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Standard

Joint Tmc/SAE Fuel Consumption Test Procedure-Type Ii

1986-10-01
HISTORICAL
J1321_198610
This recommended practice provides a standardized test procedure for comparing the in-service fuel consumption of two conditions of a test vehicle or of one test vehicle to another when it is not possible to run the two or more test vehicles simultaneously. An unchanging control vehicle is in tandem with the test vehicle(s) to provide reference fuel consumption data. This procedure is especially suitable for testing components which require substantial time for removal and replacement or modification, such as engines, transmissions, tag-axles, and cab sheet metal. This procedure may also be used for comparison of entire vehicles and for easy-to-change components (those referenced in the Type I test described in SAE Recommended Practice, SAE J1264). The test may utilize fleet vehicles operating over representative routes.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Additives Solve Injector Deposit Problems

1986-10-01
861537
Once largely limited to relatively expensive low-production high-performance cars because of higher cost than carburetion, fuel injection has become increasingly used on cars throughout the world. In the U.S., the primary driving force has been easier control of exhaust emissions and improved fuel economy. However, deposits formed in the delivery area of the injector can reduce fuel economy and increase emissions. Tests have shown that some gasoline additives can clean up injectors and keep them clean. These additives also improve carburetor cleanliness.
Standard

Aluminum Alloy, Extrusions 1.0Mg - 0.60Si - 0.30Cu - 0.20Cr (6061-T6511) Solution Heat Treated, Stress Relieved by Stretching, Straightened, and Precipitation Heat Treated

1986-10-01
HISTORICAL
AMS4173B
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of extruded bars, rods, wire, profiles, and tubing. These extrusions have been used typically for parts requiring moderate strength and where distortion during machining must be minimized, but usage is not limited to such applications.
Standard

Aluminum Alloy, Welding Wire

1986-10-01
CURRENT
AMS4188A
Primarily for use as filler metal for gas-metal-arc and gas-tungsten-arc welding, including repair welding, of aluminum alloy castings. Where casting service conditions require good corrosion resistance, maximum strength, and homogeneity, filler metal should be of the same alloy as the casting.
Technical Paper

Lessons Learned from the DC-10 Carbon-Epoxy Rudder Program

1986-10-01
861675
With the DC-10 carbon-epoxy rudder, the Douglas Aircraft Company achieved one of the greatest percentage weight savings associated with composite structures. Apart from minor damage from lightning strikes, the 15 rudders put into service have experienced virtually trouble-free operation for about a decade. This paper explains why a multirib, postbuckled skin design was used for the DC-10 composite rudder, how it was justified, and how it would have compared with more conventional sandwich design concepts. Special attention is devoted to the reasons why, for such postbuckled designs, it is better to allow the skin to wrinkle and unload itself than to reinforce it and make it resist buckling until some higher load level is attained. With minor changes in the manufacturing technique, this design concept is ideal for the control surfaces on many aircraft. The paper includes suggestions on how to make even better composite control surfaces in the future.
Standard

MINIMUM PERFORMANCE STANDARD STALL WARNING EQUIPMENT

1986-09-08
CURRENT
AS8014
This Aerospace Standard covers two basic Stall Warning Systems, one measures air flow and pressure distribution on the airfoil and the other measures the angle of airflow with respect to an arbitrary reference line. Each type of system includes, as a minimum, a sensor and the means for activating a device which warns the pilot of an impending stall.
Technical Paper

The Changing Farm Equipment Industry - Challenges In Lubrication

1986-09-08
861180
Thus far the 1980s have been an extremely volatile period for the world's farming community. Economic hardship has forced farmers, farm equipment manufacturers and dealers to restructure their business tactics in order to survive. Suppliers of goods and services to this industry find they must modify their marketing approaches to adapt to the changes taking place. Lubricant formulators and marketers share the need to examine past perceptions in light of future industry needs. Consolidation and simplification seem to be two important survival tactics in use within the farm equipment manufacturing community. Product differentiation will play a major role in a successful company's marketing plans. This paper examines some of the changes taking place in the farming industry, the historical and current lubrication demands and the future challenges in lubrication.
Technical Paper

The Properties and Performance of Modern Automotive Fuels, 1986

1986-09-08
861178
The relationship between the physical and chemical properties and performance of gasolines and diesel fuel are discussed based on work reported in the literature. For gasolines, emphasis is placed on the effects of oxygenates when used as gasoline blending components. With the phase-out of leaded gasoline, and the eventual return of short gasoline supply, the use of oxygenated blending agents will increase in order to meet the octane demands for unleaded gasolines. Octane and volatility are the two most important quality aspects of gasolines. Oxygenates, particularly methanol and ethanol, have definite effects on these properties. The correlation between gasoline composition and its effect on other areas, e.g., emissions, water tolerance and elastomers, are also shown. For diesel fuel, emphasis is placed on the API Gravity, cetane, cloud and pour point, and stability.
Technical Paper

Modern Refining for Today's Fuels and Lubricants, Part 2

1986-09-08
861176
The modern petroleum refinery is a complex of many highly interrelated processes working to make the petroleum products our nation uses. This paper presents an overview of the operations and processes that are used in today's refineries to produce gasoline, distillates, lube oils, greases, coke, etc. Sufficient background in petroleum properties and chemistry is given to provide a basic understanding of how different refinery processes affect products and their quality. The following processes are described: distillation, catalytic reforming, fluid catalytic cracking, alkylation, coking, hydroprocessing, and isomerization. The many specialized processes used to make lube oils and greases also are examined. Finally, the paper looks at product blending, and how predictable future events are likely to impact on refining.
Technical Paper

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Additives for Performance/Distribution Quality - II

1986-09-08
861179
Additives are an integral part of today's fuels. Together with carefully formulated base fuel composition, they contribute to efficiency, dependability and long life of gasoline and diesel engines. As a primer, this paper describes the range of chemical additives formulated for gasoline and diesel fuel and their effects. Specific functions and benefits of additives, typical use levels, and test methods for evaluation are discussed. Additive usage may be divided into three major categories: a) to satisfy desired levels of performance in engines, b) to insure delivery of uncontaminated, on-specification fuels to the end user and c) achieve necessary chemical/physical properties as manufactured by the refiner.
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