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Technical Paper

XLV Truck Cab - Designed for Low Volume Production Overseas

United States automotive manufacturers, to maintain their pre-eminent position in world motor vehicle production, must expand their operations overseas. Tooling amortization expenses for the highly sophisticated domestic models are exorbitant because of low production volumes overseas. Therefore, it has been desirable to develop a vehicle which can be easily manufactured overseas for minimum capital expenditures. Chrysler International’s XLV truck cab has been styled, designed, and processed for low volume production overseas. This paper deals with the XLV program -- from the original idea to production in Turkey.
Technical Paper

XB-70A Laboratory for Progress

The development of the XB-70 research aircraft produced advancements in many fields of technology. This paper covers a few of these advancements in the areas of materials, equipment, and manufacturing. These include honeycomb construction, PH 15-7 alloy steel, vacuum melted H-11 steel, equipment capable of withstanding high temperatures, chemical milling of many different alloys, miniaturized welding equipment, and exothermic brazing techniques.
Technical Paper

XB-70 Ground Servicing and Safety Precautions

Planning for ground servicing and maintenance started in the proposal phase and has been followed by test program experience with the XB-70 Mach 3 air vehicle. Servicing and associated safety requirements are summarized. Discussion of maintenance and support actions includes mention of equipment provided to meet the requirements. Preflight, postflight, and periodic operations are outlined, along with some indication of changes that resulted when plans were put into practice. The demands of a high performance flight test air vehicle limit movements toward simplification.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Rocking Curve Analysis of the Aging and Deformation Characteristics in the Al-Li Alloy

A non-destructive x-ray technique, the double crystal diffractometer method, is presented as a tool to investigate the aging and deformation behavior of the Al-Li alloy. This is a sensitive method for measuring the strain and dislocation density within individual grains through the x-ray rocking curve. In addition, models were developed to describe the aging and deformation characteristics of this alloy.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Radiography and CFD Studies of the Spray G Injector

The salient features of modern gasoline direct injection include cavitation, flash boiling, and plume/plume interaction, depending on the operating conditions. These complex phenomena make the prediction of the spray behavior particularly difficult. The present investigation combines mass-based experimental diagnostics with an advanced, in-house modeling capability in order to provide a multi-faceted study of the Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector. First, x-ray tomography is used to distinguish the actual injector geometry from the nominal geometry used in past works. The actual geometry is used as the basis of multidimensional CFD simulations which are compared to x-ray radiography measurements for validation under cold conditions. The influence of nozzle diameter and corner radius are of particular interest. Next, the model is used to simulate flash-boiling conditions, in order to understand how the cold flow behavior corresponds to flashing performance.
Technical Paper

X-Ray - A Necessary Tool for Detecting Incipient Structural Failures in Service Aircraft

X-ray is an indispensable aid in locating and determining the extent of incipient failures in structure which is inaccessible by position or covered by multiple layers of metal. It is also the most feasible method for checking oil coolers for contamination; bonded honeycomb panels for water; fuel lines for erosion; and with a 360 deg emission tube, fuselage frames for structural integrity without removing the interior upholstery and panels from the passenger compartment or cargo compartments.
Technical Paper

Writing Good Technical Safety Requirements

One of the key premises of the ISO 26262 functional safety standard is the development of an appropriate Technical Safety Concept for the item under development. This is specified in detail in Part 4 of the standard - Product development at the system level. The Technical safety requirements and the technical safety concept form the basis for deriving the hardware and software safety requirements that are then used by engineering teams for developing a safe product. Just like any other form of product development, making multiple revisions of the requirements are highly undesirable. This is primarily due to cost increases, chances of having inconsistencies within work products and its impact on the overall project schedule. Good technical safety requirements are in fact the foundation for an effective functional safety implementation.

Wrenches; Flare Nut, Crowfoot, 12 Point Non-Distorting

This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers 12 point flare nut crowfoot, flare nut wrenches, double end flare nut wrenches, combination box and flare nut wrenches, and ratcheting flare nut wrenches that are designed with the following requirements: (a) Non-distorting usage; (b) Possessing the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design to be used on hydraulic tube fittings that conform to the requirements of SAE J514; (c) Transmitting torque to tube fittings without bearing on the apex of fitting wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.

Wrenches, Ratcheting, High Strength

This specification covers high strength ratcheting wrenches used for attachment and detachment of high strength and high temperature aircraft fasteners.

Wrenches, Hand, Twelve Point, High Strength, Thin Wall

This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers high strength thin wall (commercial) sockets, universal sockets, box wrenches and torque adaptors which possess the strength, clearances, and internal wrenching design so configured that, when mated with 12-point fasteners conforming to the requirement of AS870, they shall transmit torque to the fastener without bearing on the outer 5% of the fastener's wrenching points. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes. The dimensional limits of box and combination wrench lengths have been established to provide configuration control for tool storage applications.
Technical Paper

Worldwide Status of Leadless Component Assembly Technology

The wide variety of available leadless electronic components is described. Some typical applications of these devices are illustrated. The advantages to be gained through the use of these surface mounted devices are explained. These include reduced size, increased reliability, improved performance and reduced cost. Methods of application, including automatic assembly equipment, are discussed. Several applicable soldering processes are explained.
Technical Paper

Worldclass Product Development Overview

This paper will discuss Concurrent Engineering as an emerging product development methodology. Specific emphasis will be placed on some of the key tools and considerations necessary for the success of Concurrent Engineering. In particular, the paper will discuss strategic product planning driven by customer requirements and how the product development effort will support the strategic product plan.
Technical Paper

World Transmissions for the 1990 Truck Market

A new line of on-highway transmissions has been designed and developed by Allison Transmission Division. This new product line, identified as the World Transmission Series (WT), has been designed with emphasis on cost-effectiveness, greater integration with vehicle systems and advanced technology to meet market demands into the 21st century. New design concepts both in power train component arrangement and electronic controls have been coupled utilizing concurrent engineering and systems engineering principles. The result is a customer-driven product line which, when produced by Allison, will exceed world class standards of quality, performance and value.
Technical Paper

Workload and Situation Awareness in Future Aircraft

Cockpits have changed dramatically over the last ten years. The electro-mechanical instruments have largely been replaced with electro-optical controls and displays. This change in the pilot-vehicle interface, coupled with a second development, the emergence of a very powerful airborne computer system, an Electronic Crewmember, has had a significant impact on workload in the cockpit. Workload has shifted from physical to mental, and many workload measurement tools applied previously may no longer be appropriate. This paper discusses the prediction, real time measurement and dynamic allocation of cockpit workload in an aircraft with a crew of two -- one human and one electronic.
Technical Paper

Working Activity in Space: Preparation of the Scientific Experiments' Performance

One of the most unsolved problems in space projects, where human beings are involved, is the impossibility of simulating on the ground the effects of microgravity on astronauts' operability in space. [1] In particular, this is traceable in the performance of work activities, such as performing physiological scientific experiments. [2] This paper focuses on a study of the gap between the two operational scenarios: the ground test simulation and the in-flight space performance of complex physiological experiments. The major differences between the two operational scenarios are highlighted, and recommendations for improvement are suggested. The main finding of this paper is that, in order to make experiment performance not only possible but also easy and efficient, it is necessary to consider all human factors involved. With this perspective, the author's aim has been to find an effective way to consider all human factors of the ground and space operational conditions.
Technical Paper

Work Solenoids-Environmental and Design Considerations for Earthmoving Equipment Applications

Work solenoids are widely used in household appliances. The environment and design of this type application does not lead to solenoids for the earthmoving industry. This paper presents the environmental effects to be considered when designing a solenoid for the earthmoving industry. It further explains the need for, and type of, test necessary to validate the design. Finally a review of production quality procedures, necessary to insure reliable production parts is discussed.