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Technical Paper

economics of Heavy-Duty Brake Design and Maintenance

1960-01-01
600040
THIS PAPER presents a review of the design and operational problems of heavy-duty truck brakes. One of the major development goals is brakes that require no attention between relinings (as are now available on passenger cars). The author discusses point by point the AMA-TTMA Brake Committee agreement relating to extended brake service life and periods between brake adjustments. Emphasis is placed upon maintenance programs which provide for frequent inspection of the vehicle. The margin of brake performance deterioration is narrow.*
Technical Paper

application of the Cumulative Fatigue Damage Theory to practical problems

1960-01-01
600032
THIS PAPER presents an analysis of the Corten-Dolan cumulative fatigue damage theory. This equation was used to predict total cycles to failure for random dynamic loading on chains operating over sprockets in the laboratory. This theory takes into account all peak stresses to which the part is subjected. And it assumes that the various stress ranges are not applied in any given sequence. The author also describes various other methods for predicting cycles to failure for steels subjected to varying load ranges.*
Technical Paper

a universal means for Rating Diesel Engines for Deposits and Wear

1960-01-01
600066
THE NEW CRC Diesel Engine Rating Manual is intended to furnish a universal language for identification of diesel-engine deposits and wear. Diesel-engine pistons are evaluated for lacquer deposits by utilizing an area demerit basis and color gradations of brown and gray from clean to black. In studying various means for evaluating thickness and texture of deposit in oil systems, it was decided that the scratch gage developed by the CRC Engine Deposit Rating Panel of the CRC-Motor Engine Varnish and Sludge Group was suitable for diesel engines. A procedure for establishing a volume factor which furnishes a weighted interpretation of the deposit was created.*
Article

Zwick Roell provides flexible materials testing over a wide temperature range

2018-10-19
To enable the tests required for development work to be performed with maximum efficiency, the Zwick Roell Group (ZwickRoell) – a global supplier of materials testing machines based out of Ulm, Germany – developed a materials testing machine that can be equipped with both a temperature chamber and a high-temperature furnace.
Technical Paper

Zinc Soldered Copper and Brass Radiators: Their Processing and Their Test Results

1992-02-01
920177
Copper and brass radiators have served the automobile industry for many years using traditional fabrication processes. Demand for newer and stronger radiators with lighter weight for the modern vehicles prompted investigation of alternate materials. Properties of zinc alloys and their compatibility with brass suggested these could be used for radiator manufacture. Many zinc alloy compositions were investigated in the initial studies, because a solder alloy has to have many positive attributes. The first screening studies evaluated the ability of the solder to spread over copper and brass surfaces, representing tube, fin, and header materials. The second most important feature was the melting range of the developed alloy. In order to retain the anneal resistance of the fin and temper in the tube it was desirable to have a zinc solder with a melting temperature at 800°F or less.
Standard

Zinc Phosphate Treatment Paint Base

2019-05-17
CURRENT
AMS2480J
This specification covers the requirements for producing a zinc phosphate coating on ferrous alloys and the properties of the coating.
Technical Paper

Zinc Extrusion

1966-02-01
660051
The extrusion of zinc alloys, with special reference to zinc-titanium alloys, is described. Parameters for this process are defined. The excellent tensile and creep properties obtained in a typical extruded zinc-titanium alloy are presented. Extruded zinc with a quality copper-nickel-chrome plated finish offers a new approach to the production of automotive trim and of similar products.
Standard

Zinc Die Casting Alloys

2017-12-20
CURRENT
J469_201712
Because of the drastic chilling involved in die casting and the fact that the solid solubilities of both aluminum and copper in zinc change with temperature, these alloys are subject to some aging changes, one of which is a dimensional change. Both of the alloys undergo a slight shrinkage after casting, which at room temperature is about two-thirds complete in five weeks. It is possible to accelerate this shrinkage by a stabilizing anneal, after which no further changes occur. The recommended stabilizing anneal is 3 to 6 h at 100 °C (212 °F), or 5 to 10 h at 85 °C (185 °F), or 10 to 20 h at 70 °C (158 °F). The time in each case is measured from the time at which the castings reach the annealing temperature. The parts may be air cooled after annealing. Such a treatment will cause a shrinkage (0.0004 in per in) of about two-thirds of the total, and the remaining shrinkage will occur at room temperature during the subsequent few weeks.
Technical Paper

Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate-Dispersant Interactions: Effects on Solution Behavior and Wear

1992-10-01
922282
Interactions between a Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDP) and three different commercially available succinimide dispersants were observed through changes in solutions behavior, as determined by viscometry and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and four-ball tests. The viscometric response observed for two component blends of ZDP and succinimide dispersant in white oil changed as a function of the molar Zn to N ratio, indicative of specific interactions. The break in the viscometric response curve occurred at Zn:N=0.13 for all three succinimide dispersants. FTIR spectra of the same ZDP-dispersant blends were examined and similar Zn:N dependencies were observed. Four-ball tests measuring wear scar diameter, seizure load and weld load showed a dependence on the Zn to N ratio similar to that observed by viscometry. At very low Zn to N ratios wear and seizure load were decreased, while at higher ratios the seizure and weld loads were increased over that for ZDP alone.
Technical Paper

Zero Wear Analysis of an Injector Coupling

1990-10-01
902239
The coupling is an integral part of the Cummins CELECT electronically controlled injector. Excessive wear was observed on early designs of the coupling and coupling bore. The coupling wear was caused by a high stress concentration and excessive side loading of the coupling as it slid against the coupling bore. The zero wear theory was used to develop a coupling design where the maximum wear depth does not exceed half the peak to peak surface finish (zero wear) over the life of the engine. The side load exerted on the coupling was compared with the calculated contact pressure for zero wear. The undesirable effects of a square edge stress concentration are discussed in the zero wear model. The physical effects of the sharp edge and chamfered coupling edge are reported, but not analyzed in this paper. Three different coupling designs were investigated by applying the zero wear concept.
Standard

ZINC DIE CASTING ALLOYS

1989-01-01
HISTORICAL
J469_198901
Because of the drastic chilling involved in die casting and the fact that the solid solubilities of both aluminum and copper in zinc change with temperature, these alloys are subject to some aging changes, one of which is a dimensional change. Both of the alloys undergo a slight shrinkage after casting, which at room temperature is about two-thirds complete in five weeks. It is possible to accelerate this shrinkage by a stabilizing anneal, after which no further changes occur. The recommended stabilizing anneal is 3 to 6 h at 100 °C (212 °F), or 5 to 10 h at 85 °C (185 °F), or 10 to 20 h at 70 °C (158 °F). The time in each case is measured from the time at which the castings reach the annealing temperature. The parts may be air cooled after annealing. Such a treatment will cause a shrinkage (0.0004 in per in) of about two-thirds of the total, and the remaining shrinkage will occur at room temperature during the subsequent few weeks.
Standard

Yarn, Organic Fiber (Para-Aramid), High Modulus, 380 Denier,(420 d tex), 0.6% Finish

1991-10-01
HISTORICAL
AMS3901/2A
This specification covers one type of organic fiber in the form of yarn. The product shall be formed as a multiplicity of filaments drawn together and gathered into an approximately parallel arrangement. Organic 380 denier (420 d tex) yarn with 390 ksi (2689 MPa) or 22.0 g/d minimum tensile strength and 17.5 Msi (121 GPa) or 850 g/d minimum tensile modulus for use in general purpose composites requiring high tensile strength and high modulus of elasticity in tension.
Standard

Yarn, Organic Fiber (Para-Aramid), High Modulus, 2160 Denier, (2400 d tex), 0.6% Finish

1992-10-01
HISTORICAL
AMS3901/7A
This specification covers one type of organic fiber in the form of yarn. The product shall be formed as a multiplicity of filaments drawn together and gathered into an approximately parallel arrangement. Organic 2160 denier (2400 d tex) yarn with 390 ksi (2689 MPa) or 19.0 g/d minimum tensile strength and 16.5 Msi (114 GPa) or 750 g/d minimum tensile modulus for use in filament winding requiring high tensile strength and high modulus of elasticity in tension.
Standard

Yarn, Organic Fiber (Para-Aramid), High Modulus, 195 (215 d tex) Denier, 0.6% Finish

1991-10-01
HISTORICAL
AMS3901/1A
This specification covers one type of organic fiber in the form of yarn. The product shall be formed as a multiplicity of filaments drawn together and gathered into an approximately parallel arrangement. Organic 195 denier (215 d tex) yarn with 390 ksi (2689 MPa) or 19.0 g/d minimum tensile strength and 18 Msi (124 GPa) or 850 g/d minimum tensile modulus for use in general purpose composites requiring high tensile strength and high modulus of elasticity in tension.
Standard

Yarn, Organic Fiber (Para-Aramid), High Modulus, 1140 Denier, (1270d tex), 0.6% Finish

1991-10-01
HISTORICAL
AMS3901/3A
This specification covers one type of organic fiber in the form of yarn. The product shall be formed as a multiplicity of filaments drawn together and gathered into an approximately parallel arrangement. Organic 1140 denier (1270 d tex) yarn with 390 ksi (2689 MPa) or 22.0 g/d minimum tensile strength and 16.5 Msi (114 GPa) or 820 g/d minimum tensile modulus for use in general purpose composites requiring high tensile strength and high modulus of elasticity in tension.
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