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Journal Article

Effect of Contamination on Acoustic Performance of Microperforated Panels

2011-05-17
2011-01-1627
Microperforated panel (MPP) absorbers are rugged, non-combustible, and do not deteriorate over time. That being the case, they are especially suitable for long term use in harsh environments. However, the acoustic performance is modified when contaminated by dust, dirt, or fluids (i.e. oil, water). This paper examines that effect experimentally and correlates the absorption performance with Maa's theory for micro-perforated panels. Transfer impedance and absorption coefficient are measured for different levels of aluminum oxide and carbon dust accumulation. The amount of dust contamination is quantified by measuring the luminance difference between clean and dirty panels with a light meter. The porosity and hole diameter in Maa's equation are modified to account for dust obstruction. The effect of coating the MPP with oil, water, and other appropriate viscous fluids was also measured. This effect was simulated by modifying the viscous factor in Maa's equation.
Technical Paper

Progress on Active Exhaust Silencers for Gasoline Engines

2011-05-17
2011-01-1639
In the past years Eberspaecher has installed Active Exhaust Silencers on several passenger vehicles with different diesel and gasoline engines on a prototype level. Meanwhile, a substantial reduction of the exhaust noise is regularly achieved in a broad frequency range covering all relevant engine orders. Due to the higher acoustic excitation and higher exhaust temperatures in gasoline engines it is more difficult to implement the ANC-technology on those engines. However, results from roller test benches focus on the acoustic performance as well as weight and volume reductions and demonstrate a marked improvement which was achieved with gasoline engines too. Further progress was made in the development of the durability and industrialization of all relevant components of the system. Finally, current design trends and possible fields of application will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Production Integration of Active Noise Control Systems in Working Locomotives - Challenges and Benefits

2011-05-17
2011-01-1640
Active noise control (ANC) has been established as an effective way of addressing low frequency tonal noise in a weight-effective manner. The noise signature of a diesel locomotive cabin suggests that it is a good candidate for ANC. While often true, the production integration of ANC in a working locomotive has challenges extending well beyond laboratory demonstrations. This paper describes an ANC product developed as an aftermarket treatment for a particular model of fleet locomotive including locomotive passive treatment needs, control methods motivated by cabin acoustics, space and safety requirements, as well as logistical demands for testing and deployment.
Journal Article

Numerical Simulation of the Measurement of the Diffuse Field Absorption Coefficient in Small Reverberation Rooms

2011-05-17
2011-01-1641
The Diffuse Field Absorption Coefficient (DFAC) is a physical quantity very often used in the automotive industry to assess the performance of sound absorbing multilayers. From a theoretical standpoint, such quantity is defined under rather ideal conditions: the multilayer is assumed to be infinite in extent and the exciting acoustic field is assumed to be perfectly diffuse. From a practical standpoint, in the automotive industry the DFAC is generally measured on samples having a relatively small size (of the order of 1m2) and using relatively small cabins (in the order of 6-7 m₃). It is well known that both these factors (the finite size of the sample and the small volume of the cabin) can have an influence on the results of the measurements, generating deviations from the theoretical DFAC.
Journal Article

Design of a Self-Contained Acoustical Testing Facility

2011-05-17
2011-01-1642
This paper presents an overview of the acoustical design of a small volume self-contained acoustical testing facility (SCATF). The design focuses on a small volume (25 m₃) reverberation room for testing the random incidence sound absorption performance of small samples of acoustical materials and automotive parts. This reverberation room also couples to a small volume hemi-anechoic room and serves as the random incidence source room for sound transmission loss testing. These testing approaches respectively target the SAE J2883 (pending) and J1400 test standards.
Technical Paper

Density Optimization of Underhood Sound Absorber Applications

2011-05-17
2011-01-1634
Using advanced, multi-layer poro-elastic acoustical material modeling technologies, an example of acoustical performance optimization of an underhood sound absorber application is presented. In this case, a porous facing in combination with a fibrous sound absorber pad is optimized for maximum efficiency, which allows for dramatic reduction in pad density and weight. Overall sound absorption performance is shown to be equal or improved versus frequency relative to the incumbent design.
Journal Article

Active Control of Gear Mesh Dynamics

2011-05-17
2011-01-1635
Gears are essential parts of many precision power and torque transmitting machines. However, the radiated intensive tonal noise due to the gear meshing is highly undesirable and annoying. In very severe cases, the gear vibrations can reduce the life and performance of the power transmitting components. Typical gearbox vibration and sound spectra contain several dominant narrowband tonal signals that are mixed in with a lower level broadband response signals. Hence, the control of mesh response of gearbox housing belongs to the problem of the rejection or cancellation of periodical disturbance. The frequencies of these tonal signals are related to the number of teeth and rotation speed, and highly predictable. Thus, a feedforward control system was normally adopted. In most of existed applications, an accurate reference based on the frequency information of tachometer pulse train signal is required for this kind of control system.
Technical Paper

A Study on Active Hydraulic Engine Mount to Reduce Interior Car Noise and Vibration over Wide Frequency Band

2011-05-17
2011-01-1636
A lot of countermeasures have been developed in order to reduce interior noise. For example, improvements of rubber mount characteristics and other measures have been implemented. Recently electromagnetic active engine mounts based on a hydraulic engine mount have been developed. They are significantly effective for the reduction of the booming noise which is unpleasant for passengers. Although the LMS algorithm has been generally used for the active control, it has been used only for reducing booming noise. The authors developed a new control method in order to reduce not only the booming noise but also the noise and the vibration over wide frequency band for comfortable vehicle interior space. The authors studied the method which determines the feedback gain according to various conditions by modifying LMS algorithm. In this modified LMS algorithm, only an error signal was used as an input signal.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Noise Reduction in Passenger Trains Using Metal Foams

2011-05-17
2011-01-1637
One of important problems in railway transportation systems is control of noise and vibration. Metal foams are very good medias for absorbing noise. So in this paper, noise of motion of a train is simulated by MATLAB software and the reduction of noise level in a compartment of passenger car that is equipped by metal foam sheets is considered. Commonly, the sound absorption coefficients are obtained experimentally and they are available in datasheets and references. The different parameters that influence on the capability of this equipment were considered. For example the microstructure, thickness, magnitude of compaction, relative density and etc of metal foam is effective parameters. High porosity has good effect on the performance of absorber sheet. By increasing of compaction ratio, in frequency domain we will have enhancing of absorption of the noise. Compaction process is done by two different ways: one is direct and else is progressively.
Technical Paper

Vehicle NVH Prediction Technique for Engine Downsizing

2011-05-17
2011-01-1565
As fuel prices continue to be unstable the drive towards more fuel efficient powertrains is increasing. For engine original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) this means engine downsizing coupled with alternative forms of power to create hybrid systems. Understanding the effect of engine downsizing on vehicle interior NVH is critical in the development of such systems. The objective of this work was to develop a vehicle model that could be used with analytical engine mount force data to predict the vehicle interior noise and vibration response. The approach used was based on the assumption that the largest contributor to interior noise and vibration below 200 Hz is dominated by engine mount forces. An experimental transfer path analysis on a Dodge Ram 2500 equipped with a Cummins ISB 6.7L engine was used to create the vehicle model. The vehicle model consisted of the engine mount forces and vehicle paths that define the interior noise and vibration.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Sound Attenuation Properties in Highly Complex Exhausts System Using the 2-Port Technique

2011-05-17
2011-01-1564
Simulation using basic acoustic 2-port elements is a time effective method for prediction of the attenuation of single components as well as of complete exhaust aftertreatment and silencer systems. However, with the complexity of current systems, the transformation from design geometries to networks of basic elements is not straightforward. In this paper a practical example of the modelling of a modern exhaust aftertreatment system is presented. A silencer aimed at the Euro 6 heavy duty emissions legislation containing complex flow turnings, parallel branches, DOC (Diesel Oxidation Catalyst), DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) and SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) catalysts was modelled. Evaluation against measurements in order to understand the influence of the different acoustic elements upon overall attenuation and to improve the model with respect to near field and higher order mode effects was done.
Technical Paper

Idle Sound Quality Development for Diesel V6 Engine

2011-05-17
2011-01-1563
A comprehensive investigation was carried out in order to develop the idle sound quality for diesel V6 engine when the engine development process is applied to power-train system, which included new 8-speed automatic transmission for breaking down the noise contribution between the mechanical excitation and the combustion excitation. First of all, the improvement of dynamic characteristic can be achieved during the early stages of the engine development process using experimental modal analysis (EMA) & the robust design of each engine functional system. In addition, the engine structural attenuation (SA) is enhanced such that the radiated combustion noise of the engine can be maintained at a target level even with an increased combustion excitation. It was found that the engine system has better parts and worse parts in frequency range throughout the SA analysis. It is important that weak points in the system should be optimized.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Acoustic Performance of After Treatment Devices

2011-05-17
2011-01-1562
Diesel engines produce harmful exhaust emissions and high exhaust noise levels. One way of mitigating both exhaust emissions and noise is via the use of after treatment devices such as Catalytic Converters (CC), Selective Catalytic Reducers (SCR), Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC), and Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). The objective of this investigation is to characterize and simulate the acoustic performance of different types of filters so that maximum benefit can be achieved. A number of after treatment device configurations for trucks were selected and measured. A measurement campaign was conducted to characterize the two-port transfer matrix of these devices. The simulation was performed using the two-port theory where the two-port models are limited to the plane wave range in the filter cavity.
Technical Paper

Transfer Function Analysis of Rear Multi-Link Suspension to Improve Ride Vibration and Road Noise

2011-05-17
2011-01-1571
The expectation of customers on ride comfort is very high and vehicle engineers also have keen interesting to improve ride vibration and road noise. As the conventional tuning parameters for the ride vibration and road noise, vibration characteristics of tire, body structure, bushing, suspension members etc. are mainly considered. But these conventional tuning parameters are sometimes not enough due to the side effects such like handling performances and durability. Therefore, instead of these conventional design and tuning parameters, suspension geometry and alignment characteristics of suspension system are selected as the alternative parameters to compromise ride vibration, road noise and vehicle dynamic performance. In this research, multi-link type rear suspension is selected for the integrated analysis of ride vibration, road impact noise and handling performance.
Technical Paper

Dispersion of Test-Based NVH Characteristics at Various Trim Levels

2011-05-17
2011-01-1569
A broad measurement campaign was run at Volvo aiming at the evaluation of dispersion in test-based NVH characteristics of a car body and at the derivation of reference data for judging the accuracy of CAE predictions. Within this work 6, nominally identical, vehicles were tested. Tests included operational noise on Complete Vehicle (CV) level (road noise, engine noise and idling noise), NTF, VTF & Acoustic FRF measurements in CV, Trimmed Body (TB) & TB-Stripped (TBS) configurations. Additionally, modal analysis and NTF, VTF, AFRF tests were carried out on 4 BIPs of the same vehicle type. Further, limited tests were carried out on 28 vehicles of the same type. The aim of the work was to study the development of dispersion with increasing complexity of the test object, from the BIP to TB and CV.
Journal Article

Pulley Optimization for Improved Steering Pump Airborne Noise Performance

2011-05-17
2011-01-1568
This paper discusses the optimization of an automotive hydraulic steering pump pulley design for improved in-vehicle pump NVH performance. Levels of steering pump whine noise heard inside a vehicle were deemed objectionable. Vehicle and component transfer path analyses indicated that the dominant noise path for the whine noise was airborne in nature. Subsequent experimental modal analysis indicated that the steering pump pulley was a major contributor to the amount of radiated noise produced by the pump/pulley system. CAE analysis was used to further analyze the dynamic behavior of the pulley and develop an optimized design with decreased noise radiation efficiency. The results predicted with the CAE analysis were verified in-vehicle, resulting in a vehicle with acceptable steering pump whine noise performance.
Technical Paper

Noise Benchmarking of the Detroit Diesel DD15 Engine

2011-05-17
2011-01-1566
Several new or significantly upgraded heavy duty truck engines are being introduced in the North American market. One important aspect of these new or revised engines is their noise characteristics. This paper describes the noise related characteristics of the new DD15 engine, and compares them to other competitive heavy truck engines. DD15 engine features relevant to noise include a rear gear train, isolated oil pan and valve cover, and an amplified high pressure common rail fuel system. The transition between non-amplified and amplified common rail operation is shown to have a significant noise impact, not unlike the transition between pilot injection and single shot injection in some other engines.
Technical Paper

Friction Force Measurement at Brake Discs

2011-05-17
2011-01-1576
Experimental researches on brake squeal have been performed since many years in order to get an insight into friction-excited vibrations and squeal triggering mechanisms. There are many different possibilities to analyse brake squeal. The different operating deflection shapes can be detected using e.g. laser vibrometer systems or acceleration sensors. Piezoelectric load cells can be used for the measurement of the normal contact force of the brake pad. The presented test setup measures not only the mean value of the friction force between brake pad and disc at a certain brake pressure, but also the superposed vibration of this force, which only occurs during a squeal event. Therefore the guide pins of the brake caliper are replaced by modified ones. The brake pads are held in position by these pins and the resulting force of the brake torque, hence the friction force, acts on these pins. The shape of the pins is optimized for measuring these forces.
Journal Article

Hot Judder - An Investigation of the Thermo-Elastic and Thermo-Plastic Effects during Braking

2011-05-17
2011-01-1575
Thermo-elastic and thermo-plastic behaviour takes place with a disc brake during heavy braking and it is this aspect of braking that this paper considers. The work is concerned with working towards developing design advice that provides uniform heating of the disc, and equally important, even dissipation of heat from the disc blade. The material presented emanates from a combination of modeling, on-vehicle testing but mainly laboratory observations and subsequent investigations. The experimental work makes use of a purpose built high speed brake dynamometer which incorporates the full vehicle suspension for controlled simulation of the brake and vehicle operating conditions. Advanced instrumentation allows dynamic measurement of brake pressure fluctuations, disc surface temperature and discrete vibration measurements.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Global Brake Insulator Damping Measurement Procedure

2011-05-17
2011-01-1574
The development and validation of a brake pad insulator damping measurement procedure by the SAE Brake NVH Standards Committee was presented at the 2010 SAE Brake Colloquium (Paper 2010-01-1685). In Europe, in 2010, the EKB Working Group identified the need to develop a similar procedure, and started some activities which lead to the release of a standard similar but different than the SAE J3001. The SAE and EKB working groups agreed that having a global standard was of paramount importance, so the 2 groups decided to meet in November of 2010 to flush out the details of the J3001 global procedure. The details of the new test procedure, test setup and recommendation for proper test practices are described in this paper. This description provides an excellent foundation for evaluating the insulator damping properties over a range of temperatures and frequencies.
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