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Technical Paper

High Volume Production of Magnesium Alloy Castings

1986-02-01
860287
Magnesium has the strength of Aluminum yet weighs one third less which makes it an obvious candidate for use by automotive engineers concerned with weight reduction. Magnesium die castings are currently being used throughout the automobile industry, however items which are impractical to produce as die castings are not being considered or developed as magnesium parts. The technology is now available to produce magnesium castings by sand, permanent mold, or foam casting techniques in the quantities required by automotive markets.
Technical Paper

High Purity Magnesium AM60 Alloy: The Critical Contaminant Limits and the Salt Water Corrosion Performance

1986-02-01
860288
Standard salt spray corrosion tests have been used with controlled purity AM60 castings to define the critical iron, nickel, and copper contaminant levels below which excellent corrosion performance can be obtained. As previously observed with the AZ91 alloy, the iron solubility and the corrosion tolerance limit for iron are dependent upon the manganese content of the metal. The zinc free AM60 alloy has a somewhat lower tolerance for all three of the critical contaminants when compared to AZ91, but when the three contaminants are below their individual tolerance limits, the salt spray performance is again equal to or better than die cast 380 aluminum and cold rolled steel.
Technical Paper

Friction and Wear of Some Ceramics in an Overhead Finger Follower System

1986-02-01
860398
A Laboratory bench rig based upon a Ford overhead finger follower system has been designed, constructed and extensively used for metals lubrication studies. In this work ceramics have been substituted for cast iron and steel follower materials and direct comparisons have been made under conditions where the metals perform rather poorly. All these tests have been carried out with a base oil at 100(o)C for a period of 20 hours. For silicon carbide and sialon a considerable reduction in friction has been obtained and this [ILLEGIBLE] resulted in considerably less wear of the follower surfaces. Wear of the cam nose is also considerably reduced. It has been concluded that some ceramics perform very well and in conjunction with their low density, should find wide applications as inserts in the conventionally lubricated internal combustion engine.
Technical Paper

The Connector: Part of the Intricate Automotive Electronic Systems of Today

1986-02-01
860396
It is obvious that the demands on today's automobiles have placed a heavy emphasis on the use of electronics to solve the many problems associated with fuel consumption as well as luxury items such as the digital instrument cluster. To cope with the interfacing of these electronic modules, the old faithful two- and four- contact connectors filled with silicone proved to be one of the weakest links to the reliabilty of the system. Overcoming this problem led to the development of a connector interface employing the temperature and sealing aspects of high reliabilty with the technology of high speed molding and stamping used for the computer industry. How ITT Cannon solved this challenge and applied the results, is the basis for this paper. It deals with the connector design as it relates to automotive applications, from installing the plug to the printed circuit board, to the installation of the wires into the receptacle.
Technical Paper

Development of Small Connectors for Automotive Wiring Harness

1986-02-01
860395
In recent years, the rapid trend of automobiles utilizing electronics demands the remarkable increase in the number of connectors employed in automotive wiring harness. According to its increase, the requirements for connectors, such as reliability and compactness, have been much severe. In order to meet the requirements, we have developed connectors for use of automobiles to improve small connectors. The improved connectors include terminals comprised of spring with a high contact reliability, and enable us to easily fit in automobiles during the assembly process.
Technical Paper

Wide-Range Air-Fuel Ratio Sensor, 1986

1986-02-01
860409
The oxygen ion conductive solid electrolyte cell served as a device for measuring the combustibles content and the oxygen content of an exhaust gas. The cell is comprised of a tubular electrolyte, two opposed electrodes and a porous diffusion layer located on the outer electrode surface. The sensor is employed to measure both rich and lean air fuel ratio through the use of an electronic circuit pumping the oxygen ions to achieve a constant voltage between the electrodes. The wide range detecting capability makes it particularly attractive for air fuel ratio control applications associated with the internal combustion engine. The result of the performance tests are as follows, Detecting range (air excess ratio λ) : 0.8 - “∞ Step response time constant (63%) : 200ms Warm up time. - less than 80 sec at 20°C We found in the durability test concerned with the heat cycle and contamination that if initial aging treatment is applied the output variation ratio (. λ/λ) is limited with in : 5%.
Technical Paper

Recent Sensor Technology in Japan

1986-02-01
860410
Semiconductor technology has played a major role in the development of automotive electronics. And sensors are also becoming increasingly important in the search for optimal automotive electronics systems. This paper describes about the requirements for sensors from the standpoint of the ECU (Electronic Control Unit) and system design. Discussions are focussed on recent developments in Japan regarding the measurement of intake air, air/fuel ratio, speed and distance and on the future of sensors.
Technical Paper

Air-Fuel Ratio Sensor for Rich, Stoichiometric and Lean Ranges

1986-02-01
860408
This paper describes the sensing principle of a new air-fuel ratio sensor, which has the ability to detect air-fuel ratios in rich, stoichiometric and lean ranges. The sensing part is composed of a gas diffusion layer and a zirconia solid electrolyte with a pair of electrodes which function as an anode and a cathode. The anode and the cathode electrodes are exposed to the atmosphere and the exhaust gas, respectively. To obtain the bidirectional pumping current between the two electrodes, the potential of the cathode is held to a constant value higher than the electronic circuit ground. The electromotive force induced between the two electrodes is forcibly controlled to a constant value by the electronic circuit. In this composition, three ranges of air-fuel ratio can be detected by the amount of pumping current.
Technical Paper

Flow Simulation for Optimum Design of Air Flow Meters

1986-02-01
860407
This paper presents a new method of numerical analysis of 2-dimensionnl incompressible flow which is useful for a stage of product design, developed on the basis of both FEM and FDM, and also a new model of vorticity shedding has been developed. A computer simulation program was employed to confirm the following features of the present method. 1) The flexibility of any object shape by FEM. 2) The stability of the calculation by the modified FLIC* method (FDM). 3) The approximation of the flow separation on the boundary by the vorticity generating model. After applying the program to the design of the two types of air flow meters; i.e., the vane and Karman types, it has been found that the program is practically useful to obtain the optimum design of air flow meters.
Technical Paper

Mass Airflow Sensor: Ambient Temperature Compensation Design Considerations

1986-02-01
860406
The direct measurement of the mass of airflow has gained some degree of utilization in the engine control community, but the sensors used to measure this parameter have continued to be scrutinized for their temperature characteristics. The temperature characteristic is one of the most difficult parameters in the design of the airflow sensor to measure and control. This paper addresses some of the design considerations that affect the temperature characteristic in a hot film mass airflow sensor such as various heat transfer mechanisms and electrical power dissipation effects.
Technical Paper

GYLON Friction Material for Transmission Synchronizers

1986-02-01
860382
The object of this paper is to present inertia dynamometer performance data of transmission synchronizers. Comparison of the data obtained from Colt Automotive Products material, GYLON, with other synchronizer materials such as Bronze and Molybdenum will be made. Data and discussions of synchronizer performance will be presented which shows how synchronizer torque is affected by various design parameters such as thread patterns, cone angle, axial slots, cone surface finish, and lubricant selection.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Between Engine Oil Rheology and Oil Film Thickness in Engine Journal Bearings

1986-02-01
860376
Oil film thickness measurements made in the front main bearing of an operating 3.8 L, V-6 engine were compared with rheological measurements made on a series of commercial and experimental oil blends. High-temperature, high-shear-rate viscosity measurements correlated with the film thicknesses of all single-grade and many multigrade oils. However, the film thicknesses provided by some multigrade oils were larger than could be accounted for by their high-temperature, high-shear-rate viscosities alone. Although the pressure-viscosity coefficients of some of the oils were significantly different from those of the majority of oils tested, they were not oils which produced unusual film thicknesses. As a consequence, correcting oil viscosities for the estimated pressures acting within the bearing was unsuccessful in improving the correlations. The correlations were improved, however, by accounting for the elastic properties of the multigrade oils.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Additive Effects on Cam and Tappet Wear in Medium Speed Diesel Engines

1986-02-01
860377
For over thirty years zinc dithiophosphate (ZDP) has been used successfully as an oxidation inhibitor and anti-scuff/ anti-wear additive in automotive lubricants primarily to protect cams and tappets in gasoline engines. However a number of researchers have recently reported accelerated wear of cams and tappets in automotive diesels, attributed to diesel soot disabling the ZDP in some manner. This raises questions as to the need for ZDP in large bore medium speed diesel engines. To answer this question an extensive review of the literature was conducted.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Life of Friction Material and Shift Quality of an Automatic Transmission

1986-02-01
860385
Shift characteristics, which were available from an engine dynamometer used for a new automatic transmission development, are the input to develop a method of predicting shift quality and the life of friction material of the transmission. The discriminant analysis was used for the prediction of shift quality and Miner's Law for the prediction of the friction material life. The prediction method proved effective to orienting the work to establish shift characteristics specifications in the product development stage. it allowed to considerably shorten the time required for establishing these specifications.
Technical Paper

Chrysler Collision Detection (C2D)-A Revolutionary Vehicle Network

1986-02-01
860389
The automotive component manufacturers of electronic equipment have been touting the virtues of vehicle multiplexing for years. Some articles are illustrated with dramatic pictures of the amount of wire that can be saved by multiplexing. However, the domestic vehicle manufacturers have not endorsed these concepts. Why not? A comprehensive study of the vehicle multiplexing situation has now been completed and this paper addresses the real cost savings and reliability impact of wire multiplexing. Fusing aspects and vehicle wiring changes are also addressed. A revolutionary Vehicle Data Communication Network, and the required interface to make it a reality, are also described in this paper. There is a dedicated SAE activity to establish an industry standard for a vehicle multiplex network. This work has the energetic support of the whole automobile industry and is particularly viewed as a necessity for diagnostic purposes.
Technical Paper

Microcomputer Based Serial Multiples Wiper Control System

1986-02-01
860393
The introduction of microcomputer controlled Serial Multiplex Systems, multifunction “Smart switches”, and “Smart Power MOSFETs” provide the opportunity to enhance the wiper control system on passenger cars. As part of a Multiplex System, the Smart Wiper Control System lends itself to ergonomic styling in addition to offering the following innovations: 1. Variable wiper motor speed 2. Vehicle operator defined intermittent wipe interval 3. Fault tolerant controls 4. Self test and system diagnostics This paper describes software and hardware considerations in the implementation of a Smart Wiper Control System - a system that provides a direct feedback to the operator, improves mechanical reliability, and provides diagnostic capability.
Technical Paper

Application of Computer Graphics to Drive Train Engineering at Toyota Motor

1986-02-01
860388
A computer aided design system has been developed to greatly improve productivity in drive train engineering. The purpose of this system is to computerize the design and drafting process which occupies so many man-hours in drive train engineering activities. Investigation of the drive train design and drafting process has clarified the requirements of the computer aided system. As a result, a turn-key system has been selected because the system almost satisfies the requirements. In order to make this system more effective, numerous application programs for the drive train design have been developed and the drawing data have been accumulated intentionally as the database of this system. This paper describes some application programs, in particular, details of two programs which have shown themselves to be an effective means for design. One is a torque converter design system and the other is a tolerance stack up program.
Technical Paper

In-Vehicle Networking - Serial Communication Requirements and Directions

1986-02-01
860390
In recent years the functionality of automotive systems has been improved by the introduction of real time Electronic Control Units (ECUs) for engine management, anti-lock braking, and other applications. For customer comfort and convenience, body electronics options have also increased, including electronic windows, seat control, and others. Optimization of performance requires integrating the vehicle of the 90s as a system rather than a grouping of individual modules. As a result, inter - communication between real time ECUs as well as between body electronics modules is required. By linking vehicle electronics into a network or combination of networks, a cost-effective solution which guarantees required performance and maximum flexibility may be obtained.
Technical Paper

Using Motors in Automotive Multiplex Systems

1986-02-01
860394
Motors are the end of the line in multiplex systems. They are; however, the only part of the system that performs any real work. The multiplex system must relay information from the user to the motor and the motor must act on this information in an appropriate manner. This paper analyzes the motor/multiplex system interface and presents a solution to this problem. By integrating the diagnostic, communication, and power electronics within the motor (i.e. a smart motor), interface problems associated with output control are minimized. This allows total control over the motor directly from a body computer, demultiplexing node, or other device capable of producing the appropriate digital signals. By providing diagnostic information concerning the operational state of both the motor and the control electronics, the smart motor allows more, intelligent control of these subsystems.
Technical Paper

Automotive Serial Controller Area Network

1986-02-01
860391
A high speed serial communication link has been developed for interconnecting electronic control units within automobiles. The incorporation of object oriented communication in conjunction with acceptance filtering introduces a new level of message handling efficiency and flexibility. Powerful error handling techniques guarantee safe operation in noisy automotive environments.
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