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Technical Paper

Yaw/Roll Stability Modeling and Control of HeavyTractor-SemiTrailer

This paper sets up a simplified dynamic model for simulating the yaw/roll stability of heavy tractor-semitrailer using Matlab/Simulink. A linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based on partial-state feedback controller is used to optimize the roll stability of the vehicle. The control objective for optimizing roll stability is to be reducing the lateral load transfer rate while keeping the suspension angle less than the maximum allowable angle. The simulation result shows that the LQR controller is effective in the active roll stability control of the heavy tractor-semitrailer.
Technical Paper

Yaw Testing of an Instrumented Vehicle with and without Braking

Two methods for calculating speed from curved tire marks were investigated. The commonly used critical speed formula and a computer simulation program were evaluated based on their ability to reproduce the results of full-scale yaw tests. The effects of vehicle braking and friction coefficient were studied. Twenty-two yaw tests were conducted at speeds between 70 and 120 km/h. For half of the tests, about 30% braking was applied. Using the measured sliding coefficient of friction, both the critical speed formula and the computer simulations under-predicted the actual speed of the vehicle. Using the measured peak coefficient of friction, both methods over-estimated the actual speed. There was less variance in the computer simulation results. Braking tended to increase the speeds calculated by the critical speed formula.
Journal Article

Yaw Stability Enhancement of Articulated Commercial Vehicles via Gain-Scheduling Optimal Control Approach

In this paper, a gain-scheduling optimal control approach is proposed to enhance yaw stability of articulated commercial vehicles through active braking of the proper wheel(s). For this purpose, an optimal feedback control is used to design a family of yaw moment controllers considering a broad range of vehicle velocities. The yaw moment controller is designed such that the instantaneous tractor yaw rate and articulation angle responses are forced to track the target values at each specific vehicle velocity. A gain scheduling mechanism is subsequently constructed via interpolations among the controllers. Furthermore, yaw moments derived from the proposed controller are realized by braking torque distribution among the appropriate wheels. The effectiveness of the proposed yaw stability control scheme is evaluated through software-in-the-loop (SIL) co-simulations involving Matlab/Simulink and TruckSim under lane change maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Yaw Stability Control and Emergency Roll Control for Vehicle Rollover Mitigation

In this paper a yaw stability control algorithm along with an emergency roll control strategy have been developed. The yaw stability controller and emergency roll controller were both developed using linear two degree-of-freedom vehicle models. The yaw stability controller is based on Lyapunov stability criteria and uses vehicle lateral acceleration and yaw rate measurements to calculate the corrective yaw moment required to stabilize the vehicle yaw motion. The corrective yaw moment is then applied by means of a differential braking strategy in which one wheel is selected to be braked with appropriate brake torque applied. The emergency roll control strategy is based on a rollover coefficient related to vehicle static stability factor. The emergency roll control strategy utilizes vehicle lateral acceleration measurements to calculate the roll coefficient. If the roll coefficient exceeds some predetermined threshold value the emergency roll control strategy will deploy.
Technical Paper

Yaw Rate Sensor for Vehicle Dynamics Control System

From the beginning of 1995 on, RB will start the production of the Vehicle Dynamics Control System. A key part of this system is the Yaw Rate Sensor described in this paper. The basic requirements for this sensor for automotive applications are: mass producibility, low cost, resistance against environmental influences (such as temperature, vibrations, EMI), stability of all characteristics over life time, high reliability and designed-in safety. Bosch developed a sensor on the basis of the “Vibrating Cylinder”. The sensor will be introduced into mass production in beginning of 1995.
Technical Paper

Yaw Rate Based Trailer Hitch Angle Estimation for Trailer Backup Assist

In the current Ford Pro-Trailer Backup Assist (TBA) system, trailer hitch angle is determined utilizing the reverse camera of the vehicle. In addition to being sensitive to environmental factors such as lighting conditions and occlusion, the vision-based approach is difficult to be applied to gooseneck or fifth wheel trailers. In this paper, a yaw rate based hitch angle observer is proposed as an alternative sensing solution for TBA. Based on the kinematic model of the vehicle-trailer, an instantaneous hitch angle is first derived by utilizing vehicle yaw rate, trailer yaw rate, vehicle velocity and vehicle/trailer parameters provided by the TBA system. Due to signal errors and parameter uncertainties, this instantaneous hitch angle may be noisy, especially at lower vehicle speed.
Technical Paper

Yaw Moment Control of the Vehicle by Means of a Magnetorheological Semi-Active Differential

A new controllable limited slip differential is proposed and tested in software environment. It is characterized by the employment of a magnetorheological fluid, which presents the property of changing its rheology thanks to an applied magnetic field. A vehicle model has been designed and employed for the synthesis of a sliding controller. The control is based on a double level scheme: the upper controller aims to generate the target locking torque, while the lower controller generates, as control action, the supply current for the controllable limited slip differential. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the device in terms of vehicle dynamics improvement. Indeed, the results reached by the vehicle in presence of the new differential confirm the improved performances for both steady and unsteady state manoeuvres.
Technical Paper

Yaw Instability Due to Longitudinal Load Transfer During Braking in a Curve

Active vehicle dynamics control ensures improved safety. So far, yaw instability is mostly associated with transient steering manoeuvres when driving at a constant speed. However, braking related load transfer affects yaw stability. Intense braking at high friction combined with elevated and forwarded CG amplifies this influence on unloaded tractors. Designing a dynamic stability system to enhance active safety requires fresh insight into braking related yaw instability. This investigation covers a theoretical analysis of braking influence on yaw stability on unloaded 4×2 tractors, being applicable to vehicle braking while cornering, including steering induced by other asymmetrical forces, since it focuses essentially on small steering angles.
Technical Paper

Yaw Effects on the Narrowband Spectra Above a Delta Wing in Turbulent Flow

Combat aircraft maneuvering at high angles of attack or in landing approach are likely to encounter conditions where the flow over the swept wings is yawed. This paper examines the effect of yaw on the spectra of turbulence above and aft of the wing, in the region where fins and control surfaces are located. Prior work has shown the occurrence of narrowband velocity fluctuations in this region for most combat aircraft models, including those with twin fins. Fin vibration and damage has been traced to excitation by such narrowband fluctuations. The narrowband fluctuations themselves have been traced to the wing surface. The issue in this paper is the effect of yaw on these fluctuations, as well as on the aerodynamic loads on a wing, without including the perturbations due to the airframe.
Technical Paper

Yaw Dynamics of Command Steered Multi Axle Semitrailer

This paper investigates the yaw dynamic behaviour of a seven axle tractor semitrailer combination vehicle developed by VRDE (Vehicle Research & Development). The semitrailer has four steerable axles which follow command steering law i.e. all axles of semitrailer are steered in a particular relation with articulation of tractor. A 4 dof (degree of freedom) linear yaw plane model was developed for this combination vehicle. Yaw response characteristics such as lateral acceleration, yaw rate and articulation angle for step and sine steer is obtained from this model. Effects of speed on the above parameters are also studied to the same steering inputs. Lateral tyre forces due to semitrailer steering at various speeds are estimated to understand its distribution on each axle. Steady state yaw rate and articulation angle gain are obtained to predict the understeer / oversteer behaviour of combination vehicle.