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Technical Paper

Effect of Flange Radius and Width on the Fatigue Life of Wheel Hub under Cornering Loads

2020-04-14
2020-01-1232
Automotive manufacturers are concerned about the safety of its customers. Safety critical components like wheel hub are designed considering the severe loads generated from various customer usage patterns. Accelerated tests, which are derived from Real World Usage Patterns (RWUP), are conducted at vehicle level to ensure the wheel hub meet the durability targets. Load and strain measurement are done to understand the critical lateral loading undergone by the wheel hub. Measured data is synthesized to drive the duty cycle. Finite Element (FE) Analysis of Wheel end is performed at module level considering measured loads to capture the exact load path in physical test. Simulation results are compared with the measured strain for validating the FE analysis procedure. FE analysis was repeated for different wheel hub designs, combinations of different flange radius (R) and flange width (t), to understand the effect of the two critical dimensions on wheel hub durability.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Drivers’ Preferences and Understanding of Powertrain and Advanced Driver Assistant Systems Symbols for Current and Future Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-1203
With the dramatic increase in vehicle technology, the availability of a wide range of powertrains, and the development of advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS), instrument cluster interfaces have become more complex, increasing the demand on drivers. Understanding the needs and preferences of a diverse group of drivers is essential for the development of digital instrument cluster interfaces that improve driver’s understanding of critical information about the vehicle. This study investigated drivers’ understanding and preferences related to powertrain and ADAS symbols presented on instrument clusters. Participants answered questions that evaluated nine symbol’s comprehension, familiarity, and helpfulness. Then, participants were presented with information from the owner’s manual for each symbol and responded if the information changed their understanding of the symbol.
Technical Paper

Conceptualization of Human Factors in Automated Driving by Work Domain Analysis

2020-04-14
2020-01-1202
The increasing automation of driving functionalities is one of the most important trends in the automotive industry. The trend is moving towards systems which allow the driver to be absent from the active driving task. During the process, on one hand, the human driver more and more relies upon the driving automation to perform the dynamic driving tasks. Therefore, the driver needs to trust the driving automation. On the other hand, even the high driving automation (e.g. SAE Level 4) can only performs its functionality within the specific operational design domain and the driving automation relies upon the human driver to handle events when the vehicle operates outside the domain. What’s more, for the lower level driving automation, the driver still needs to assume some fallback responsibility, and may be required to react promptly when the driving automation even inside the operational design domain is inadequate to operate the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Advanced Driver-Assistance Systems for City Bus Applications

2020-04-14
2020-01-1208
The bus sector is currently lagging behind when it comes to implementing autonomous systems for improved vehicle safety. However, in cities such as London, public transport strategies are changing, with requirements being made for advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) on buses. This study discusses the adoption of ADAS systems within the bus sector. A review of the on-road ADAS bus trials shows that passive forward collision warning (FCW) and intelligent speed assistance (ISA) systems have been successful in reducing the number of imminent pedestrian/vehicle collision events and improving speed limit compliance, respectively. Bus accident statistics for Great Britain have shown that pedestrians account for 82% of all fatalities, with three quarters occurring with frontal bus impacts.
Technical Paper

Development of a Camera-Based Driver State Monitoring System for Cost-Effective Embedded Solution

2020-04-14
2020-01-1210
To prevent the severe consequences of unsafe driving behaviors, it is crucial to monitor and analyze the state of the driver. Developing an effective driver state monitoring (DSM) systems is particularly challenging due to limited computation capabilities of embedded systems in automobiles and the need for finishing processing in real-time. However, most of the existing research work was conducted in a lab environment with expensive equipment while lacking in-car benchmarking and validation. In this paper, a DSM system that estimates driver's alertness and drowsiness level as well as performs emotion detection built with a cost-effective embedded system is presented. The proposed system consists of a mono camera that captures driver's facial image in real-time and a machine learning based detection algorithm that detects facial landmark points and use that information to infer driver's state.
Technical Paper

Driver Drowsiness Behavior Detection and Analysis Using Vision-Based Multimodal Features for Driving Safety

2020-04-14
2020-01-1211
Driving inattention caused by drowsiness has been a significant reason for vehicle crash accidents, and there is a critical need to augment driving safety by monitoring driver drowsiness behaviors. For real-time drowsy driving awareness, we propose a vision-based driver drowsiness monitoring system (DDMS) for driver drowsiness behavior recognition and analysis. First, an infrared camera is deployed in-vehicle to capture the driver’s facial and head information in naturalistic driving scenarios, in which the driver may or may not wear glasses or sunglasses. Second, we propose and design a multi-modal features representation approach based on facial landmarks, and head pose which is retrieved in a convolutional neural network (CNN) regression model. Finally, an extreme learning machine (ELM) model is proposed to fuse the facial landmark, recognition model and pose orientation for drowsiness detection. The DDMS gives promptly warning to the driver once a drowsiness event is detected.
Technical Paper

Research on AEB Collision Avoidance Strategy Based on Characteristics of Driver-Vehicle-Road

2020-04-14
2020-01-1213
With the rise of intelligent transportation systems around the world, research on automobile active safety technology has gained widespread attention. Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) which can avoid or mitigate collision by active braking has become a hot research topic in the field of automobile. However, there are some limitations in the present AEB collision avoidance strategy, including lack of effective identification of road adhesion conditions, mismatch of active braking system parameters and imperfection of target vehicle motion information, which leads to poor collision avoidance performance on low adhesion coefficient road surface and intervention with the normal driving operation of the driver. A new collision avoidance strategy for AEB is proposed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Laminated Side Window Glazing Coding and Rollover Ejection Mitigation Performance Using NASS-CDS

2020-04-14
2020-01-1216
Occupant ejection has been identified as a safety problem for decades, particularly in rollover crashes. While field accident studies have repeatedly demonstrated the effectiveness of seat belts in mitigating rollover ejection and injuries, the use of laminated glass in side window positions has been suggested as a means to mitigate occupant ejection. Limited data is available on the field performance of laminated glass in preventing ejection. This study utilized 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data to investigate the reliability of the glazing coding variables in the database and determine if any conclusions can be drawn regarding the effect of different side window glazing types on occupant ejection. An initial query was run for 1997-2016 model year vehicles involved in side impacts to evaluate glazing coding within NASS-CDS.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Study on Helical Coil and Straight Type Sub-Cooled Condenser for Air Conditioner in Automobile Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-1246
This paper provides the importance of helical coil sub-cooled condenser which has a compact structure, large heat transfer area, and high heat transfer capability in comparison to the straight sub-cooled condenser in the automobile vehicle. The HVAC unit has the largest parasitic load on the engine. Hence, by improving the coefficient of performance of the air-conditioning (A/C) system, the reduction in vehicule emissions is possible. Previous studies explain that there is generation of secondary flow inside the fluid in the circular cross-section of the helical coil. By using the effect of the secondary flow generation, authors tried to enhance the heat transfer rate as it leads to heterogeneous temperature distribution across the periphery of the tube and causes a higher heat transfer. For the purpose of the study, a prototype with a square cross-sectional 2.7 mm × 2.7 mm channel with flat fins towards the outer side has been constructed.
Technical Paper

Use of Partial Recirculation to Limit Build-Up of Cabin Carbon Dioxide Concentrations to Safe Limits per ASHRAE Standard-62

2020-04-14
2020-01-1245
Carbon dioxide exhaled by occupants remains within the cabin during operation of HVAC unit in recirculation mode. The CO2 inhaled by the occupants goes into their blood stream that negatively affects occupant’s health. ASHRAE Standard-62 (1999) specifies the safe levels of carbon dioxide in conditioned space for humans. The CO2 concentration limit per ASHRAE is 700 ppm over ambient conditions on a continuous basis. Based on the test data, at worst case scenario (idle condition where body leakage will be a minimal) results in CO2 concentrations of 1601, 2846, 4845 and 6587 ppm respective for 1 to 4 occupants in 30 minutes. Author has also conducted test by imposing ASHRAE standard-62. A controller was programmed for operating the blower unit’s intake door to go from recirculation to OSA mode when the measured carbon dioxide ppm level goes above 1100 ppm. The door stays in OSA mode until the cabin carbon dioxide falls to approximately 500ppm.
Technical Paper

Impact of Different Types of Glazing on Thermal Comfort of Vehicle Occupants

2020-04-14
2020-01-1249
Due to intense peak summer temperatures and sunny summers in tropical countries like India etc., achieving the required thermal comfort of car occupants without compromising on fuel efficiency is becoming increasingly challenging. The major source of heat load on vehicle is Solar Load. Therefore, a study has been conducted to evaluate the heat load on vehicle cabin due to solar radiations and its impact on vehicle air-conditioning system performance with various combinations of door glasses and windscreen. The glasses used for this study are classified as green, dark green, dark gray, standard PVB (Polyvinyl Butyral) windscreen and PVB windscreen having infrared cut particles. For each glass, part level evaluation was done to find out the percentage transmittance of light of different wavelengths and heat flux through each glass.
Technical Paper

Multi-Zone HVAC Development and Validation with Integrated Heated/Vented Seat Control

2020-04-14
2020-01-1247
Vehicle multi-zone automatic Heating, Venting and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is the advanced form of the traditional air conditioning. The advantage of multi-zone automatic HVAC is that it allows the passengers of a vehicle to set a desired temperature for their own zone within the vehicle compartment. This desired temperature is then maintained by the HVAC system, which determines how best to control the available environment data to provide optimal comfort for the passengers. To achieve overall thermal comfort of the occupants in a vehicle, multi-zone HVAC takes things a step further by adding heated steering wheel and heated/vented seats to the overall HVAC control strategy. The heating and cooling of the occupants by this integrated system is performed by complex control algorithms in form of embedded software programs and Private LIN network. This paper describes the approach and tools used to develop, simulate and validate the multi-zone integrated climate control system.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Calibration of an Automotive Climate Control System

2020-04-14
2020-01-1253
This paper describes a novel approach for modeling an automotive HVAC unit. The model consists of black-box models trained with experimental data from a self-developed measurement setup. It is capable of predicting the temperature and mass flow of the air entering the vehicle cabin at the various air vents. A combination of temperature and velocity sensors is the basis of the measurement setup. A measurement fault analysis is conducted to validate the accuracy of the measurement system. As the data collection is done under fluctuating ambient conditions, a review of the impact of various ambient conditions on the HVAC unit is performed. Correction models that account for the different ambient conditions incorporate these results. Numerous types of black-box models are compared to identify the best-suited type for this approach. Moreover, the accuracy of the model is validated using test drive data.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Studies on the Effect of Solar Control Glazings on In-Cabin Thermal Environment in Hot and Humid Climatic Zones

2020-04-14
2020-01-1257
Thermal comfort in a passenger cabin is the basic necessity of an occupant, especially in hot and humid climatic conditions. It is known that the reflective glazing solutions provide better thermal comfort inside the cabin due to significant reflection of IR part of solar radiation. However, in hot and humid climatic zones like India, significant reduction in heat load can also be achieved through cost effective solar control absorbing glazings. Thus, the present work aims to study the effect of solar control absorbing glazings on in-cabin temperatures and its impact on thermal comfort of the occupants in tropical climates. A combination of glazing sets with a range of solar energy transmission and absorption values is considered for the study. Indoor soak and cool tests are performed on a sedan model with multiple sets of solar control absorbing glass combinations. A constant ambient temperature of 38°C and solar radiation of 1000W/m2 are maintained throughout the tests.
Technical Paper

Real-world Evaluation of National Energy Efficiency Potential of Cold Storage Evaporator Technology in the Context of Engine Start-Stop Systems

2020-04-14
2020-01-1252
National concerns over energy consumption and emissions from the transportation sector have prompted regulatory agencies to implement aggressive fuel economy targets for light-duty vehicles through the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration/Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program. Automotive manufacturers have responded by bringing competitive technologies to market that maximize efficiency while meeting or exceeding consumer performance and comfort expectations. In a collaborative effort among Toyota Motor Corporation, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the real-world savings of one such technology is evaluated. A commercially available Toyota Highlander equipped with two-phase cold storage technology was tested at ANL’s chassis dynamometer testing facility.
Technical Paper

Sound Evaluation of Flow-Induced Noise with Simultaneous Measurement of Flow Regimes at TXV Inlet of Automotive Evaporators

2020-04-14
2020-01-1255
In the air conditioning system, flow-induced noise is very disturbing, including the noise generated in the expansion device and the heat exchangers. In the past few decades, most researches related to flow-induced noise focused on the relationship between the flow regimes near the expansion device and the amplitude of flow-induced noise when the measurements are not synched. In this paper, an experimental approach is used to explore the simultaneous relationships between flow-induced noise characteristics and flow regimes at the inlet of TXV of evaporators used in automobiles. A pumped R134a loop with microphones and transparent visualization sections is used to simulate the vapor compression system. Also, the paper evaluates the severity of flow-induced noise from not only the amplitude of noise but also the frequency of noise with a parameter called psychoacoustic annoyance (PA).
Technical Paper

An Augmented around View Monitor System Fusing Depth and Image Information during the Reversing Process

2020-04-14
2020-01-0095
The around view monitor (AVM) system for vehicles usually suffers from the distortion of surrounding objects caused by incomplete rectification and stitching, which seriously affects the driver's judgment of the surrounding environment during the reversing process. In response to solve this problem, an augmented around view monitor (AAVM) system fusing image and depth information is proposed, which highlights the point clouds of persons or vehicles at the rear of the vehicle. First, an around view image is generated from four fisheye cameras. Then, the calibration of multi TOF cameras is conducted to improve their accuracy of depth estimation and obtain extrinsic camera positions. Next, the 2D-driven object point cloud detection method is proposed to localize and segment object point clouds like vehicles or persons.
Technical Paper

Understanding How Rain Affects Semantic Segmentation Algorithm Performance

2020-04-14
2020-01-0092
Research interests in autonomous driving have increased significantly in recent years. Several methods are being suggested for performance optimization of autonomous vehicles. However, weather conditions such as rain, snow, and fog may hinder the performance of autonomous algorithms. It is therefore of great importance to study how the performance/efficiency of the underlying scene understanding algorithms vary with such adverse scenarios. Semantic segmentation is one of the most widely used scene-understanding techniques applied to autonomous driving. In this work, we study the performance degradation of several semantic segmentation algorithms caused by rain for off-road driving scenes. Given the limited availability of datasets for real-world off-road driving scenarios that include rain, we utilize two types of synthetic datasets.
Technical Paper

Reference Test System for Machine Vision Used for ADAS Functions

2020-04-14
2020-01-0096
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) like Lane Departure Warning (LDW) and Lane Keep Assist (LKA) have been available for several years now but has experienced low customer acceptance and market penetration. These deficiencies can be traced to the inability of many of the perception systems to consistently recognize lane markings and localize the vehicle with respect to the lane markings in the real-world with poor markings, changing weather conditions and occlusions. Currently, there is no available standard or benchmark to evaluate the quality of either the lane markings or the perception algorithms. This work seeks to establish a reference test system that could be used by transportation agencies to evaluate the quality of their markings to support ADAS functions that rely on pavement markings. The test system can also be used by designers as a benchmark for their proprietary systems.
Technical Paper

Joint Calibration of Dual LiDARs and Camera Using a Circular Chessboard

2020-04-14
2020-01-0098
Environmental perception is a crucial subsystem in autonomous vehicles. In order to build safe and efficient traffic transportation, several researches have been proposed to build accurate, robust and real-time perception systems. Camera and LiDAR are widely equipped on autonomous self-driving cars and developed with many algorithms in recent years. The fusion system of camera and LiDAR provides state-of the-art methods for environmental perception due to the defects of single vehicular sensor. Extrinsic parameter calibration is able to align the coordinate systems of sensors and has been drawing enormous attention. However, differ from spatial alignment of two sensors’ data, joint calibration of multi-sensors (more than two sensors) should balance the degree of alignment between each two sensors.
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