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Technical Paper

Performance Demonstration of a Precious Metal Lean NOx Catalysts in Native Diesel Exhaust

1995-02-01
950751
The pathbreaking papers by Held and Iwamoto has led to a reinvigorated search for lean NOx catalysts worldwide. Extensive effort is currently being expended to develop precious metal lean NOx catalysts, with application intended for diesel engines and low-temperature lean-burn gasoline engines. Here we concentrate on the properties of such a catalyst, referred to as LNX3. The NOx reduction selectivity of LNX3 is examined with model reducing agents. Hydrocarbons are more effective at reducing NOx than CO or H2. Next it is shown that excessively high HC/NOx ratios can degrade the performance of noble metal lean NOx catalysts. This is because the exotherm from the hydrocarbon oxidation can increase the temperature in a significant portion of the catalyst bed beyond the effective temperature window wherein the catalyst is able to reduce NOx.
Technical Paper

Alternative Delivery Systems: Does the Medium Fit the Message?

1995-02-01
950754
There is an urgent need to provide effective, efficient training to develop a pool of automotive service technicians who can accurately diagnose and quickly repair today's (and tomorrow's) vehicles. This paper examines alternative instructional media systems that are available to enhance information delivery, and promote more effective hands-on training of technicians.
Technical Paper

Technical Training: Putting the Student at the Center of the Process

1995-02-01
950752
The automotive industry today is faced with the challenge of adapting training programs that can effectively prepare technicians to handle the spiraling complexity and volume of technology. Recently, AC-Delco surveyed 25 instructors for their attitudes on automotive training practices. This paper examines the survey results with respect to changes industry must implement in order to provide training that will prepare technicians to effectively meet the challenges of the new technology.
Technical Paper

Performance-Based Technical Training Information Management: A Mainframe Database System

1995-02-01
950755
Increasingly, performance-based technical training is a key ingredient to higher customer satisfaction. In today's fast-paced service environment, accurate and timely training records have become an important tool for managers in the development of technician training plans. To support this need, the data must be “live” (on-line) and available on demand to district service managers, technical trainers and others as close as the next desk or across the country. Mitsubishi Motor Sales of America developed such a system that provides on-line course scheduling, class enrollment, and a national technician database. The most significant long term benefit of this system is the linking of dealership technicians to individual warranty claims and customer surveys. Analysis of this data will obviously go a long way in identifying potential performance deficiencies and improving customer satisfaction.
Technical Paper

Training for Emissions I&M: Some Performance Objectives

1995-02-01
950753
To meet new emission standards, new diagnostic procedures require fixing the root cause instead of fixing the symptom. Technicians must understand how powerplant processes create emissions, and how vehicle systems affect emission control. Some Emissions Inspection and Maintenance (I&M) programs involve tailpipe measurements under load using a dynamometer, and EVAP testing. But where I/M was previously considered as a quasi-national standard (IM240), I/M is likely to vary among the states, and indeed within states. Effective technician training concentrates on need-to-know, considering two factors: 1) Baseline skills and knowledge define entry-level pre-training competencies; 2) Performance-based training is expressed in objectives--as a result of the training, what can the technician do?
Technical Paper

ABS5.3: The New and Compact ABS5 Unit for Passenger Cars

1995-02-01
950757
The transition from the multi-component ABS2 design to the one housing concept of ABS5.0 represented a significant step in improving the ABS unit. ABS5.3 is the successor of ABS5.0 to achieve a highly compact, light weight inexpensive design, for the broad use of ABS in all passenger cars and light trucks. New technologies applied are the staking technique for hydraulic components, the use of microhybrid electronics design and solenoid coils being integrated within the attached electronic control unit. The unit can be manufactured in global alliance achieved by simultaneous engineering, applying CAD, FE-analysis, flow calculation and simulation, noise analysis and quality assurance which includes FMEA, error simulation, durability tests and the dry testing concept. The ABS5.3 design can be easily expanded to Traction Control (ASR).
Technical Paper

Guidelines for the Development of Performance Based Technician Training Programs

1995-02-01
950756
Realizing a profit in today's market demands that the automotive industry closely examine each expenditure against its potential return. Because the industry's service segment is key to the success of the overall business, it too must be treated as an investment. Quality service can only be rendered by a qualified workforce. It follows that training must be factored into the cost of doing business. Effective training does not occur randomly. It is methodical, focused and goal oriented; it identifies a need and develops the appropriate solution. This paper presents an overview of the training process and offers guidelines for developing programs to satisfy recognized needs and realize measurable results.
Technical Paper

VDC, The Vehicle Dynamics Control System of Bosch

1995-02-01
950759
VDC is a new active safety system for road vehicles which controls the dynamic vehicle motion in emergency situations. From the steering angle, the accelerator pedal position and the brake pressure the desired motion is derived while the actual vehicle motion is derived from the yaw rate and the lateral acceleration. The system regulates the engine torque and the wheel brake pressures using traction control components to minimize the difference between the actual and the desired motion. Included is also a safety concept which supervises the proper operation of the components and the software.
Technical Paper

“ROADRUNNER”-Real-time simulation in anti-lock brake system development

1995-02-01
950758
The simulation system “Roadrunner” has the ability to compute 3-dimensional vehicle behavior during simulated ABS-stops or Traction Control (TC) operation on a PC based test rig system. This can be done in real-time mode with fast DSP (digital signal processor) boards and an ABS/TC-ECU as a ‘Hardware-in-the-loop’ device (HIL) or off-line (non-real-time), on the PC only. In the off-line-mode, the PC additionally performs the ABS/TC control algorithms. The simulated system includes model equations for chassis and wheel movement, hydraulics and road to tire interactions. A driver model enables the reproduction of standard steering maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Effective Active Safety to Reduce Road Accidents

1995-02-01
950761
Abstract The statistics of road accidents over the last two decades show that the number of accidents increases persistantly in approximate proportion to traffic density despite the improvements in vehicle design and road systems. Some 85 % of these accidents are the result of driver fault. Despite this, the number of fatalities and the severity of injuries tend to diminish, this is evidence of the effectiveness of passive safety developments in the design of vehicles. The parallel development of active safety technology has been less successfull, in part due to the risk compensation factor. This paper explains that there are also unchangeable biological reasons for the high incidence of driver fault as a cause of accidents, and why drivers need technical assistance to overcome their shortcomings. The paper outlines a programme of active safety technology development which is targetted to meet the drivers' requirements to achieve higher competence levels in critical situations.
Technical Paper

Smart Booster-New Key Element for Brake Systems with Enhanced Function Potential

1995-02-01
950760
The Smart Booster is a new vacuum booster, which allows - in addition to the today's standard function remote controlled active braking without or in superposition to the driver. This active braking is proportionally controllable and extremly silent under operation. This new functionality allows a redefination of todays brake system layout by combining the Smart Booster with a standard ABS hydraulic control unit to create a new system configuration which is unique in hardware, independent of the amount of function potential requested. This solution is inexpensive and is able to cope with the brake requirements of today and those which results from new emerging systems like: traction control full range stability regulation deceleration control intelligent cruise control hill holder all other control systems which require remote brake intervention.
Technical Paper

Alloy 6013: An Improved Alloy for ABS Piston and Valve Block Applications

1995-02-01
950763
Alloy 6013 has been developed as a better alternative to 6262 and 6061 alloys commonly used in ABS pistons and valve blocks. The combination of magnesium, silicon and copper additions result in a harder matrix which results in better machinability and higher mechanical properties. This product is available in screw machine stock form, along with selected cold-finished squares and rectangles. It is also available in impact stock. This alloys offers better machinability as compared to 6061 and similar machinability to 6262. Superior strength, fatigue, and creep resistance is seen as compared to both alloys. Information is given on structure, development of the alloy, and current applications. Also, a summary of properties listed above is presented.
Technical Paper

Rotary Shaft Seal Friction, The Influence of Design, Material, Oil and Shaft Surface

1995-02-01
950764
This report describes the program in which the friction of more than 60 rotary lip seals was measured over a wide range of conditions. In addition to the speed and temperature, the effects of seal material, lip design, shaft diameter, oil, and shaft surface structure have been assessed. Of these, the type of shaft finish, the design of the sealing lip edge, and the type of oil appear to have the greatest influence.
Technical Paper

A Process for Successful Design of Bonded Transmission Clutch Pistons

1995-02-01
950766
To successfully design bonded transmission clutch pistons, it is necessary to understand the parameters that can cause the piston to fail. The failure modes are interference loss due to wear, swell or material set, pressure blowout, metal deflection, metal fatigue and frictional force. The design process described in this paper optimizes the piston against these failure modes ensuring a robust design that will exceed the customers' expectations.
Technical Paper

A Probabilistic Gasket Design Method

1995-02-01
950765
Gaskets are used to provide sealing in bolted joints that function under a wide range of assembly and loading conditions. Tolerance distributions of the gasket and flange components as well as assembly load variation will cause the gasket sealing stress to vary. In some cases, this variation is significant. In these cases, gasket designs based on nominal dimensions and loads may not function properly unless one or more engine test and design modification cycles are carried out. A probabilistic technique has been developed to evaluate gasket designs under a range of assembly conditions. The output is a prediction of the statistical distribution of key dimensions such as compressed thickness or parameters such as percent compression. Analysis of these distributions can be used to determine the number of occurrences where a gasket design would be expected to function improperly.
Technical Paper

Anisotropy Effects in the Forming of Aluminum Sheet

1995-02-01
950702
In an effort to reduce anisotropy, which affects sheet forming performance, special actions were taken in the production of 6009-T4 sheet. To further reduce anisotropy in forming behavior, the modified 6009-T4 sheet was given an electro-discharge texture (EDT) surface topography to make friction behavior nondirectional. The modified 6009-T4 was compared to standard 6009-T4 in terms of metallurgical characteristics, laboratory test results and field forming results. The modified sheet yielded reduced planar anisotropy and improved formability. EDT completely removed directionality in friction behavior and led to an improvement in performance in the forming trials.
Technical Paper

An Adaptable, Multitest, Multichannel Fatigue Test System

1995-02-01
950703
Abstract A highly adaptable fatigue testing computer system is presented for controlling single or multichannel test machines. The system imposes most common varieties of waveforms and also provides time synchronization between channels, such as in the case of variable amplitude biaxial load histories, and monitors various feedback signals for both data acquisition and alarm purposes. The program operates in a real-time Unix system as a separate stand-alone process. Communication with other users or the operator is done only through a reserved common block of shared memory. This feature allows control and monitoring of all tests over the computer network. A user can simply login remotely and check the test or start a data acquisition task from any workstation in the company, and then take the data files and analyze them on other computers. This paper describes the operation of the software, the methodology behind the hardware selection and the software structure.
Technical Paper

Verification of Crystallographic Texture Based FLD Predictions for Aluminum Sheet

1995-02-01
950701
Determination of forming limit diagrams (FLDs) by experimental methods requires a significant amount of time and expertise in interpretation of data. Their construction can be especially difficult for aluminum alloys due to slightly negative or near zero strain rate sensitivity characteristics which create sharp strain gradients. For this reason a mathematical model which incorporates microstructural attributes, namely crystallographic texture, with a description of strain hardening behavior was developed by Barlat1 to predict the forming limit strains for a given material. Using Barlat, forming limit diagrams were predicted for various automotive body sheet alloys and verified against experimental data. Excellent correlation was found between the experimental and predicted diagrams. Prediction of limit strains requires approximately one-tenth of the time required for experimental diagrams and eliminates variations associated with experimental determination techniques.
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