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Technical Paper

A Case Study of a Die-Cast Magnesium Structure Supporting Transmission Shifter Mechanisms and Interfaced with other Structural Systems

During the last several years the use of magnesium die-castings for automotive applications has been on the rise. Magnesium's use in die-cast form has been expanding at an average growth rate of more than 15% a year. Reasons for the increase are both practical and economic. Magnesium die-castings offer components having the lowest mass when compared to almost any other structural material. Magnesium die-alloys exhibit properties that bridge the gap between engineered plastics and metals. The mechanical performance ratios (strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight) of magnesium also compete favorably with metals and plastics. Economically, magnesium alloys prices have fallen during the last several years making them extremely competitive with other materials.
Technical Paper

A Catalytic Combustion System Coupled with Adsorbents for Air Clean Up in Sealed Spacecraft Environment

Catalytic combustion coupled with activated carbon and molecular sieve adsorbents is applicable to all areas of air and gas clean up ranging from high to low levels of pollutants and trace contaminants control in a spacecraft environment is of no exception. In this study we propose a combined activated charcoal and catalytic combustion system based on a 70 watt power input achieving 350°C, operating on a 6 hour per 24 hour day catalytic cycle with an actual flow of 10.6 l min-1 in a residual free volume of 60 m3.
Technical Paper

A Cementitious Tooling/Molding Material-Room Temperature Castable, High Temperature Capable

DASH 47R is a cementitious composite initially formulated for use as an autoclave molding/tooling material. A unique matrix and aggregate system imparts unusually high strength and excellent vacuum integrity to DASH 47 at moderately high temperatures even though DASH 47 molds are cast at ambient temperature over commonly used pattern materials. This paper reviews the formulation and properties of DASH 47, and outlines its fabrication method and curing schedule for thin-shelled autoclave tools. In addition, examples of other molding applications for DASH 47 are shown in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Design Study for Aluminium and Magnesium Automatic Transmission Converter Housings

The demand for vehicles with improved NVH characteristics, fuel economy and emissions control has increased dramatically in recent years. To meet these objectives stiffer and lighter housings are required so as to avoid troublesome driveline vibrations, while at the same time produce lighter structures to reduce the overall vehicle weight and improved fuel economy. A feasibility study was undertaken to examine the differences between the use of magnesium alloy and aluminium alloy for an automatic transmission converter housing. The design process, design constraints, design methodology, alloy selection and some unique magnesium design requirements are outlined. The differences between the two designs are investigated by simulating their static and dynamic performances using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). A sand cast prototype was produced for the first stage of the feasibility study, with the ultimate aim to produce die cast magnesium converter housings if feasible.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) and Microalloyed Steel

Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) samples were heat treated to produce materials with tensile strengths in the range of 100 ksi to 170 ksi. Microalloyed steels were also produced with equivalent tensile and yield strength levels. These steels were evaluated for mechanical properties in terms of tensile and yield strength, ductility, impact toughness, fracture toughness and fatigue strength. Machinability was extensively evaluated through tests of drilling, turning and plunge machining. This paper reports on this comprehensive comparative evaluation of these two important classes of materials for use in the automotive industry.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Examination of the Resistance Spot Welding Behavior of Two Advanced High Strength Steels

Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) are a class of steels that have a minimum tensile strength of 500 MPa. The advantages of AHSS include superior formability and better crash energy absorption compared with conventional low-strength steels having a minimum tensile strength of 270 MPa. Several steels with a minimum tensile strength of 590 MPa have already found use in current vehicles, and others with minimum tensile strength up to 980 MPa have been qualified for use in future vehicle models. Two 780 MPa steels of interest are 780 DP (Dual Phase) and 780 TRIP (TRansformation Induced Plasticity). In this study, an examination was undertaken to compare the resistance spot-welding behavior of commercially produced 1.6 mm-thick, hot-dipped galvannealed, 780 MPa DP and TRIP steel sheet. Included in the study were evaluations of the weld lobes, weld microhardness, and the shear- and cross-tension strengths of resistance spot welds for the two steels.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Investigation on the High Temperature Fatigue of Three Cast Aluminum Alloys

The high temperature fatigue behaviors of three cast aluminum alloys used for cylinder head fabrication - 319, A356 and AS7GU - are compared under isothermal fatigue at room temperature and elevated temperatures. The thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior for both out-of-phase and in-phase loading conditions (100-300°C) has also been investigated. It has been observed that all three of these alloys present a very similar behavior under both isothermal and thermo-mechanical low-cycle fatigue. Under high-cycle fatigue, however, the alloys A356 and AS7GU exhibit superior performance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study Between Salt Bath and Plasma Nitrocarburizing Processes for Application in Piston Rods

The quality of the nitrocarburized layer has a decisive influence in the service life of components with pistons that work together with polymeric seals, since it interferes in the abrasion and wear mechanisms of the involved materials. Thus it is necessary to select the most adequate process to apply in a given component aiming for a quality improvement and warranty costs reduction. The literature offers a great volume of information about the different nitriding processes, but there are few reports comparing them. In this paper the salt bath and plasma processes are discussed concerning the white layer metallography, roughness and the process effect on corrosion resistance of gas spring rods manufactured with SAE 1040 steel.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study by Vehicle Testing of Copper Alloy and Gray Iron Brake Discs

Automotive friction materials are composites containing three kinds of components: an organic binder, fiber for reinforcement, and property modifiers. At low braking temperatures, the wear rate of the friction materials is controlled primarily by abrasive and adhesive mechanisms. At higher braking temperatures, the wear rate increases exponentially with increasing temperature due to thermal degradation of the binder and other components, and the exponential wear rate is frequently accompanied by brake fade. Thus, one method of reducing thermal wear and fade tendency is to lower the temperature at the rotor/friction material interface. Since the rate of heat transfer from the interface is mostly dependent upon the conductive and convective modes, a rotor of high thermal conductivity will have a significant advantage over a rotor of low conductivity, if the heat capacity remains the same.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Bearing Press Fit Contact Modeling Techniques with Current Finite Element Analysis Tools

Bearing press fits have a wide range of application in ground vehicles and are typically governed by longstanding rules of thumb for designs that conform to past successful design geometries and practice. However, in unusual applications such as a gear box designed to also bear external loads, the combined stress states require finite element analysis (FEA) that accounts for the press fit, the bearing loads due to torque transmission, and the external loading. Therefore accurate prediction of press fit stress states are required to construct complete solutions to gear box fatigue life prediction and in particular to predict mean stress states. Current FEA tools provide a variety of analysis methods with which to approach the problem of press fit mechanics.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Composite and Steel Front Rails for Vehicle Front Impact Safety

Weight reduction is a primary concern in the design of today's automobiles. Fiber reinforced composites (FRC) comprise a category of materials that may offer advantages in terms of weight and cost when compared to both steel and aluminum. The viability of low cost FRCs such as a glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) as a structural material for automotive applications can, however, be diminished by functional requirements such as energy absorption and crush under impact loading. In this context, the crash safety performance of front rails of a compact passenger car is evaluated by assuming these to be made of GFRPs with constant strand mat (CSM) plies. The safety assessment of rails is carried out with the aid of the explicit nonlinear finite element analysis code LS-DYNA with utmost attention being paid to the proper constitutive modeling of the composites considered.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Dent Resistance Incorporating Forming Effects

Dent resistance is an important attribute in the automotive panel design, and the ability to accurately predict a panel's dentability requires careful considerations of sheet metal properties, including property changes from stamping process. The material is often work-hardened significantly during forming, and its thickness is reduced somewhat. With increased demand for weight reduction, vehicle designers are seriously pushing to use thinner-gauged advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) as outer body panels such as fenders, hoods and decklids, with the expectation that its higher strength will offset reduced thickness in its dentability. A comparative study is conducted in this paper for a BH210 steel fender as baseline design and thinner DP500 steel as the new design.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Fatigue Behavior and Life Predictions of Forged Steel and PM Connecting Rods

This study investigates and compares fatigue behavior of forged steel and powder metal connecting rods. The experiments included strain-controlled specimen testing, with specimens obtained from the connecting rods, as well as load-controlled connecting rod bench testing. Monotonic and cyclic deformation behaviors, as well as strain-controlled fatigue properties of the two materials are evaluated and compared. Experimental S-N curves of the two connecting rods from the bench tests obtained under R = -1.25 constant amplitude loading conditions are also evaluated and compared. Fatigue properties obtained from specimen testing are then used in life predictions of the connecting rods, using the S-N approach. The predicted lives are compared with bench test results and include the effects of stress concentration, surface finish, and mean stress. The stress concentration factors were obtained from FEA, and the modified Goodman equation was used to account for the mean stress effect.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Four Alloys for Automotive Brake Drums

A drag dynamometer was used to evaluate the performance of automotive brake drums made from four kinds of materials with different thermal conductivities. In the order of decreasing thermal conductivity they are chromium copper, aluminum/cast iron composite, cast iron, and nickel-aluminum bronze. All of the drums were of the standard configuration used in SAE J 661a, or closely approximated it. The drums were run in conjunction with three types of lining materials: nonabrasive, moderately abrasive, and highly abrasive. Temperatures near the lining/drum interface, coefficients of friction, and lining wear were measured and compared. For a given amount of work done, the temperature near the drum surface was found to be lowest for the chromium copper drums, with progressively higher temperatures in the aluminum/cast iron composite, nickel-aluminum bronze, and cast iron drums. Relative lining wear and coefficient of friction varied with the type of lining tested.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of New Magnesium Alloys Developed for Elevated Temperature Applications in Automotive Industry

Recently several new magnesium alloys for high temperature applications have been developed with the aim to obtain an optimal combination of die castability, creep resistance, mechanical properties, corrosion performance and affordable cost. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to achieve an adequate combination of properties and in fact, most of the new alloys can only partially meet the required performance and cost. This paper aims at evaluating the current status of the newly developed alloys for powertrain applications. The paper also addresses the complexity of magnesium alloy development and illustrates the effect of alloying elements on properties and cost. In addition, the paper presents an attempt to set the position of each alloy in the integrated space of combined properties and cost
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Non-Asbestos Organics vs. Low Steel Lomets for Humidity Sensitivity

Non-Asbestos Organic (NAO) disc pads and Low Steel Lomet disc pads were subjected to high and low humidity conditions to discover how humidity affects these two classes of formulations for physical properties, friction, wear and noise characteristics. The 2 classes of formulations show similarities and differences in response to increasing humidity. The humidity effect on deformation of the surface microstructure of the gray cast iron disc is also investigated. Humidity implications for pad quality control and brake testing are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Plasma lgnition Systems

Performance of an array of plasma ignition systems has been studied in a CFR engine.This included a standard spark plug, an extended spark plug, a surface discharge plug, and two plasma jet ignitors, one with open cavity and the other with cavity provided with a jet forming orifice.For all the tests the engine was run at a compression ratio of 3:1, a wide open throttle, and minimum for best torque (MBT) ignition timing. In this way specific information was obtained on ignition delay, duration of the exothermic combustion process, engine efficiency, and pollutant emissions.The study demonstrated the effect of various ignition systems on engine performance as the lean operating limit is approached.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of the Fatigue Behavior of Spot Welded and Mechanically Fastened Aluminum Joints

The cyclic behavior of single overlap aluminum joints joined through a number of different methods has been investigated using Alcan 5754-O, an alloy that potentially could be used in structural applications. Overlap shear tests of spot welded, clinched and riveted joints are compared on the basis of their fatigue performance. The fatigue response of the spot welded joint was the baseline to which the other fasteners were compared. Test results showed an improvement of approximately 25% for both the mechanical clinch joints and aluminum rivets in fatigue strength at 106 cycles. The most significant improvement in fatigue strength of 100% was found for the self piercing rivets at 106 cycles. The failure behavior of the various joining methods is discussed as well as the surface appearance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on Machinability Characteristics in Dry Machining of Inconel X-750 Alloy Using Coated Carbide Inserts

Nickel based superalloys have a wide range of applications due to high mechanical strength at high temperatures, fracture toughness and resistance to corrosion. However, because of their outstanding properties, it is considered as the difficult to machine materials. Inconel alloy X-750 is used extensively in rocket-engine thrust chambers. Airframe applications include thrust reversers and hot-air ducting systems along with large pressure vessels are formed from Inconel alloy X-750. Moreover, the comparative analysis of machinability aspect using coated carbide inserts is reported few. The current study explains the machinability investigation on Inconel alloy X-750 superalloys using coated carbides. To collect the experimental data, the L16 experimental design plan is used to experiment with a machining length of 40 mm.