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Standard

Wrenches, Hand, Twelve Point, High Strength, Thin Wall

2011-12-09
CURRENT
AS954G
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers high strength thin wall (commercial) sockets, universal sockets, box wrenches and torque adaptors which possess the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design so configured that, when mated with 12-point fasteners conforming to the requirement of AS870, they shall transmit torque to the fastener without bearing on the outer 5% of the fastener's wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes. The dimensional limits of box and combination wrench lengths have been established to provide configuration control for tool storage applications.
Standard

Wrenches, Twelve Spline, Metric

1989-11-01
CURRENT
MA1547A
This standard covers the design, performance, and test requirements for high strength, thin wall, commercial sockets, universal sockets, and box wrenches used for the attachment and detachment of metric spline drive, high strength, and high temperature aircraft fasteners. Inclusion of dimensional data in this standard is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes. This standard is based on, but not limited to, the following external spline wrenching system:
Standard

Wrenches; Flare Nut, Crowfoot, 12 Point Non-Distorting

2018-07-20
WIP
AS4167D
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers 12 point flare nut crowfoot, flare nut wrenches, double end flare nut wrenches, combination box and flare nut wrenches, and ratcheting flare nut wrenches that are designed with the following requirements: (a) Non-distorting usage; (b) Possessing the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design to be used on hydraulic tube fittings that conform to the requirements of SAE J514; (c) Transmitting torque to tube fittings without bearing on the apex of fitting wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.
Standard

Wrenches; Flare Nut, Crowfoot, 12 Point Non-Distorting

2016-07-06
CURRENT
AS4167C
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers 12 point flare nut crowfoot, flare nut wrenches, double end flare nut wrenches, combination box and flare nut wrenches, and ratcheting flare nut wrenches that are designed with the following requirements: (a) Non-distorting usage; (b) Possessing the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design to be used on hydraulic tube fittings that conform to the requirements of SAE J514; (c) Transmitting torque to tube fittings without bearing on the apex of fitting wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.
Standard

Wrenches; Flare Nut, Crowfoot, 12 Point Non-distorting

2011-04-26
HISTORICAL
AS4167B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers 12 point flare nut crowfoot, flare nut wrenches, double end flare nut wrenches, combination box and flare nut wrenches, and ratcheting flare nut wrenches that are designed with the following requirements: a. Non-distorting usage b. Possessing the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design to be used on hydraulic tube fittings that conform to the requirements of SAE J514. c. Transmitting torque to tube fittings without bearing on the apex of fitting wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.
Standard

Wrenches; Flare Nut, Crowfoot, 12-Point Nondistorting

1993-03-01
HISTORICAL
AS4167A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers 12-point open box end crowfoot, flare nut, double open box end, combination box and open box end, and ratcheting open box end wrenches that are designed with the following requirements: a Nondistorting usage b Possessing the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design to be used on hydraulic tube fittings that conform to the requirements of SAE J514. c Transmitting torque to tube fittings without bearing on the apex of fitting wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.
Standard

Wrought Copper and Copper Alloys

2018-01-10
CURRENT
J463_201801
This standard1 describes the chemical, mechanical, and dimensional requirements for a wide range of wrought copper and copper alloys used in the automotive and related industries.
Technical Paper

Wrought Magnesium Alloys and Manufacturing Processes for Automotive Applications

2005-04-11
2005-01-0734
In this paper, the mechanical properties, structural performance and mass saving potential of wrought magnesium alloys are compared to several major automotive materials: mild steel, advanced high-strength steel, cast and wrought aluminum, cast magnesium, plastics and fiber-reinforced composites. Manufacturing processes including welding and joining of magnesium extrusions and sheet products are critically reviewed. The current and potential applications of wrought magnesium alloys in automotive interior, body and chassis areas are discussed. Technical challenges and research opportunities for these applications are identified.
Standard

Wrought copper and Copper Alloys

2002-12-20
HISTORICAL
J463_200212
This standard1 describes the chemical, mechanical, and dimensional requirements for a wide range of wrought copper and copper alloys used in the automotive and related industries.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Determination of Residual Stresses and Hardness in Steel Due to Thermal, Mechanical, and Fatigue Deformations

1962-01-01
620053
Residual stress and hardness in steel due to thermal, mechanical, and fatigue deformations are determined by an X-ray diffraction method. The sharp temperature rise associated with electrical discharge machining causes austenitizing, rehardening, and tempering, and results in high tensile residual stress. Shot-peening quality is evaluated from residual stress and hardness induced by the peening. Rolling contact fatigue of carburized and hardened bearings causes a transformation of austenite to martensite, and thereby generates more residual compression, and also causes permanent fatigue softening. Less softening is observed in inner races of consutrode and cross-forged steels than in air-melted steel, and the former steels exhibit greater fatigue life at early and mean failure levels.
Journal Article

X-ray Imaging of Cavitation in Diesel Injectors

2014-04-01
2014-01-1404
Cavitation plays a significant role in high pressure diesel injectors. However, cavitation is difficult to measure under realistic conditions. X-ray phase contrast imaging has been used in the past to study the internal geometry of fuel injectors and the structure of diesel sprays. In this paper we extend the technique to make in-situ measurements of cavitation inside unmodified diesel injectors at pressures of up to 1200 bar through the steel nozzle wall. A cerium contrast agent was added to a diesel surrogate, and the changes in x-ray intensity caused by changes in the fluid density due to cavitation were measured. Without the need to modify the injector for optical access, realistic injection and ambient pressures can be obtained and the effects of realistic nozzle geometries can be investigated. A range of single and multi-hole injectors were studied, both sharp-edged and hydro-ground. Cavitation was observed to increase with higher rail pressures.
Technical Paper

XB-70A Laboratory for Progress

1966-02-01
660276
The development of the XB-70 research aircraft produced advancements in many fields of technology. This paper covers a few of these advancements in the areas of materials, equipment, and manufacturing. These include honeycomb construction, PH 15-7 alloy steel, vacuum melted H-11 steel, equipment capable of withstanding high temperatures, chemical milling of many different alloys, miniaturized welding equipment, and exothermic brazing techniques.
Technical Paper

XMC ™ and HMC ™-Structural Molding Compounds

1976-02-01
760053
XMC™ and HMC™ are two families of fiber glass reinforced molding sheets that can be processed into structural shapes through the use of heated matched metal dies and hydraulic presses. The need to remove weight from power driven vehicles has increased in direct proportion to the world-wide energy shortage, and in light of this XMC™ and HMC™ were designed to compete with high density, high strength metals commonly used in structural parts for the transportation industry. XMC™ and HMC™ are distinguished from other molding compounds by their very high percentage of fiber glass (up to 80% by weight) which is incorporated into thickenable, thermosetting resin systems. XMC™ utilizes filament winding techniques and programmed winding angles to incorporate continuous strands of fiber glass. Upon completion of the filament winding process, the XMC™ is removed from the mandrel as a to continue before molding.
Technical Paper

Yielding Strengh Analysis for Self Supported Pressure Vessels

2002-11-19
2002-01-3479
The hazardous bulk chemical liquid cargo transportation is usually made through highways, using special automotive devices, named semitrailer tank, a kind of mobile tank specially developed to perform this task, manufactured with many types of steel, selected according to the chemical characteristics of the product to be transported. Equipment sizing is made based on specific standards which include specified formulas, loading, and safety factors representing the design criteria of this type of device. Despite of the detailed design criteria for semitrailer tank, it has been observed failure of some pieces of equipment during operation, in a shorter effective life than that one considered in the design phase itself. Considering a detailed study of the stress distribution in this type of equipment, this paper shows a verification of the possibility of yielding failure in the semitrailer tank structure.
Technical Paper

Zinc Coated Press-Hardening Steel - Challenges and Solutions

2015-04-14
2015-01-0565
Press-hardening steels get more and more popular for body in white applications as an approach to meet the demands of passenger safety and CO2 reduction. Unlike the larger part of the structure that is typically zinc coated, the majority of the PHS parts is either uncoated or aluminum silicon coated. This paper shall give an overview of press-hardening steels with zinc coatings with detailed results for corrosion resistance, weldability and mechanical properties for strength levels of 490 to 1800 MPa. Furthermore as for zinc coated material maintaining a robust press-hardening process is of even higher importance than for uncoated or AlSi coated material. A range of different processes including indirect and direct process are shown in detail. Especially the topic of micro-cracks, mechanisms and avoidance of micro-cracks in the direct process will be discussed. Results from industrial and semi industrial production are shown.
Technical Paper

Zinc Coating Influence on Spot-Weldability of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel Sheets

1985-02-01
850273
HOT-DIP galvanized steel sheets have been increasingly used in the automotive industry. However, two major problems occur during spot-welding because of the presence of zinc: 1/ Welding parameters differ from those used for bare sheets 2/ Electrodes life span often decreases. Two products have been thoroughly tested: 1/ Usinor MONOGAL® sheet 2/ Two-sides hot-dip galvanized sheet with various zinc-coating thicknesses. Welding parameters have been optimized by the determination of weldability lobes. Both products present a wide range of intensities, provided that weld current and electrode force are increased. The effect of an enventual variation of zinc-coating thickness is negligible. Electrodes life satisfies the FORD 2000 spot welds acceptance test. At last, temperature measurements inside the electrodes have shown the interest in increasing the electrodes tip diameter.
Technical Paper

Zinc Distribution in Vacuum Brazed Alclad Brazing Sheet

1978-02-01
780301
Vacuum brazing technology is currently capable of producing aluminum automotive heat exchangers such as radiators and heater cores. The possible use of 7072 claddings on the surfaces exposed to the coolant to provide additional corrosion protection is of considerable interest. This paper describes the effect of typical vacuum brazing cycles on the distribution of zinc in 7072 clad vacuum brazing sheet. For heavier gauges (.05″), there is sufficient retained zinc in the post-braze composite. For lighter gauges (.02″ or less), nominal composition 7072 does not provide adequate retained zinc; however, if the initial zinc concentration is increased to 3% there is sufficient retained zinc so that the cladding is significantly more anodic than the core.
Technical Paper

Zinc Extrusion

1966-02-01
660051
The extrusion of zinc alloys, with special reference to zinc-titanium alloys, is described. Parameters for this process are defined. The excellent tensile and creep properties obtained in a typical extruded zinc-titanium alloy are presented. Extruded zinc with a quality copper-nickel-chrome plated finish offers a new approach to the production of automotive trim and of similar products.
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