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Technical Paper

3D Engine Analysis and MLS Cylinder Head Gaskets Design

2002-03-04
2002-01-0663
Multi-layer steel (MLS) cylinder head gaskets are becoming more widely used to seal an engine. Therefore, it is important to understand the interaction between the engine head, block and head gasket. While experimental methods for determining necessary gasket tightening loads and experimental data relating some gasket design parameters to failure are available, it is very costly and time consuming. A numerical method, such as the finite element (FE) method, has proven to be very useful and efficient in aiding gasket design. A 3D engine FE analysis can predict a number of parameters. Of particular interest are the motion as well as the contact profile of the head, block and gasket. This information, usually difficult or impossible to obtain from a 2D FE analysis, can be used to predict the two most common failure modes of a gasket, fatigue crack and leakage.
Technical Paper

3D Composite Sandwich Structures Applied to Car Manufacturing

1998-02-23
980071
Composite materials applied to automotive structures have been developed in the last few years, due mainly to the introduction of new technologies for manufacturing them and the well known advantages of composites versus traditional materials. One of these new processes of manufacturing of textile preforms lead to 3D warp knitted composite sandwich structures. The application of this process of manufacturing achieves significant reduction of labour and processing cost, in comparison with typical construction of composite parts. In this paper, this manufacturing process of 3D composite sandwich preforms is described. A tipical composite sandwich structure is composed of skins and core. However, 3D composite sandwich structures are characterised by the existence of transversal fibers which join one skin to the other. Resultant preforms have the mechanical advantages of classical composite sandwich structures, as a high specific stiffness versus bending.
Technical Paper

3D Bending of Aluminium Extrusions for Automotive Applications

2003-10-27
2003-01-2855
This paper is concerned with 3D stretch bending of aluminium extrusions. A design method for prediction of dimensional tolerances is presented, focusing on cross-sectional deformations and elastic springback. The model is successfully applied to a complex 3D formed part. Based on the present analysis, it is concluded that the required dimensional tolerances of a product can be determined early in the design phase by use of this method.
Technical Paper

38 Development of Compound-Laser Welding Method for Aluminum-Alloy Structure of Motorcycles

2002-10-29
2002-32-1807
A compound-laser welding method has been developed for the rapid three-dimensional welding of motorcycle aluminum-alloy structural parts. The term “compound-laser welding” means a high-speed welding method in which a number of lasers with different characteristics are arranged on the same axis. This paper reports the results of welding by a compound laser consisting of a YAG laser and a CO2 laser. It was found that compound-laser welding with two or more types of gases mixed as shielding gas gives a better welding performance than single-laser welding due to the advantages of the different lasers used in compound-laser welding.
Standard

350 °F Autoclave Cure, Low Flow Toughened Epoxy Prepregs, Type 38, Class 2, Grade 193, Style 3K-70-PW, Fiber 1

2019-03-12
WIP
AMS3961/1A
The intent of this specification is for the procurement of the material listed on the QPL and, therefore, no qualification or equivalency threshold values are provided. Users that intend to conduct a new material qualification or equivalency program shall refer to the Quality Assurance section of the base specification, AMS3961. All material qualification and equivalency data has been archived and is available for review upon request. Contact the CMH-17 Secretariat (www.cmh17.org) for additional information.
Standard

350 °F Autoclave Cure, Low Flow Toughened Epoxy Prepregs, Type 38, Class 2, Grade 193, Style 3K-70-PW, Fiber 1

2015-12-02
CURRENT
AMS3961/1
The intent of this specification is for the procurement of the material listed on the QPL and, therefore, no qualification or equivalency threshold values are provided. Users that intend to conduct a new material qualification or equivalency program shall refer to the Quality Assurance section of the base specification, AMS3961. All material qualification and equivalency data has been archived and is available for review upon request. Contact the CMH-17 Secretariat (www.cmh17.org) for additional information.
Standard

350 °F Autoclave Cure, Low Flow Toughened Epoxy Prepregs, Type 35, Class 1, Grade 190, Fiber 2

2015-12-02
CURRENT
AMS3961/2
The intent of this specification is for the procurement of the material listed on the QPL and, therefore, no qualification or equivalency threshold values are provided. Users that intend to conduct a new material qualification or equivalency program shall refer to the Quality Assurance section of the base specification, AMS3961. All material qualification and equivalency data has been archived and is available for review upon request. Contact the CMH-17 Secretariat (www.cmh17.org) for additional information.
Standard

350 °F Autoclave Cure, Low Flow Toughened Epoxy Prepregs, Type 35, Class 1, Grade 190, Fiber 2

2019-03-12
WIP
AMS3961/2A
The intent of this specification is for the procurement of the material listed on the QPL and, therefore, no qualification or equivalency threshold values are provided. Users that intend to conduct a new material qualification or equivalency program shall refer to the Quality Assurance section of the base specification, AMS3961. All material qualification and equivalency data has been archived and is available for review upon request. Contact the CMH-17 Secretariat (www.cmh17.org) for additional information.
Standard

350 °F Autoclave Cure, Low Flow Toughened Epoxy Prepregs, Type 35, Class 1, Grade 190, Fiber 1

2019-03-12
WIP
AMS3961/3A
The intent of this specification is for the procurement of the material listed on the QPL and, therefore, no qualification or equivalency threshold values are provided. Users that intend to conduct a new material qualification or equivalency program shall refer to the Quality Assurance section of the base specification, AMS3961. All material qualification and equivalency data has been archived and is available for review upon request. Contact the CMH-17 Secretariat (www.cmh17.org) for additional information.
Standard

350 °F Autoclave Cure, Low Flow Toughened Epoxy Prepregs, Type 35, Class 1, Grade 190, Fiber 1

2015-12-02
CURRENT
AMS3961/3
The intent of this specification is for the procurement of the material listed on the QPL and, therefore, no qualification or equivalency threshold values are provided. Users that intend to conduct a new material qualification or equivalency program shall refer to the Quality Assurance section of the base specification, AMS3961. All material qualification and equivalency data has been archived and is available for review upon request. Contact the CMH-17 Secretariat (www.cmh17.org) for additional information.
Standard

350 °F Autoclave Cure, Low Flow Toughened Epoxy Prepregs

2015-12-02
CURRENT
AMS3961
The intent of this specification is for the procurement of the material listed on the QPL and, therefore, no qualification or equivalency threshold values are provided. Users that intend to conduct a new material qualification or equivalency program shall refer to the Quality Assurance section of this base specification, AMS3961. All material qualification and equivalency data has been archived and is available for review upon request. Contact the CMH-17 Secretariat (www.cmh17.org) for additional information.
Standard

350 °F Autoclave Cure, Low Flow Toughened Epoxy Prepregs

2019-03-12
WIP
AMS3961A
The intent of this specification is for the procurement of the material listed on the QPL and, therefore, no qualification or equivalency threshold values are provided. Users that intend to conduct a new material qualification or equivalency program shall refer to the Quality Assurance section of this base specification, AMS3961. All material qualification and equivalency data has been archived and is available for review upon request. Contact the CMH-17 Secretariat (www.cmh17.org) for additional information.
Technical Paper

32 Development of Silent Chain Drive System for Motorcycles

2002-10-29
2002-32-1801
Examining the noise reduction of a motorcycle, the requirement of an effective method of reducing a drive chain noise has been a pending issue similarly to noise originating from an engine or exhaust system, etc. Through this study, it became clear that the mechanism of chain noise could be classified into two; low frequency noise originated from cordal action according to the degree of chain engagement and high frequency noise generated by impact when a chain roller hits sprocket bottom. An improvement of urethane resin damper shape, mounted on a drive side sprocket, was effective for noise reduction of the former while our development of a chain drive that combined an additional urethane resin roller with an iron roller worked well for the latter. The new chain system that combined this new idea has been proven to be capable of reducing the chain noise to half compared with a conventional system.
Technical Paper

3000 Ton Capacity Ship-Mounted Revolving Crane for the North Sea Oil Industry

1977-02-01
770781
To meet the demands of continually increasing energy requirements, the off-shore operations to explore and recover petroleum deposits from beneath the ocean bottom are taking place under increasingly difficult environmental conditions. This has led to the development of types of equipment well beyond the possibilities or the imaginable future requirements of twenty years ago. When conditions require the fabrication of off-shore platforms on land, to be floated to the erection site, lifted and placed as a single unit of up to 3000 tons, revolving cranes capable of performing such lifts become a necessary part of that development.
Technical Paper

3.5 hp in an 8 lb Package

1966-02-01
660007
A new lightweight gasoline, two-cycle engine for portable tools is described. The total weight of 8 lb with an output of 3.5 hp was achieved by means of compact design with the use of standardized parts wherever possible, rather than by creating all new parts.
Technical Paper

3-Dimensional Modeling of the Regeneration in SiC Particulate Filters

2005-04-11
2005-01-0953
In order to use modeling as a predictive tool for real-world particulate filter designs (segmented filters, non-axisymmetric designs), it is necessary to develop reliable 3-dimensional models. This paper presents a 3 d modeling approach, which is validated against engine-bench measurements with both FBC and CDPF systems. Special emphasis is given to the prediction of the transient inlet flow distribution, which is realized without resorting to external CFD software. The experimental and modeling results illustrate the 3-d nature of the problem, induced by the heat capacity and conductivity effects of the cement layers. It is possible to predict the localization of regeneration in certain areas of the filter (partial regeneration), as a result of poor heat transfer to thermally isolated regions in the filter. The accuracy of the model was validated by extensive comparisons with temperature measurements in 30 positions inside the filters and at various operating conditions.
Technical Paper

3-Dimensional Description of Sheet Metal Surfaces

1995-02-01
950918
During sheet metal forming processes, the friction conditions have a decisive influence on forming limits, the robustness of the production process and the quality of the parts produced, with significant forces required to overcome friction between the sheet and the tools. If lot-to-lot reproducibility is to be guaranteed, an appropriate method of characterizing the sheet surface topography is needed to monitor the sheet metal fabrication process. Newly developed optical measurement techniques and computer workstation technology are presented which enable the topography of sheet surfaces to be described in three dimensions.
Technical Paper

3-D Scanning Vibrometry Enables Efficient Experimental Modal Analysis of Large and Complex Structures for NVH-Optimised Vehicles

2007-01-17
2007-26-034
In the design and development of modern cars with respect to comfort, silence and safety, state of the art experimental modal analysis is one of the essential development tools. Due to the large amount of degrees of freedom of such a large and complex system like a car with all its components, a complete simulation by FEM can not be realised easily and requires an enormous expenditure of work and calculations. In addition the simulations are based on assumed system parameters and thus the vibration behaviour of the resulting prototypes often is not completely identical to the simulated model. In contrast to conventional measurements with accelerometers, the 3-D Scanning Vibrometer enables fast and efficient non-contact measurements of the in-plane and out-of-plane vibration behaviour at all optical accessible surfaces. The method easily allows to increase the number of measured points to obtain a high measurement point density.
Technical Paper

3 Wet Technology - A Novel Approach for Greener, Efficient, Smart Practice in Automotive Paint Application

2011-10-06
2011-28-0071
The upcoming latest 3-wet Technology is the most ideal design for a Green field project as well as for a brown field facility which provides the best of both worlds. The foremost take away for a brown field project emanates from this technology which demands a smaller foot prints & hence could accommodates a capacity higher than what was perceived during the green field project planning thus saving millions of dollar of investment & giving that extra capacity which today the BRIC countries are thriving for. Apart from making the ideal investment choice, 3 Wet Technology provides impetus to business case in terms of reduction of VOC emission, Energy consumption, Material and labor cost and gaining on Green Environment front as well as leading to smart and Efficient-Paint-Process. The paper depicts the journey of roll out of 3-Wet process in Ford India and creating the bench mark in terms of product quality and process standards and manufacturing practices.
Technical Paper

2K Clearcoat for Automotive Plastics

1997-02-24
970990
2k clearcoat is the progressive step that is keeping coatings for elastomeric fascia in pace with the current automobile design, performance, and durability demands. Initially, rigid 2k coatings were applied over plastic for low temperature cure. Over metal, 2k rigid clearcoat produced a dramatic improvement in appearance and durability. Flexibility is the key attribute that a 2k clearcoat engineered for use over fascias must posses. Utilizing the same basecoat and primer, 2k flexible clearcoats are being successfully applied to flexible fascia, generating excellent appearance and outstanding durability.
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