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Technical Paper

A Bearing Life Prediction Method for Utilizing Progressive Functional Surface Damage Analysis from a Debris Contaminated Lubrication Environment

1999-09-13
1999-01-2793
Many lubrication environments in various equipment applications are inherently contaminated with debris and require mechanical components that are, as much as possible, resistant to the potential detrimental effects of debris particles. Many design engineers and lubricant specialists often overlook potential relationships between the various component failure modes, lubricant debris contamination levels, and engineering solutions that are created to overcome them. In addition, design engineers are in need of an analysis tool that can combine the various amounts of cumulative bearing damage occurring over time. As an example, bearing functional surfaces in many cases are progressively damaged over the life of the equipment. A new surface analysis tool is available which allows surface damage analysis to be completed at various stages of equipment life. This new surface analysis tool is appropriately called Debris Signature Analysis(sm).
Technical Paper

A Bayesian Belief Network for Aircraft Tire Condition Assessment

1998-04-06
981213
This paper presents an application of Bayesian Belief Networks for modeling the uncertainty in aircraft safety diagnostics. Belief networks or influence diagrams represent possible means to efficiently model uncertain causal relationships among components of a system. HUGIN is a software for the construction of knowledge based systems based on Bayesian networks. A HUGIN prototype is dicussed to illustrate how a Bayesian approach could be used to support the decision search routine of aircraft safety inspectors when diagnosing equipment of subsystem malfunctions. The example focuses on diagnostic procedures for assessing aircraft tire condition.
Technical Paper

A 9 yd3 Hydraulic Excavator

1973-02-01
730754
In 1970, O&K Orenstein & Koppel AG, Germany, introduced one of the largest hydraulic excavators in the world, the RH 60, an hydraulic excavator with a 9 yd3 face shovel, or a 6 yd3 backhoe attachment. The machine proved to be a productive and reliable tool even on field applications unknown for hydraulic excavators before its introduction. Major features of the machine, its basic design, and examples of field applications are discussed.
Technical Paper

A 3-D Surface Topography Measurement System and Its Applications

1992-10-01
922347
A 3-D surface topography measurement system was constructed for the surface characterization of an area. This system consists of a personal computer, a microdisplacement stage and a surface profilometer. The microdisplacement system moves the samples laterally for successive traces and ensures the parallelism of each surface profile. The personal computer coordinates the stage movement and surface profile measurements, provides large data storage, and allows rapid data manipulation. This system provides an easy, effective way to characterize a surface, together with versatile displays to observe and record surface topography. It has been used for wear-scar characterization and paint-defect detection. A relocation fixture was incorporated with the 3-D surface-measurement system to provide a powerful tool to observe progressive changes in the surface topography during tribological tests.
Journal Article

A 1D/Quasi-3D Coupled Model for the Simulation of I.C. Engines: Development and Application of an Automatic Cell-Network Generator

2017-03-28
2017-01-0514
Nowadays quasi-3D approaches are included in many commercial and research 1D numerical codes, in order to increase their simulation accuracy in presence of complex shape 3D volumes, e.g. plenums and silencers. In particular, these are regarded as valuable approaches for application during the design phase of an engine, for their capability of predicting non-planar waves motion and, on the other hand, for their low requirements in terms of computational runtime. However, the generation of a high-quality quasi-3D computational grid is not always straightforward, especially in case of complex elements, and can be a time-consuming operation, making the quasi-3D tool a less attractive option. In this work, a quasi-3D module has been implemented on the basis of the open-source CFD code OpenFOAM and coupled with the 1D code GASDYN.
Technical Paper

A 10KW Modular Inverter for 28 VDC to 120/240 VAC Power Conversion

2006-11-07
2006-01-3074
U S Army tactical vehicles are equipped with a wide range of electrical and electronic equipment to support a variety of missions. This equipment typically requires AC input power with varying voltage, power and phasing requirements. Presently, separate inverters with different voltage, power, and phase ratings are necessary to power the equipment, which imposes maintenance and support problems during field deployments. Avionic Instruments Inc. has developed a scalable inverter system that operates from 28V vehicular power and provides outputs that can easily be configured for a variety of load requirements.
Technical Paper

A -183°C Cryogenic Freezer for the International Space Station

2000-07-10
2000-01-2325
In the frame of the CRYOSYSTEM A-phase study financed by the European Space Agency, AIR LIQUIDE (France) and ORBITAL HYDRAULIC-BREMEN (Germany) have been studying a -183°C freezer to be used on-board the International Space Station for freezing and storing biological samples.
Technical Paper

777 Wing Fastener Machine Training Simulator

1993-09-01
931761
Wing panels for Boeing's new 777 airplane are assembled using fastening machines called Wing Fastener Systems (WFS). Compared to the wing riveting machines currently used to squeeze rivets for other airplane models, the 777 WFS provides significantly more features in that it also installs two part fasteners, collects process data for Statistical Process Control analysis, plus other functions. Historically, new operators for wing riveting machines have needed six months of on-the-job training to achieve basic qualification. Because of the increased functionality of the 777 WFS, an eight to nine month O.J.T. requirement was anticipated. Training requirements were further compounded by our need for up to thirty qualified operators in a relatively short time frame and a maintenance staff thoroughly trained in the new control architecture. Boeing's response to this challenge was to use simulation methods similar to those used to train pilots for our customer airlines.
Technical Paper

777 Automated Spar Assembly Tool - Second Generation

1995-09-01
952172
The Automated Spar Assembly Tool (ASAT II) at the Everett, Washington, 777 Boeing manufacturing facility could be the largest automated fastening cell in the commercial aircraft industry. Based on the success of the ASAT I, Boeing's 767 spar assembly tool, the 285-foot long ASAT II cell was needed to accurately position and fasten the major spar components (chords and web), then locate and fasten over 100 components (ribposts and stiffeners) to assemble the 777 forward and rear wing spars. From its inception in 1990 to the first drilled hole in January 1993 and through two years of spar production, the more advanced ASAT II has proven to be a greater success than even its 767 ASAT I predecessor. This massive automated fastening system consistently provides accurate hole preparation, inspection, and installation of three fastener types ranging from 3/16 inches to 7/16 inches in diameter.
Technical Paper

75 Development of an Electronically Controlled Carburetion System to Reduce the Exhaust Emissions of Small IC Engines for Handheld Power Tools

2002-10-29
2002-32-1844
In order to meet the new stringent emission limits for small handheld power tools technologies like methods to improve the scavenging process and after treatment devices are deployed. Additionally, professional machines such as chain saws add particular requirements to avoid mechanical failures. By precise control of the carburetion it is possible to yield the necessary reduction of the emission level yet to maintain the performance of the engine. Thus, the development of an Electronically Controlled Carburetion System to reduce the exhaust emissions of small IC engines for handheld power tools was initiated at the WHZ, Germany. Key requirements of such a system are: low cost, high reliability, low electrical power consumption, high accuracy in metering the fuel demand of the engine. First results are promising. A correlation between exhaust gas temperature and the fuel demand of the engine was confirmed for both, wide open throttle and part load operation.
Technical Paper

747 ENGINE INSTALLATION FEATURES

1968-02-01
680335
New approaches to problems such as noise, temperature control of accessories and equipment in the nacelle, as well as improved safety features, are necessary in a modern high by-pass engine installation. The means of supporting the engine, cowling design, and maintainability features combine to improve the state of the art that a more economic airplane will result.
Technical Paper

74 ENGINE SCAVENGING OPTIMIZATION

2002-10-29
2002-32-1843
Automotive pollutant emissions have been drastically restricted during the last ten years. These emission standards are now concerning small two-stroke engine. In order to reach future emission standard, it is essential to improve the scavenging flow, and especially the trapping efficiency of the engines. It is also interesting to have a tool for predicting the scavenging performances of an engine before the firing engine situation, which takes place late in the time scale of a development. A special test bench has been developed by D2T Group to visualize and quantify the scavenging process. It was also modelled with CFD tools, and a good correlation was observed between calculations and experimentations. This shows a good potential to reduce time and money spent in an engine development.
Technical Paper

5500 Ton Press - Forming Rear Axle Spindles

1962-01-01
620134
A five-year development program by the American Metal Products Co. to process stamped axle housings has culminated in the application of cold extrusion to spindles. The new process involved the installation of a 5500 ton press capable of driving a punch through a 20 lb billet, as well as modification and rearrangement of existing equipment. The system has not only resulted in considerable production savings but has also contributed to an overall expansion program. The company, although fully preoccupied with the basic spindle for production of axle housings, has already investigated other applications of the new equipment toward product diversification.
Technical Paper

3M Customer Inspired Innovation

2008-10-20
2008-21-0036
The process of translating customer needs into successful commercialized products and services has been the subject of many books, articles and papers [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. This process has many facets and nuances depending on the type of product or service being developed. Factors impacting this translation include the target audience, cost, timing and return on investment. While some of these factors may be more important than others for any given project, there are six core elements that are present in every successful new product commercialization venture: Commercialization Components: Customer Understanding Technology Understanding Customer Feedback Market Awareness People and Process: Skilled Project Management Commercialization Process In this paper we will define and describe these core elements and some of the important building blocks, tools and tactics. We will illustrate with real-world examples how these elements are used and measured.
Technical Paper

3M Approach to Implementing Life Cycle Management

2000-03-06
2000-01-0594
3M is committed to continuously improving products and their manufacture toward the goal of sustainability. The 3M Life Cycle Management (LCM) program has been established to implement this goal. It utilizes a matrix tool to facilitate the review. The matrix consists of LCM Stage (Material Acquisition, R&D Operations, Manufacturing Operations, and Customer Use/Disposal) and Impact (Environment, Health, Safety, and Energy/Resources). The program is coordinated at the staff level by the Corporate Product Responsibility group. The corporate goal is to apply LCM to all new and existing products. The LCM program started with evaluations of new products within business units. Since 3M produces more than 60,000 products manufactured from more than 10,000 different raw materials, the routine evaluation of individual products challenges available staff and business unit resources. A technology-based approach for doing LCMs has been implemented to meet the challenge.
Technical Paper

3D Re-Engineering: A Comprehensive Process for Solving Production Assembly Fit Problems

1998-06-02
981835
Dimensional Management (DM) is a methodology to predict and control the impact of variation on assembly from, fit, and function. Application of Dimensional Management tools and other modeling and simulation techniques are combined in a process called 3D Re-Engineering for application to existing production designs. Analytical techniques for predicting the impact of variation on assembly fit, and corresponding methods for controlling variation are presented, as used in a production environment for root cause corrective action on existing assembly fit problems. Assembly variation analysis is typically performed early in the product development phases, by coordinating datums, assembly sequences, assembly methods, and detail part tolerances across the product development team.
Technical Paper

3D Inside Vehicle Acoustical Holography

2002-07-09
2002-01-2228
A continuously growing demand comes from the automotive industry in order to get an experimental tool allowing for the optimization of materials and sound insulating products implementation inside the car, so as to propose the best acoustic performance at reduced costs. The acoustical imaging system LORHA provides part of the solution and its demonstrated capability of measuring the acoustic field inside a vehicle makes it an advanced tool for performing extensive studies of the acoustic transparency of car openings. This paper focuses on the methodology and recent operational results obtained within the tight collaboration established between METRAVIB RDS, its partner HUTCHINSON and well known car manufacturers.
Technical Paper

3D Image Metrology for Lean Manufacturing

1999-06-05
1999-01-2290
The need to improve quality while reducing cost in aerospace manufacturing is requiring new manufacturing methods and processes. Advanced technologies, such as 3D Image Metrology, offer great potential to lean manufacturing, if properly integrated into the production process. Over the last years 3D Image Metrology has developed a level of performance, which make it ideally suited for this purpose. These capabilities include the automatic in-process inspection of tools and parts before machining, machine control for highly accurate positioning during the machining operation, and in-process inspection during machining. This offers jig-less assembly, lower inventory, faster part throughput, and many more advantages.
Technical Paper

3D Heat Transfer Analysis of a Moving Heat Source

2005-04-11
2005-01-1246
The paper will model a welding process as a moving heat source through the work piece and investigate the effectiveness of various pre-heating mechanisms, including moving heat sources and the thermal strips. The reduction of thermal conductivity in the material around the tool due to rising temperature will be considered in the study. The paper represents an initial attempt to develop a nonlinear, time-discontinuous, p-version Galerkin method for the study of thermal effects in the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process. Numerical results and the topics for further studies are presented.
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