper and Copper Alloys

1976-06-01
HISTORICAL
J463D_197606
This standard describes the chemical, mechanical, and dimensional requirements for a wide range of wrought copper and copper alloys used in the automotive and related industries. Wrought forms covered by this standard include sheet, strip, bar, plate, rod, wire, tube, and shapes; however, form required must be specified by purchaser.
Standard

Wrought Copper and Copper Alloys

2018-01-10
CURRENT
J463_201801
This standard1 describes the chemical, mechanical, and dimensional requirements for a wide range of wrought copper and copper alloys used in the automotive and related industries.
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