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Technical Paper

Bayflex 150-A New Generation of Flowable Polyurea Formulations

1986-03-01
860282
The successful application of reaction injection molded vertical body panels for the Pontiac Fiero will encourage future applications of synthetic body panels. The desire for further advances in part quality and productivity requires additional improvements in body panel material technology. One technology which has shown the potential for an improved property profile is polyurea RIM. However, previous conventional polyurea formulations have been limited in flow time, processing conditions, and shrinkage control. This paper summarizes the development of Bayflex 150, a flowable polyurea RIM formulation. It provides all the property advantages of previous polyureas, but overcomes their processing limitations. Its combination of physical properties and processing characteristics should make it the best candidate for future body panel applications.
Technical Paper

Structural Analysis-Possibilities of Composite Materials (GRP-PUR-GRP) in Body Design

1986-03-01
860283
The mechanical behavior of plastic construction, due to visco-elasticity, depends mainly on parameters such as loading in the regions of different degrees of non-linearity, duration of loading causing creep and relaxation, history of loading with hereditary effect, atmospheric temperature changing material properties etc. The plastic construction can be considered for the design of structural parts of the automobile only if the negative creep effect can be minimized with proper construction form. At the same time it must also possess high static and fatigue strength with low brittleness to withstand forces at crash situation, long time dynamic loading, and must allow large scale production at a cost level comparable to steel.
Technical Paper

Computer-Aided Moid Cooling Design Improves Part Quality and Overall Productivity

1986-03-01
860284
Uniform cooling of plastic part is essential for excellent quality and efficient cycle times. Computer-Aided Engineering and MOLD-COOL− Reg.TM System provides the mold designer and plastics processor with the necessary tools to attain the quality and cycle demanded by today's market. This 30-minute presentation covers the application of CAE to mold design and plastics production. Highlighted is the application of cooling analysis to injection molding. The levels of analysis which are covered include working with alpha-numerics, 3-D modeling on a personal computer and complete mold design and analysis on CAD/CAM. Illustrations of actual modeling procedures and program output are included, as well as a case example is reviewed.
Technical Paper

Ceramic Rocker Arm Insert for Internal Combustion Engines

1986-03-01
860397
The adoption of the diesel engine EGR systems, and increased uses of alcohol in spark ignited engines require wear resistant and low maintenance valve trains. Silicon nitride ceramic inserts were pressureless-sintered and successfully die-cast in rocker arms contacting the overhead cams in the valve trains. As fired, the insert sliding surface was fine and precise, eliminating any further processing. The comosite structure was machined with the sliding surface as a reference plane. Beside inherent high wear resistance, these lighter inserts reduced inertial forces of the trains and the torque required to drive the cams. The hard, brittle ceramics and a softer, more elastic aluminum alloy made the structure more durable and reliable. The process of development includes characterization, screening, manufacturing and quality control of the materials, and determination of wear resistance and reliability for this new structure.
Technical Paper

Novel Memory Devices Populate Latest Military Diagnostic Test Equipment

1986-03-01
860404
Since 1978 the U. S. Army has been using computerized portable diagnostic test equipment to support the maintenance of its military vehicle fleet. During this time, the addition of new and improved vehicles at a rapid rate has also impacted heavily on the test program memory storage/revision level in the same test equipment. The incorporation of EEPROM and Bubble memory into the test equipment will help reduce or eliminate the problem of keeping their test programs correct and current.
Technical Paper

Multiple Fault Diagnosis with Portable ATE Utilizing a Knowledge-Based System Architecture

1986-03-01
860402
This paper discusses software techniques that enhance the ability of small portable ATE to effectively detect, prioritize, and isolate the location of multiple failures within complex electromechanical systems. The software is being implemented on RCA's STE-M1/FVS, a portable, microprocessor-based test set which supports the M1 Abrams Tank and M2 Bradley Fighting Vehicle. The software architecture allows the creation of a network of fault-tolerant parallel flow paths within test programs. This test architecture results in a maximal extraction of System-Under-Test (SUT) performance data regardless of the number of malfunctions existing in the SUT. A Test Design Language (TDL) that expedites the programming and documentation of these test programs and a Parallel Test Simulator (PTS) that aids in the design, development, and validation process have been developed to support the test architecture.
Technical Paper

Noncontact Sensors for Automotive Testing

1986-03-01
860403
A continuing effort to develop noncontact test techniques for performing diesel engine diagnostics has led to recent advancements in sensor technology. The U.S. Army Tank Automotive Command (TACOM), working with RCA, is developing three new sensors: a pressure transducer for measuring dynamic exhaust pressure, a microwave transducer for measuring turbocharger speed, and a variable reluctance sensor for measuring internal combustion engine crankshaft speed and position. When used in conjunction with their automatic test equipment, Simplified Test Equipment (STE), these three sensors can help determine engine revolutions per minute, top dead center reference, turbocharger condition, turbocharged engine power potential, combustion chamber faults and fuel system faults.
Technical Paper

Torque Nonuniformity Measurements in Gasoline Fueled Passenger Cars Equipped with Automatic Transmission - Theory and Experimental Results

1986-03-01
860414
This paper presents theory and experiments results for a noncontacting method of measuring reciprocating IC engine torque nonuniformity. This method yields an index of torque nonuniformity which is potentially useful for detecting abnormal engine operation and has important application for control and diagnostic functions. The nonuniformity index can be computed for each engine cycle if desired or averaged over many cycles. The method also has the capability of detecting intermittent abnormal operations. This paper explains the nonuniformity index and describes noncontacting instrumentation with which it can be measured. The results of experimental measurements of the nonuniformity index in actual operation of a vechicle equipped with an automatic transmission are presented. The statistical distribution of this index is shown to be such that abnormal engine operation can be reliably detected even if such operation occurs infrequently.
Technical Paper

Lean Limit A/F Control System by Using Engine Speed Variation

1986-03-01
860413
A closed loop lean limit control system by using engine roughness was studied. This system controls the air-fuel mixture close to optimum for fuel economy, which is a little richer mixture than lean misfire limit by measuring engine roughness using the information from engine speed signal. A magneto resistance type engine speed sensor was utilized as a roughness sensor and the engine roughness was calculated from that signal by a 12 bit micro-computer. It was found that the engine roughness correlated well with the variation of combustion on the dynamometer test. Some correlation measures to eliminate irregular fluctuations caused by load variations on the rough road driving condition or engine torque variations on the acceleration and deceleration condition of a vehicle, were applied to the micro-computer program. It was confirmed that the closed loop lean limit control system functioned satisfactorily. About 7% higher fuel economy than conventional system was obtained.
Technical Paper

A Fundamental Study for the Control of Periodic Oscillation of Sl Engine Revolutions

1986-03-01
860411
This paper describes both an analysis and a practical method to suppress periodic oscillations of both unloaded and extremely light-loaded engine revolutions. A frequency-domain analysis based upon the transfer functions is proposed and analyzed by identifying the parameters which appear in the transfer functions. As the results of the proposed analysis, the following results are obtained: (1) Both the unloaded and extremely light-loaded oscillations are caused by the self-exciting oscillations of the closed loop in the idling engine system. (2) A rough standard for the determination of the manifold volume was obtained. (3) The derivative fuel modulation is most practical as the suppression method of the oscillation.
Technical Paper

The Study of the Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Engine Wear in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Analytical Ferrography

1986-03-01
860378
A study was undertaken to investigate the affect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on engine wear and lubricating oil degradation in a heavy duty diesel engine using a newly developed methodology that uses analytical ferrography in conjunction with short term tests. Laboratory engine testing was carried out on a Cummins NTC-300 Big Cam II diesel engine at rated speed (1800 RPM) and 75% rated load with EGR rates of 0, 5, and 15% using a SAE 15W40 CD/SF/EO-K oil. Dynamometer engine testing involved collecting oil samples from the engine sump at specified time intervals through each engine test. These oil samples were analyzed using a number of different oil analysis techniques that provide information on the metal wear debris and also on the lubricating oil properties. The results from these oil analysis techniques are the basis of determining the effect of EGR on engine wear and lubricating oil degradation, rather than an actual engine tear down between engine tests.
Technical Paper

A Viscous Coupling in the Drive Train of an All-Wheel-Drive Vehicle

1986-03-01
860386
A new visco transmission has been incorporated in the powertrain of an all-wheel-drive vehicle. The torque characteristic, specially the torque progression of the visco coupling (called “humping”) is discussed. The influence of the silicone oil on the shear behavior is elaborated. Some aspects of drive dynamics affected by the visco transmission are added.
Technical Paper

An Automatic Dry Friction Clutch for Passenger Cars and Light Duty Trucks

1986-03-01
860383
The electronic control of a automatic friction clutch represents a novel element for the vehicle drive train, the characteristic of which is freely determinable. It presupposes servo-actuation with a low energy requirement. In the case under review pneumatic negative pressure is applied to the actuating element with the desired function being established in the central control unit as a function of the signals of a few sensors by way of the actuation of two-stage digital solenoid valves. The flexible, automatic clutch function makes for a wide range of applications from series drive trains right through to hybrid drive systems.
Technical Paper

Synchronizer Blocker Ring with Organic Lining

1986-03-01
860384
A new synchronizer blocker ring has been developed and investigated. Paper-based organic friction material is used as lining on a cold-formed sheet metal core. The many different friction materials which are well established in automatic transmissions also meet the different requirements of modern manual transmissions. Optimized lining/core combinations fulfill high performance and durability needs, show excellent oil compatibility and improved shift comfort at low shift forces. Low wear and low thermal expansion rates allow multi-cone synchronization systems on the basis of a low cost ring design.
Technical Paper

A Proposal for a Vehicle Network Protocol Standard

1986-03-01
860392
This paper describes some of the philosophy and requirements for incorporating data networks into vehicles, and describes a proposed protocol that closely matches the needs of an automotive network. Results of a test vehicle implementation of the network are also described.
Technical Paper

Computer Simulation of Vehicle Fuel Economy and Performance

1986-03-01
860364
A simulation system has been developed for making comprehensive predictions and assessments of the various and interrelated indices of vehicle performance. This system draws upon a data base containing information on the characteristics of the different units making up a vehicle. The system includes fuel economy and emissions calculation programs incorporating a large number of evaluation items. It also features an acceleration calculation program by which the transient characteristics of a turbocharger can be studied and a vehicle exterior noise program that makes accurate predictions of the pass-by noise level during acceleration. Equipped with a large number of calculation functions the system is an effective tool for improving total vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

Voice Control in Motor Vehicles

1986-03-01
860344
Voice control systems in the motor vehicle are examined in this paper from the perspective of their current functional and technological capabilities. An overview of automatic voice recognition technologies is first presented to highlight technology characteristics which are pertinent to motor vehicle applications. Examples of voice control systems in motor vehicles are then detailed with a focus on today's capabilities. Finally, the concept of a multifunctional, integrated voice control unit for the motor vehicle is previewed as an indication of things to come in motor vehicle voice control.
Technical Paper

EVA-An Electronic Traffic Pilot for Motorists

1986-03-01
860346
Bosch-Blaupunkt's EVA System is an electronic “Traffic Pilot”, which directs a driver from point “A”, to point “B”, by visual LCD Readout, and verbally, through voice-synthesized directions. The system is completely self-contained within the vehicle, enabling an unlimited number of simultaneous users. EVA can make instantaneous route corrections if the driver misses a directed turn, and re-calculate the optimum route from the point the error was made to the destination. By using a digitized map, stored on a CD disc, and pulse transmitters, the system provides accurate directions by use of the street address of the destination, from any location plotted on the digitized map memory to any other point plotted on the map, quickly, easily and with pin-point accuracy.
Technical Paper

Light Control Systems for Automotiwe Instrumentation

1986-03-01
860347
Numerous optical problems for instrument panel designers have been created by new trends in automotive exterior and interior design, increasing use of electronic instrumentation, and new display packaging methods. The problems, nighttime reflections, glare, and daytime display viewability, were previously solved using conventional techniques of instrument panel hooding and recessing of displays. This paper will review the trends in automotive design and instrumentation technology and relate the design objectives to functional performance requirements. It will also describe a technology and product available from 3M which can reduce or eliminate many of the aesthetic and functional design problems now being addressed for automotive instrumentation.
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