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Technical Paper

Zero-G Simulation using Neutral Buoyancy

For human beings who have been reared on the earth with its 1 G gravitational field, the condition of weightlessness is a world with which we are unfamiliar. Even if the layout and equipment configuration of a spacecraft designed to compensate for operation under Zero-G conditions, there are some things which are not effective under actual weightless conditions. In the design of a manned spacecraft, it is necessary to accumulate design data on human performance in a weightless condition, then to undertake design evaluations and verification under weightless conditions. In this paper, testing for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of Zero-G simulation using neutral buoyancy, conducted first of all in Japan, and recommendations on the equipment and Facilities required to conduct such simulations, are described.
Technical Paper

Zero Prototype Approach in the Development of a Plastic Automotive Component

In the developement process, the engineer is required to design, validate and deliver the components for manufacturing, in an as short as possible lead time. For that, the engineer may use some available tools to save not only time, but also cost. This work presents a zero prototype approach applyied to a plastic component, whose main accomplishment was the decreasing of lead time development due to the intensive use of virtual tools (CAD/CAE). As a result, the product was delivered in a short time, with no need of building physical prototypes, thus reducing development cost.
Technical Paper

Zero Hand Coding Approach for Controller Development

As the demand for more complex system development and the ever-increasing requirement for improvement in software productivity, the need for graphical programming or Zero-Hand Coding for automatic generation of controller software becomes highly desirable. The graphical programming must not be limited to the algorithm development which consists of the application modules but must be extended to the microcontroller platform, which include the middleware (i.e. operating system, I/O device drivers) and hardware. Automatic code generation is very important for programming the complex microcontroller internal parameters and registers. The combined software tool chain is to generate the final target specific executable code. This approach is very beneficial for system development, reduction of the development cycle and bridges the gap between control and software engineers reducing time, effort and cost of the production software.


Because of the drastic chilling involved in die casting and the fact that the solid solubilities of both aluminum and copper in zinc change with temperature, these alloys are subject to some aging changes, one of which is a dimensional change. Both of the alloys undergo a slight shrinkage after casting, which at room temperature is about two-thirds complete in five weeks. It is possible to accelerate this shrinkage by a stabilizing anneal, after which no further changes occur. The recommended stabilizing anneal is 3 to 6 h at 100 °C (212 °F), or 5 to 10 h at 85 °C (185 °F), or 10 to 20 h at 70 °C (158 °F). The time in each case is measured from the time at which the castings reach the annealing temperature. The parts may be air cooled after annealing. Such a treatment will cause a shrinkage (0.0004 in per in) of about two-thirds of the total, and the remaining shrinkage will occur at room temperature during the subsequent few weeks.


SIMILAR SPECIFICATIONS—UNS Z33521, former SAE 903, ingot is similar to ASTM B 240-79, Alloy AG40A; and UNS Z33520, former SAE 903, die casting is similar to ASTM B 86-76, Alloy AG40A. UNS Z35530, former SAE 925, ingot is similar to ASTM B 240-79, Alloy AC41A; and UNS Z35531, former SAE 925, die casting is similar to ASTM B 86-82a, Alloy AC41A.
Technical Paper

Yugoslav Approach to the Solution to Problems of Ecological Environment

Development of car production industry in Yugoslavia has three ecological phases. The first one is to satisfy ECE Rules by optimization of engine and vehicle equipment. The second phase is to enter the American market with help of professional foreign development institutions. The third phase is now in focus; to adjust to new European regulations. For the development tasks it is typical to lean on foreign licenses. The real development jobs were occasionally given to faculties, while the research units in factories were overburdened by operative tasks from production. Research jobs were always at mother companies, only some small segment of them was, for the short period, at some faculty or larger institute.
Technical Paper

Yielding Strengh Analysis for Self Supported Pressure Vessels

The hazardous bulk chemical liquid cargo transportation is usually made through highways, using special automotive devices, named semitrailer tank, a kind of mobile tank specially developed to perform this task, manufactured with many types of steel, selected according to the chemical characteristics of the product to be transported. Equipment sizing is made based on specific standards which include specified formulas, loading, and safety factors representing the design criteria of this type of device. Despite of the detailed design criteria for semitrailer tank, it has been observed failure of some pieces of equipment during operation, in a shorter effective life than that one considered in the design phase itself. Considering a detailed study of the stress distribution in this type of equipment, this paper shows a verification of the possibility of yielding failure in the semitrailer tank structure.
Technical Paper

Xerox's Distributed Real Time Control System

XEROX has developed and implemented a network architecture for a real time control system which has expansion flexibility, high reliability, noise immunity, and low cost. This two level multiplex system with a single wire system bus at one level for distributed processors connected to local serial buses at the second level for remote functions and loads is described. The XEROX Microelectronics Center has developed a set of custom VLSI chips to implement the multiplexing architecture. Control software was developed using both assemblers and high level language tools. The software and chip set have been designed, built and integrated into XEROX'S latest generation of products.
Technical Paper

XMM - RGS Cryogenic Detector Housing

The Reflection Grating Spectrometer experiment (RGS) on the ESA corner stone X-Ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM) uses charge coupled devices (CCD) as detectors. Thermal requirements are the main driver for the layout of the detector housing. Parasitic heat inputs stem primarily from radiative coupling and from conduction over the structural support. Improvements in the design of the electro optical model (EOM) over the bread board model (BBM) resulted in a system that guarantees a CCD temperature of -130 °C at the end of the mission while not precluding the possibility to heat the detectors as high as +130°C which might be useful for annealing the CCDs.
Technical Paper

XLV Truck Cab - Designed for Low Volume Production Overseas

United States automotive manufacturers, to maintain their pre-eminent position in world motor vehicle production, must expand their operations overseas. Tooling amortization expenses for the highly sophisticated domestic models are exorbitant because of low production volumes overseas. Therefore, it has been desirable to develop a vehicle which can be easily manufactured overseas for minimum capital expenditures. Chrysler International’s XLV truck cab has been styled, designed, and processed for low volume production overseas. This paper deals with the XLV program -- from the original idea to production in Turkey.
Technical Paper

XB-70A Laboratory for Progress

The development of the XB-70 research aircraft produced advancements in many fields of technology. This paper covers a few of these advancements in the areas of materials, equipment, and manufacturing. These include honeycomb construction, PH 15-7 alloy steel, vacuum melted H-11 steel, equipment capable of withstanding high temperatures, chemical milling of many different alloys, miniaturized welding equipment, and exothermic brazing techniques.
Technical Paper

XB-70 Ground Servicing and Safety Precautions

Planning for ground servicing and maintenance started in the proposal phase and has been followed by test program experience with the XB-70 Mach 3 air vehicle. Servicing and associated safety requirements are summarized. Discussion of maintenance and support actions includes mention of equipment provided to meet the requirements. Preflight, postflight, and periodic operations are outlined, along with some indication of changes that resulted when plans were put into practice. The demands of a high performance flight test air vehicle limit movements toward simplification.
Technical Paper

X-Rays and Gamma Rays-Their Industrial Application

THE X-ray spectrum readily adapts itself to problems in chemical analysis and crystal formation. It is effective on very minute particles which otherwise cannot be segregated. A permanent record is made, and the specimens may be used over and over again, as the X-ray is non-destructive. As a means of inspection, X-ray clearly shows the interior of objects such as weldings castings, forgings, cold-worked metals, and so on. Inhomogeneities that are very slight in width and a fraction of one per cent in thickness are seen easily on a radiograph. Defects thus found may be eliminated summarily by checking various steps in production.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Stress Analysis as Related to Tempering and Tempering Kinetics*

With X-ray stress and fine structure analyses, results have been obtained that are inconsistent with present views of the structure and tempering kinetics of hardened steels. Experimental results are reported, and an attempt is made to establish a model of the tempering kinetics of hardened steels. It is shown that the Snoek and Cottrell effects are the dominating mechanisms of diffusion and that they lead to the formation of two α phases of differing carbon content; the phase with the accumulated carbon finally results in the formation of cementite.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Rocking Curve Analysis of the Aging and Deformation Characteristics in the Al-Li Alloy

A non-destructive x-ray technique, the double crystal diffractometer method, is presented as a tool to investigate the aging and deformation behavior of the Al-Li alloy. This is a sensitive method for measuring the strain and dislocation density within individual grains through the x-ray rocking curve. In addition, models were developed to describe the aging and deformation characteristics of this alloy.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Radiography and CFD Studies of the Spray G Injector

The salient features of modern gasoline direct injection include cavitation, flash boiling, and plume/plume interaction, depending on the operating conditions. These complex phenomena make the prediction of the spray behavior particularly difficult. The present investigation combines mass-based experimental diagnostics with an advanced, in-house modeling capability in order to provide a multi-faceted study of the Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector. First, x-ray tomography is used to distinguish the actual injector geometry from the nominal geometry used in past works. The actual geometry is used as the basis of multidimensional CFD simulations which are compared to x-ray radiography measurements for validation under cold conditions. The influence of nozzle diameter and corner radius are of particular interest. Next, the model is used to simulate flash-boiling conditions, in order to understand how the cold flow behavior corresponds to flashing performance.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Determination of Residual Stresses and Hardness in Steel Due to Thermal, Mechanical, and Fatigue Deformations

Residual stress and hardness in steel due to thermal, mechanical, and fatigue deformations are determined by an X-ray diffraction method. The sharp temperature rise associated with electrical discharge machining causes austenitizing, rehardening, and tempering, and results in high tensile residual stress. Shot-peening quality is evaluated from residual stress and hardness induced by the peening. Rolling contact fatigue of carburized and hardened bearings causes a transformation of austenite to martensite, and thereby generates more residual compression, and also causes permanent fatigue softening. Less softening is observed in inner races of consutrode and cross-forged steels than in air-melted steel, and the former steels exhibit greater fatigue life at early and mean failure levels.