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Technical Paper

A CFD Validation Study for Automotive Aerodynamics

A study was conducted using Ford's nine standard CFD calibration models as described in SAE paper 940323. The models are identical from the B-pillar forward but have different back end configurations. These models were created for the purpose of evaluating the effect of back end geometry variations on aerodynamic lift and drag. Detailed experimental data is available for each model in the form of surface pressure data, surface flow visualization, and wake flow field measurements in addition to aerodynamic lift and drag values. This data is extremely useful in analyzing the accuracy of the numerical simulations. The objective of this study was to determine the capability of a digital physics based commercial CFD code, PowerFLOW ® to accurately simulate the physics of the flow field around the car-like benchmark shapes.
Journal Article

A CFD Analysis Method for Prediction of Vehicle Exterior Wind Noise

High frequency wind noise caused by turbulent flow around the front pillars of a vehicle is an important factor for customer perception of ride comfort. In order to reduce undesirable interior wind noise during vehicle development process, a calculation and visualization method for exterior wind noise with an acceptable computational cost and adequate accuracy is required. In this paper an index for prediction of the strength of exterior wind noise, referred to as Exterior Noise Power (ENP), is developed based on an assumption that the acoustic power of exterior wind noise can be approximated by the far field acoustic power radiated from vehicle surface. Using the well-known Curle’s equation, ENP can be represented as a surface integral of an acoustic intensity distribution, referred to as Exterior Noise Power Distribution (ENPD). ENPD is estimated from turbulent surface pressure fluctuation and mean convective velocity in the vicinity of the vehicle surface.
Technical Paper

A Broad-Band Heated-Backlite Antenna for a Production Vehicle

The advantage of using the heater conductors of an automobile backlite as a broadcast receiving antenna, as compared to the use of a conventional telescopic whip, include reductions in damage, corrosion, aerodynamic drag and manufacurers’ costs. The paper develops an approach to the design of backlite antenna systems aimed at maximising the receiver signal input by attention to the form and position of the heater conductors and by minimising the deleterious effects of the feeder cable to the radio. Adequate levels of signal are shown to be available at lf, mf and vhf. To optimise performance, a buffer amplifier is used at lf and mf and the antenna is matched to a low-noise amplifier at vhf. Test results for sedan, hatchback and station wagon vehicles presented show very acceptable performance, in many cases better than those of conventional whip antennas.
Technical Paper

A Benchmark Case for Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics of a Low Pressure Axial Fan

A low pressure axial fan for benchmarking numerical methods in the field of aerodynamics and aeroacoustics is presented. The generic fan for this benchmark is a typical fan to be used in commercial applications. The design procedure was according to the blade element theory for low solidity fans. A wide range of experimental data is available, including aerodynamic performance of the fan (fan characteristic curve), fluid mechanical quantities on the pressure and suction side from laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) measurements, wall pressure fluctuations in the gap region and sound characteristics on the suction side from sound power and microphone array measurements. The experimental setups are described in detail, as to ease reproducibility of measurement positions. This offers the opportunity of validating aerodynamic and aeroacoustic quantities, obtained from different numerical tools and procedures.
Technical Paper

A Basic Experimental Study of Gasoline Direct Injection at Significantly High Injection Pressures

In gasoline direct injection engines with stratified-combustion strategies only a short time is available for mixture preparation. Therefore, investigations are carried out to evaluate the influence of high injection pressure up to 50 MPa in order to optimize the mixture preparation. Two types of multi-hole injectors are analyzed in a pressure vessel under various pressure and temperature conditions. Laser light sheet visualization technique is applied in order to determine spray characteristics like shape, angle, penetration depth and spray width. To determine the velocity of the air surrounding the spray, a PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) measurement technique is used. Droplet sizes and velocities are measured with a Phase Doppler Anemometer (PDA) in different positions in the spray center and at the spray edge. Spray visualization experiments show the influence of evaporation on spray propagation at higher temperatures.
Technical Paper

94 GHz MMW Imaging Radar System

The 94 GHz MMW airborne radar system that provides a runway image in adverse weather conditions is now undergoing tests at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). This system, which consists of a solid state FMCW transceiver, antenna and digital signal processor, has an update rate of 10 times per second, 0.35° azimuth resolution and up to 3.5 meter range resolution. The radar B scope (range versus azimuth) image, once converted to C scope (elevation versus azimuth), is compatible with the standard TV presentation and can be displayed on the Head Up Display (HUD) or Head Down Display (HDD) to aid the pilot during landing and takeoff in limited visibility conditions.
Technical Paper

6DOF Metrology-integrated Robot Control

This paper describes ongoing research into Metrology-integrated robot control. The research is a part of an ongoing EU funded aircraft industry project – ADFAST*. The ADFAST project tries to implement the use of industrial robots in low-volume production, high-demand-on-accuracy operations and for dynamic force compensation. To detect and compensate deflection in industrial robots during a process, the robot uses a metrology system. The metrology system supervises the tool center point of the robot as it executes its processes. Leica has recently released a new metrology system; the LTD800, which measures distances with laser interferometry and can simultaneously measure orientation of targets, through photogrammetry, using an additional camera on top of the measuring unit. This paper will describe theory and results from tests performed on integrating the LTD800 with the robot.
Technical Paper

5th Percentile Driver Out of Position Computer Simulation

A finite element model of a folded airbag with the module cover and steering wheel system was developed to estimate the injury numbers of a 5th percentile female dummy in an out-of-position (OOP) situation. The airbag model was correlated with static airbag deployments and standard force plate tests. The 5th percentile finite element dummy model developed by First Technology Safety Systems (FTSS) was used in the simulation. The following two OOP tests were simulated with the airbag model including a validated steering wheel finite element model: 1. Chest on air bag module for maximum chest interaction from pressure loading (MS6-D) and 2. Neck on air bag module for maximum neck interaction from membrane loading (MS8-D). These two simulations were then compared to the test results. Satisfactory correlation was found in both the cases.
Technical Paper

5480 Reach Truck-A New Concept in Reach Track Design

The new 5480 Reach Truck, designed at Dynamic Industries, introduces a movable frame between the main frame and the telescopic boom. The use of this movable frame allows the usually fixed boom pivot to be elevated for greater lifting heights with smaller boom sections. By combining the motions of the boom and the movable frame, horizontal motion at the boom tip is possible without moving the truck. With the movable frame, the total machine height and length can be reduced for a given lifting goal. Another advantage of the movable frame is the ability to reach further below grade than is now possible in the industry. The 5480 Reach Truck has a maximum lift of 54 feet (16.5 meters) and can reach 24 feet (7.3 meters) below-grade.
Technical Paper

3D-PIV Measurement and Visualization of Streamlines Around a Standard SAE Vehicle Model

In CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) verification of vehicle aerodynamics, detailed velocity measurements are required. The conventional 2D-PIV (Two Dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry) needs at least twice the number of operations to measure the three components of velocity ( u,v,w ), thus it is difficult to set up precise measurement positions. Furthermore, there are some areas where measurements are rendered impossible due to the relative position of the object and the optical system. That is why the acquisition of detailed velocity data around a vehicle has not yet been attained. In this study, a detailed velocity measurement was conducted using a 3D-PIV measurement system. The measurement target was a quarter scale SAE standard vehicle model. The wind tunnel system which was also designed for a quarter scale car model was utilized. It consisted of a moving belt and a boundary suction system.
Technical Paper

3D-CFD Flow Structures in Journal Bearings

Hydrodynamic radial journal bearings under unsteady load, which are common for automotive applications, are exposed to cavitation, e.g. flow, suction, shock and exit cavitation. The fluid mechanic description of the flow in journal bearings takes advantage of the small bearing clearance, which allows the reduction of the Navier-Stokes equations and leads to the Reynolds equation. The Reynolds equation is two-dimensional, the radial pressure gradient and the radial velocity component are neglected. However, the equation includes the surface velocities, oil density and viscosity and describes the relation between hydrodynamic pressure and local clearance. With the introduction of a cavitation index or a mass flow coefficient a powerful method to carry out numerical studies can be created, which allows the calculation of flow properties and the prediction of regions where the lubrication film disintegrates.
Technical Paper

3D analysis of vapor and liquid phase of GDI injectors using laser induced exciplex fluorescence tomography in a high pressure/high temperature spray chamber

The quality of mixture formation in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines has a significant influence on combustion, emissions and mileage. A new measurement technique was set up at an optically accessible high pressure / high temperature spray chamber to investigate the spatial mass distribution of vapor and liquid phase in order to optimize the stratified engine operation mode. Therefore a laser light sheet is traversed through the spray, the exciplex fluorescence is detected and the tomography results are quantified by the global information of the injected mass, which allows detailed spray investigations with λ-charts. For spray homogeneity analysis a new method based on histogram calculation is presented allowing grid independent comparison of different injector types.
Technical Paper

3D Vortex Simulation of Intake Flow in a Port-Cylinder with a Valve Seat and a Moving Piston

A Lagrangian random vortex-boundary element method has been developed for the simulation of unsteady incompressible flow inside three-dimensional domains with time-dependent boundaries, similar to IC engines. The solution method is entirely grid-free in the fluid domain and eliminates the difficult task of volumetric meshing of the complex engine geometry. Furthermore, due to the Lagrangian evaluation of the convective processes, numerical viscosity is virtually removed; thus permitting the direct simulation of flow at high Reynolds numbers. In this paper, a brief description of the numerical methodology is given, followed by an example of induction flow in an off-centered port-cylinder assembly with a harmonically driven piston and a valve seat situated directly below the port. The predicted flow is shown to resemble the flow visualization results of a laboratory experiment, despite the crude approximation used to represent the geometry.
Journal Article

3D Scene Reconstruction with Sparse LiDAR Data and Monocular Image in Single Frame

Abstract Real-time reconstruction of 3D environment attributed with semantic information is significant for a variety of applications, such as obstacle detection, traffic scene comprehension and autonomous navigation. The current approaches to achieve it are mainly using stereo vision, Structure from Motion (SfM) or mobile LiDAR sensors. Each of these approaches has its own limitation, stereo vision has high computational cost, SfM needs accurate calibration between a sequences of images, and the onboard LiDAR sensor can only provide sparse points without color information. This paper describes a novel method for traffic scene semantic segmentation by combining sparse LiDAR point cloud (e.g. from Velodyne scans), with monocular color image. The key novelty of the method is the semantic coupling of stereoscopic point cloud with color lattice from camera image labelled through a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN).
Technical Paper

3D Inside Vehicle Acoustical Holography

A continuously growing demand comes from the automotive industry in order to get an experimental tool allowing for the optimization of materials and sound insulating products implementation inside the car, so as to propose the best acoustic performance at reduced costs. The acoustical imaging system LORHA provides part of the solution and its demonstrated capability of measuring the acoustic field inside a vehicle makes it an advanced tool for performing extensive studies of the acoustic transparency of car openings. This paper focuses on the methodology and recent operational results obtained within the tight collaboration established between METRAVIB RDS, its partner HUTCHINSON and well known car manufacturers.
Technical Paper

3D Image Metrology for Lean Manufacturing

The need to improve quality while reducing cost in aerospace manufacturing is requiring new manufacturing methods and processes. Advanced technologies, such as 3D Image Metrology, offer great potential to lean manufacturing, if properly integrated into the production process. Over the last years 3D Image Metrology has developed a level of performance, which make it ideally suited for this purpose. These capabilities include the automatic in-process inspection of tools and parts before machining, machine control for highly accurate positioning during the machining operation, and in-process inspection during machining. This offers jig-less assembly, lower inventory, faster part throughput, and many more advantages.
Technical Paper

3D Design and Surface Mapping of Disc Brake Pad for High Speed Train Using FEA

Recurrently, the increase in production of high-speed trains worldwide has become a confirmed fact. Seeking to use the high-speed trains locally to link the capital of Egypt “Cairo” with the new industrial cities has become a national requirement. Modeling 3D surface maps using finite element analysis (FEA) is one of the most important mechanical design tools for frictional parts to facilitate the manufacture of brake systems for heavy duty vehicles, especially high-speed trains due to difficult working conditions. In this paper, we presented simulate 3D surface maps for proposed frictional material pad using FEA at certain design parameters and experimental result conductions. The typical surface characteristics of disc brake pad are compared with commonly used materials in railway and vehicle brakes in Egypt.
Technical Paper

38 Development of Compound-Laser Welding Method for Aluminum-Alloy Structure of Motorcycles

A compound-laser welding method has been developed for the rapid three-dimensional welding of motorcycle aluminum-alloy structural parts. The term “compound-laser welding” means a high-speed welding method in which a number of lasers with different characteristics are arranged on the same axis. This paper reports the results of welding by a compound laser consisting of a YAG laser and a CO2 laser. It was found that compound-laser welding with two or more types of gases mixed as shielding gas gives a better welding performance than single-laser welding due to the advantages of the different lasers used in compound-laser welding.
Journal Article

360° Surround View System with Parking Guidance

In this paper, we present a real-time 360 degree surround system with parking aid feature, which is a very convenient parking and blind spot aid system. In the proposed system, there are four fisheye cameras mounted around a vehicle to cover the whole surrounding area. After correcting the distortion of four fisheye images and registering all images on a planar surface, a flexible stitching method was developed to smooth the seam of adjacent images away to generate a high-quality result. In the post-process step, a unique brightness balance algorithm was proposed to compensate the exposure difference as the images are not captured with the same exposure condition. In addition, a unique parking guidance feature is applied on the surround view scene by utilizing steering wheel angle information as well as vehicle speed information.
Technical Paper

3-Dimensional Lightning Observations Using a Time-of-Arrival Lightning Mapping System

A lightning mapping system has been developed that locates the sources of VHF radiation from lightning discharges in three spatial dimensions and time. The system consists of several VHF receivers distributed over an area of about 100 km diameter. The system locates VHF radiation sources over the array with an accuracy of about 100 m. The system locates sources out to 250 km from the center of the array with reduced accuracy. The observations are found to reflect the basic charge structure of electrified storms.